2ProteinsProbably the most diverse group of macromolecules is the proteins.
3ProteinsProteins are complex polymers composed of C, H, O and N.Polymer : large molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together
4Functions of ProteinsServe as structural components of animals, build and repair body tissue.Maintain cell growthServe as control molecules (enzymes)Serve as transport and messenger moleculesProvide as energy if sufficient carbohydrates and fats are not supplied by the diet.Ex. Keratin, elastin, collagen
5ProteinsThe building blocks of proteins are smaller molecules called amino acids held together by peptide bondsMost end in “ine”Despite the wide variety of life on Earth, all living organisms use only 20 different amino acids to produce the proteins they require
6ProteinsGreen plants can make all 20 essential amino acids on their own; animals cannot.Thus, animals, including humans, must get some of these essential amino acids from the foods they eat.
7All animal proteins are complete proteins: i. e All animal proteins are complete proteins: i.e. milk, eggs, cheese, fish and meat have all 9 amino acids.Proteins from some plant sources, such as brewer's yeast, certain nuts, soybeans (tofu is made from soybeans), cottonseed, and the germ of grains are also complete proteins.Partially complete proteins do not contain all 9 of the essential amino acids but a limited amount of one or more of them. Partially complete amino acids provide normal maintenance but will not support growth.
8Enzymes are important proteins found in living things. An enzyme changes the rate of a chemical reaction.Enzymes are involved in nearly all metabolic reactionsUsually end in “ase”Proteins
9Proteins Substrate- Component in an enzyme reaction Enzyme reactions take place in the active siteSubstrate + Enzyme Product + EnzymeThe enzyme is unchanged in the reaction.
10ProteinsEach enzyme is specific to only one reaction.This reaction is often compared to a lock and key.