Presentation on theme: "An introduction to nutrition"— Presentation transcript:
1 An introduction to nutrition BY Dr. (Mrs.)T.I Runsewe-Abiodun (FWACPpaed.)
2 Importance of Nutrition: 1. Promotes satisfactory growth.2. Prevents deficiency states3. Prevents acute and chronic illness4. Promotes development of physiological and mental potential5. Provides reserves for stress6. Helps in maintaining normal metabolism7. Decreases the risk of hypoglycemia, azotemia and hyperbilirubinaemia
3 What are the nutrients?* build and repair tissuesproduce energy to 'fuel' growth and movement, and to keep warmprotect itself from infections.Almost all foods contain a mixture of nutrients.Nutrients are the part of food that the body uses to:
4 THE BASIC CONSTITUENTS OF NUTRITION: Macronutrients – water, protein, carbohydrates, fat & caloriesMicronutrients – Vitamins (A, B, C, D, E) Minerals (Fe, I2, Zn, Ca etc.)
5 Recommended daily dietary allowance. Age (yrs) Pro.(gm) Vitamins(gm) mg EnergyA D E C Fe I (Kcal)Infants /kg xkg/kg xkgChildrenMalesFemales
6 CarbohydratesThe body uses carbohydrates mainly as 'fuel' for energy.Carbohydrates are either sugars or starches.
7 Types of sugars There are two main types of sugars: Simple sugars (e. g. glucose and fructose found in ripe fruit and honey) can be easily used by the body's cells.Complex sugars (e. g. lactose and sucrose found in milk and refined or cane sugar) need to be broken down during digestion into simple sugars for the body to use.
8 STARCH It is broken down into glucose during digestion. Starch is present in cereals (such as rice, maize, and wheat); starchy roots (such as cassava, yams and potatoes): and starchy fruit (such as plantain).
9 Proteins Constitute about 20% of the BW of the adult. Consist of Essential and Non-essential amino-acidsNon-essential amino acids can be synthesized and need not be supplied in the diet.
10 Proteins The 9 essential amino acids must be supplied in the diet: methionine threonine valinelysine phenylalanine leucineisoleucine tryptophan histidine
11 Proteins*Arginine, taurine, cysteine are essential for LBW infants.
12 ProteinsProtein is the most important nutrient for building body cells.It is especially important for growing children and pregnant and breastfeeding women.
13 Proteins The body cannot store extra protein. When a person does not eat enough, the tissue from their muscles breaks down to provide protein for important purposes such as fighting infections or producing breastmilk.
14 Protein digestion metabolism. Stomach (acidic)Rennin /pepsin (Hydrolyses)Proteases peptonesIntestine (alkaline medium)carboxypeptidasePeptides and amino acid absorption through intestinal mucosa
15 Good sources of protein meat, fish, eggs, milk (including breastmilk), groundnuts and beans.Cereals such as rice, wheat and millet contain less protein, but if eaten with pulses (also known as legumes) such as lentils or beans they can be a good source of protein.
16 Fat Fat is the most concentrated source of energy. It is an important energy store in the body - if we eat more food than we need, the body changes it into storage fat.Fat is also needed for other processes such as building cells andhelping the body to absorb vitamin A.
17 Good sources of fatsGood sources: fats and oils (such as maize oil, palm oil, coconut oil, margarine, butter, cooking fat)fatty animal foods (such as meat, fatty fish. milk and cheese)fatty vegetable foods (such as groundnuts and soya beans)
18 Energy (Calories) Unit of measurement is the Kcal. *Energy necessary to build body tissue Calories ingested – Calories expended for other purposes.
19 Energy (Calories)*Protein digestion may be metabolised as much as about 30% above the basal level.*Chates and fat digestion- 4 and 6% respectively.*Chates and fat have a sparing effect on the SDA of protein and upon each other by the ingestion and assimilation of food.
20 Energy Needs and Expenditures*: *Basal metabolism kcal/kg/24hr,*Growth, Physical activity 15 – 25 kcal/kg/24hr,*Fecal loss (unabsorbed fat) 10% of intake.-Great variation in energy needs of children at different ages and under different conditions
21 EnergyCarbohydrates, fats and to a lesser extent, protein all provide energy.We need more energy when we are physically active.Energy needs also increase when we have infections or are recovering from illness, or during pregnancy and lactation.
22 Energy requirement 1st 10Kg – 100 – 120 Kcal/kg/24hr Next 10kg – 50Kcal/kg/24hrNext 10kg – 20Kcal/kg/dayPeriods of rapid growth and development near puberty require caloric consumption.
24 MicronutrientsThese are vitamins and minerals which the body need in very small amounts to function well. The most important vitamins are:
25 Vitamin AVITAMIN A - to reduce the severity of infections, keep the eyes healthy, and to help children grow properly.
26 Vitamin AWe store vitamin A in our livers. If we eat a lot of vitamin A at one time (e. g. during the mango season) our livers can store enough vitamin A to last several months.Vitamin A is said to be 'stable'. This means that not a lot of the vitamin is lost through moderate cooking processes.However, some vitamin A is lost through deep frying, sustained boiling until the vegetable or fruit disintegrates, and through sun drying.
27 Vitamin A There are two forms of vitamin A in food. RETINOL found in animal products is the best form of vitamin A. Good sources are breastmilk, animal milk, liver, kidney, eggs, butter and ghee.CAROTENE found mainly in orange, yellow and green vegetables and fruits destroys harmful chemicals (called free radicals) produced during infection.
28 Good food sources of Vitamin A When we eat carotene, most of it is changed to retinol.Six molecules of carotene make one molecule of retinol.Good sources are1. Red palm oil,2.Orange and yellow fruits such as mangoes, pawpaw, pumpkin, carrots, maize, yellow sweet potatoes and bananas3. Vegetables; dark green and medium green leaves such as spinach, the leaves of cassava, cowpeas, sweet potatoes and beans.
29 The B vitaminsTHE B VITAMINS - Thiamine, riboflavin and niacin help the body to 'burn' nutrients to release energy. Good sources: meat, poultry, fish, liver, wholegrain cereals, peas, beans, nuts, oil seeds, milk and eggs. -
30 Folate Folate helps the body to grow and make healthy red blood cells. Women need more folate than men because they lose blood during menstruation.Pregnant women, mothers who have recently given birth, and people with sickle cell disease also require increased folate.Almost all foods contain some folate.
31 Good sources of folateGood sources: liver and kidney, fresh vegetables (particularly dark green leaves), fish, beans and groundnuts.Folate is destroyed when foods are stored or cooked for a long time.
32 Vitamin CIt helps the body to use calcium and other nutrients to build bones.It also increases the body's ability to absorb iron from non-meat or fish sources,It also helps to fight infections.Good sources: fresh or lightly cooked vegetables, fresh fruit such as oranges, mangoes and pawpaw (papaya), apples, fresh milk and breastmilk.
33 Vitamin D*VITAMIN D - helps the body to absorb and use calcium and phosphorous to build healthy bones and teeth.The best way to get enough is to go outside with your face and arms uncovered for at least 10 minutes most days.Even if it is cloudy, there is enough light for production of vitamin D. Good sources: Milk and milk products, cheeseWhen the sun shines on the skin, a chemical reaction makes vitamin D. ***
34 Minerals: IronThe following minerals are important: IRON - to make haemoglobin for red blood cells. Good sources: meat, fish and breastmilk. Liver, kidney, spleen and heart are especially rich in iron. There is a useful amount of iron in beans, peas, nuts and cereals, but it is more difficult to absorb in this form.
35 Minerals: IodineIODINE - is used by the thyroid gland to produce hormones that regulate the way the body uses energy and keeps warm. The hormones are also important to the functioning of the brain and nervous system.Good sources: fish. seafood and iodised salt. Iodine is also transferred to vegetables grown in iodine-rich soil. Iodine deficiency is common in mountainous areas far from the sea and places where there are frequent floods, because iodine is washed away from the topsoil.
36 Minerals: calciumCALCIUM - needed to build and maintain bones and teeth. Pregnant and breastfeeding women, growing children, and older women need extra calcium. Good sources: milk (including breastmilk), small fish with edible bones, beans and peas, finger millet and dark green leaves.
37 Minerals: ZincZINC - helps the body to fight infections and enables it to grow and develop normally. Good sources: meat, chicken, fish, wholegrain cereals and pulses (nuts, beans, peas and lentils) and breastmilk.
38 WATERSource of water:Fluid intake, Oxidation of foods
39 WATER *Water*Extra water is needed to replace fluid lost during diarrhoea or during sweating or fever.Breastmilk contains plenty of water, so babies less than six months old who are exclusively breastfed do not need to drink water or other fluids.Adults need 2-3 litres of water a day.
40 WATERWater content of infant is higher (70 – 75% of BW) than that of adults (60 – 65%.)Water constitutes 70% of BW; 5% blood- plasma, 15% interstitial fluid,50% intracellular fluid.
41 WATER Infants take higher amount of H2O/Kg BW (10 – 15% of BW) Adults:2 – 4% of BW but when calculated /unit caloric intake it becomes almost identical.Water requirement is dependent on caloric intake.
42 Planning good mixed meals* Most meals are based on cereal staples (such as rice, maize or millet porridge, or bread), or starchy vegetable staples (such as boiled cassava or yams).These staples are usually not expensive, and provide most of the energy in a meal.Cereal staples also contain fibre, vitamins, and some protein (but not complete protein).Families do not need to have a lot of money to eat well. It is much better to plan nutritious meals than to buy unnecessary vitamin tablets.
43 Planning good mixed meals* Starchy staples such as cassava do not provide protein.Neither cereal nor vegetable staples provide the complete range of vitamins and minerals needed by the body.It is important to eat other foods with the staple to provide these extra nutrients. If served with the staple (for example in a sauce) other foods can provide missing nutrients and make the meal tastier. Some additional foods such as fruit can be eaten immediately after the main meal.
44 Feeding Recommendations Up to 6 months of AgeBreastfeed as often as child wants, day and night, at least 8 times in 24 hoursDo not give other foods or fluids
45 Feeding Recommendations 6 Months up to 12 MonthsBreastfeed as often as child wants.Give adequate servings, about 1 milk tin( ml) of:-Thick porridge of ogi mixed with soya flour/epa lilo/ede/eja/soya milk/milk. Add sugar and epo pupa (serve with bowl and spoon)-Mixtures of mashed foods made out of isu/iresi/potatoes.Mix with eja/epa lilo/ede/eja/soya flour/moin-moin/ekuru/akara. Add green vegetables-Soft family fufu,amala,lafun,iyan eba, tuwo with family soup(ewedu/ila/gbegiri)Feed any of the above 3 times a day if breastfeedingIf not breastfeeding, feed 5 times a dayGive a snack like osan,ogede wewe, carrot etc. if affordable, give eyin and buredi
46 Feeding Recommendations 12 months up to 2 yearsBreastfeed as often as child wants,Give adequate servings, about 1½-2 milk tins ( ml) of:-Mixtures of mashed foods made out of either eko, iresi,sapala,ogede, cocoyam,isu. Mix with either eja/epa lilo/ede/eja/soya flour/moin-moin/ekuru/akara. Add green vegetables (Give 2 times a day)-Soft family fufu: amala,lafun,iyan eba, tuwo with family soup(ewedu/ila/gbegiri)-Thick porridge like ogi. Mix with soya flour, epa lilo, eja, ede or milk. Add sugar and epo pupa. (serve with bowl and spoon). Give once or two times a dayGive snacks in between meals
47 Feeding Recommendations 2 years or olderGive family foods at 3 meals each day.Give as extra, thick enriched porridge(2 times a day) OR 2 extra family mealsGive nutritious snacks between family meals e.g. ogede, osan, akara, moin-moin, robo, soya-milk, kuli-kuli etc.Assist and ensure the child has enough food during each mealServe food on separate plate for each child