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1 THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM 2 Objectives Name the parts of the musculoskeletal system and discuss the function of each part. Define combining forms.

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Presentation on theme: "1 THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM 2 Objectives Name the parts of the musculoskeletal system and discuss the function of each part. Define combining forms."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 1 THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

3 2 Objectives Name the parts of the musculoskeletal system and discuss the function of each part. Define combining forms used in building words that relate to the musculoskeletal system. After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

4 3 Objectives Part 2 Objectives CONTD Name the common diagnoses, laboratory tests, and clinical procedures used in treating the musculoskeletal system. Define the major pathological conditions of the musculoskeletal system.

5 4 Objectives Part 3 Objectives CONTD Define surgical terms related to the musculoskeletal system. List common pharmacological agents used in treating the musculoskeletal system.

6 5 Ch 5 Vocabulary Acetabul(o) Brachi(o) Burs(o) Calci(o) Cervic(o) Cost(o) Dactyl(o) Femor(o) Fibr(o) Kyph(o) Lamin(o) Lumb(o) Myel(o) Patell(o) Ped(i) Radi(o) Scapul(o) Stern(o) Synov(o) Uln(o)

7 6 Structure and Function Forms the body framework Enables the body to move Protects and supports internal organs

8 7 Bones Consists of a rich supply of blood vessels and nerves Osteoblasts are bone-forming cells Osteoclasts are responsible for reabsorbing dead bone tissue Bone cells are called osteocytes

9 8 Ossification Bones The development of osteocytes and the hardening process is called ossification. calcium phosphorus vitamin D Ossification depends on:

10 9 Divisions of the Skeleton Axial –Skull –Spinal column –Ribs –Sternum Appendicular –Upper & lower extremities –Pelvic girdle

11 10 Common Bone Categories Bones The adult skeleton has 206 bones. Common Bone Categories Long bones (Femur) Short bones (Wrist bones) Flat bones (Skull) Irregular bones (Vertebrae/Facial) Sesamoid bones (Kneecap)

12 11 Parts of the Long Bone Diaphysis –Shaft or longest portion –Compact bone Hard dense part of bone that does not bend –Spongy bone Covers medullary cavity Epiphysis –Ends of long bone –Epiphyseal plates: growth plates –Contains red marrow Femur Distal epiphysis Diaphysis Proximal epiphysis Epiphyseal disks Spongy bone Articular cartilage Space containing red marrow Compact bone Medullary cavity Yellow marrow Periosteum

13 12 Parts of the Long Bone Medullary cavity –Hollow space –Contains yellow marrow Tissues of a bone –Periosteum-o uter covering of bone –Endosteum-lines medullary cavity Femur Distal epiphysis Diaphysis Proximal epiphysis Epiphyseal disks Spongy bone Articular cartilage Space containing red marrow Compact bone Medullary cavity Yellow marrow Periosteum

14 13 Parts of Long Bones Bone marrow –Red bone marrow Manufactures erythrocytes & leukocytes –Yellow bone marrow Composed of fat cells Functions as fat storage

15 14 Parts of Long Bones Part 2 Articular cartilage is a thin flexible substance that provides protection at movable points. Parts of a Long Bone Femur Distal epiphysis Diaphysis Proximal epiphysis Epiphyseal disks Spongy bone Articular cartilage Space containing red marrow Compact bone Medullary cavity Yellow marrow Periosteum

16 15 Bones of the Skull Cranium: encloses the brain (skull) –Frontal forehead –Parietal Roof and upper sides of cranium –Occipital Posterior floor and walls of cranium –Temporal Sides and base of cranium

17 16 Bones of the Jaw Mandible –Lower jaw bone Maxilla –Upper jaw bone

18 17 Sutures Where cranial bones join & fuse Fontanelles: –Soft spots on infant skull

19 18 Sinuses Cavities that reduce the weight of a bone. Frontal sinuses Ethmoid sinuses Maxillary sinuses Sphenoid sinuses

20 19 Spinal Column Consists of five sets of vertebrae Cervical = 7 Thoracic = 12 Lumbar = 5 Sacrum = 5 fused Coccyx = 4 fused

21 20 Thoracic cavity Ribs –12 pairs Called costals Attach posterior to thoracic vertebrae –7 pairs True ribs Attached anterior to sternum –3 pairs False ribs Attached anterior to cartilage Joins with sternum –2 pairs Floating ribs Not attached anteriorly

22 21 Thoracic Cavity Sternum: –Manubrium Upper portion of sternum –Body of sternum Middle portion of sternum –Xiphoid process Cartilage Lower portion of sternum

23 22 Shoulders Clavicle –Collar bone –Connects sternum Scapula –Shoulder blade

24 23 Pelvic girdle HIPS Ilium –Upper blade shape Ischium –Lower portion near hips Pubic bone –Fuse together with sacrum Pubic symphysis –Cartilage joint that holds bones together

25 24 Bones of the Extremities Upper Arm Humerus Lower Arm Ulna Radius Hand and Fingers Carpals (wrist) Metacarpals (palm) Phalanges (fingers)

26 25 Bones of the Extremities Part 2 Bones of the Extremities (Contd) Upper Leg Femur (thigh) Lower leg Tibia (shin) Fibula (little fibber) Patella (kneecap) Feet and Toes Tarsals (ankle) Calcaneus (heel) Metatarsals (arch) Phalanges (toes)

27 26 Joints Joints (articulations) Amphiarthroses Moves slightly Vertebrae Diarthroses Moves freely knee Synarthrose s No movement Skull

28 27 Freely Moveable Joints AKA: Synovial joints Lined with a synovial membrane Synovial fluid –A joint lubricator –Helps synovial joints move easier Bursa –Sac lined with synovial membrane –Helps reduce friction

29 28 Tendons and Ligaments Tendons are bands of fibrous tissue that connect muscles to bone. Ligaments connect bones to other bones. Tendons and Ligaments

30 29 Muscles - Fascia Muscles Most muscles are covered by a band of connective tissue called fascia, that covers & supports the muscle.

31 30 Muscles Muscles contract (shorten) and extend to provide body movement. Types of Muscles Voluntary (striated) skeletal Involuntary smooth or visceral- Move internal organs Cardiac (striated)

32 31 Origin- –Attachment to a stationary bone Insertion- –Attachment to a movable bone

33 32 Muscles – Origin or Insertion Lift up your right forearm to flex your bicep brachii as if making a fist. Identify the origin and insertion attachment by agreeing with one of the following statements: The radius is the origin and the scapula is the insertion. The scapula is the origin and the radius is the insertion. ---OR---

34 33 Diagnostic, Procedural, and Laboratory Terms Arthrography –Examine joints using x-ray Arthroscopy –Internal exam of a joint using an instrument

35 34 Diagnostic, Procedural, and Laboratory Terms Diskography –Exam of disks by injection of dye then an x-ray Electromyogram –Image of electrical activity of muscles

36 35 Diagnostic, Procedural, and Laboratory Terms Computerized tomography (CT) –Multiple X-rays –Computer puts in cross sectional views Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) –Magnets excite H ions –Computer makes pic

37 36 Diagnostic, Procedural, and Laboratory Tests Pt 5 Other Tests Goniometer -Tests for ROM Densitometer -Measures bone density Goniometer

38 37 Pathology Causes of musculoskeletal disorders Birth defects Injury Degenerative disease Systemic disorders

39 38 Spina bifida –Incomplete closure of spinal cord & protrusion- meningocele Pathology-Birth Defects

40 39 Pathology-Birth Defects Talipes –AKA: club foot –congenital deformity of the foot –curled shape or twisted position of the ankle, heel & toes

41 40 Pathology-Injuries Herniated disk –Disk is compressed & protrudes –Presses on nerve causing sciatica –Pain radiates from butt down leg to foot/toes

42 41 Pathology-Injuries Fractures –Incomplete fracture Fracture line doses not extend through bone or disrupt the entire thickness of bone –Greenstick fracture Incomplete break that occurs almost exclusively in children

43 42 Pathology-Injuries Fractures, cont. –Comminuted fractures Bone broken in several places and splinters of bone can be embedded in surrounding tissue –Compression fracture Bone collapses due to disruption of bone tissue

44 43 Pathology-Injuries Fractures, cont –Compound: Causes disruption of skin and soft tissue Fragment of bone punctures skin Often complicated by infection

45 44 Pathology-Injuries Injury or trauma to the joints or muscle may cause a sprain. Overuse of a muscle may cause a strain. Tendinitis: overuse of a joint Dislocation: when bones in a joint become displaced or misaligned Subluxation: partial dislocation

46 45 Pathology-Pain & Discomfort Myalgia: muscle pain Myositis: muscle inflammation Arthritis: inflammation of joints –Arthralgia: joint pain –Ankylosis: stiff joints –Osteoalgia- bone pain

47 46 Pathology-Abnormal Muscle Tone Hypertrophy: abnormal increase in muscle size Atrophy: muscles shrink in size from disuse

48 47 Pathology-Abnormal Muscle Tone Spasms: abnormal contractions Rigor: abnormal muscle stiffness Tetany: painfully long spasm

49 48 Pathology-Abnormal Postures Kyphosis –Rounded bowing of back at thoracic area Scoliosis –Lateral curvature of spine

50 49 Pathology-Abnormal Postures Lordosis –Abnormal inward curvature of lumbar vertebrae

51 50 Surgical Terms Almost any major part of the musculoskeletal system can now be surgically repaired. Supportive devices Cast Splints Traction Prosthetic devices

52 51 Surgical Terms External fixation –Splints or casts Internal fixation –Pins or rods

53 52 Surgical Terms Reduction: return of a part to normal position Open reduction: done surgically Closed reduction: external manipulation of dislocated bones

54 53 Surgical Terms Traction –Aligns ends of a fracture by pulling the limb into a straight position

55 54 Surgical Terms Amputation –Surgical removal of limb –Prosthesis replaces limb or joints

56 55 Surgical Terms Osteoplasty: surgical repair of bone Osteoclasis: breaking of bone when not healed properly Osteotomy: incision into a bone Tenotomy: cutting of tendon to repair muscle Myoplasty: muscle repair Arthroplasty: joint repair Arthrocentesis: puncture of a joint

57 56 Surgical Terms Bunionectomy –Removal of bunion on hallux Laminectomy –removes parts of the vertebrae) that is narrowing the spinal canal and squeezing the spinal cord and nerve roots.

58 57 Pharmacology Part 2 Common medications for the Musculoskeletal System Analgesics- relieves pain Steroids- reduce inflammation Muscle Relaxants- relieve stiffness NSAIDs- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

59 58 Apply Your Knowledge Mrs. Jones is concerned with the soft spots she feels on her babys head. You realize the medical term for these soft spots is: A. Fontanelle B. Fissure C. Foramen A. Fontanelle

60 59 Apply Your Knowledge Part 2 Head & Trunk Arms & Legs Identify the axial and appendicular portions of the skeleton.

61 60 Apply Your Knowledge Part 3 Mary is complaining of headache, stuffy nose and pressure with facial discomfort. Her physician tells her she has allergies. Which of the following conditions might she be experiencing? A. fracture of her vomer B. sinusitis C. stroke B. sinusitis

62 61 Apply Your Knowledge Part 4 Relieves pain Reduces swelling Relieves stiffness A. steroids B. analgesics C. muscle relaxants Match the correct medication with its action.

63 62 Combining Forms Match the following combining forms and meanings. ankyl (o) arthr (o) brachi (o) calcane (o) heel bent joint arm

64 63 Combining Forms Part 2 Match the following combining forms and meanings. carp (o) cephal (o) chondr (o) dactyl (o) kyph (o) cartilage hump head wrist fingers, toes

65 64 Combining Forms Part 3 Match the following combining forms and meanings. my (o) myel (o) pod (o) oste (o) phalang (o) foot finger or toe bone muscle bone spinal cord; bone marrow

66 65 Combining Forms Part 4 Match the following combining forms and meanings. rachi (o) scoli (o) spondyl (o) ten (o) uln (o) curved vertebra spine ulnar tendon


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