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Presentation on theme: "THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM"— Presentation transcript:


2 Objectives Objectives
After studying this chapter, you will be able to: Name the parts of the musculoskeletal system and discuss the function of each part. Define combining forms used in building words that relate to the musculoskeletal system.

3 Objectives Part 2 Objectives CONT’D
Name the common diagnoses, laboratory tests, and clinical procedures used in treating the musculoskeletal system. Define the major pathological conditions of the musculoskeletal system.

4 Objectives Part 3 Objectives CONT’D
Define surgical terms related to the musculoskeletal system. List common pharmacological agents used in treating the musculoskeletal system.

5 Ch 5 Vocabulary Acetabul(o) Brachi(o) Burs(o) Calci(o) Cervic(o)
Cost(o) Dactyl(o) Femor(o) Fibr(o) Kyph(o) Lamin(o) Lumb(o) Myel(o) Patell(o) Ped(i) Radi(o) Scapul(o) Stern(o) Synov(o) Uln(o)

6 Structure and Function
Structure & Function Structure and Function Forms the body framework Protects and supports internal organs Enables the body to move Consists of bones, joints and muscles

7 Bones Structure & Function Bones Bone cells are called osteocytes
Consists of a rich supply of blood vessels and nerves Osteoblasts are bone-forming cells Osteoclasts are responsible for reabsorbing dead bone tissue

8 Ossification Structure & Function Bones
The development of osteocytes and the hardening process is called ossification. Ossification depends on: calcium phosphorus vitamin D

9 Divisions of the Skeleton
Axial Skull Spinal column Ribs Sternum Appendicular Upper & lower extremities Pelvic girdle

10 Common Bone Categories
Structure & Function Common Bone Categories Bones The adult skeleton has 206 bones. Common Bone Categories Long bones (Femur) Short bones (Wrist bones) Flat bones (Skull) Irregular bones (Vertebrae/Facial) Sesamoid bones (Kneecap)

11 Parts of the Long Bone Diaphysis Epiphysis Compact bone
Femur Distal epiphysis Diaphysis Proximal epiphysis Epiphyseal disks Spongy bone Articular cartilage Space containing red marrow Compact bone Medullary cavity Yellow marrow Periosteum Parts of the Long Bone Diaphysis Shaft or longest portion Compact bone Hard dense part of bone that does not bend Spongy bone Covers medullary cavity Epiphysis Ends of long bone Epiphyseal plates: growth plates Contains red marrow

12 Parts of the Long Bone Medullary cavity Tissues of a bone
Femur Distal epiphysis Diaphysis Proximal epiphysis Epiphyseal disks Spongy bone Articular cartilage Space containing red marrow Compact bone Medullary cavity Yellow marrow Periosteum Parts of the Long Bone Medullary cavity Hollow space Contains yellow marrow Tissues of a bone Periosteum-outer covering of bone Endosteum-lines medullary cavity

13 Parts of Long Bones Bone marrow Red bone marrow Yellow bone marrow
Manufactures erythrocytes & leukocytes Yellow bone marrow Composed of fat cells Functions as fat storage

14 Parts of Long Bones Part 2
Femur Distal epiphysis Diaphysis Proximal epiphysis Epiphyseal disks Spongy bone Articular cartilage Space containing red marrow Compact bone Medullary cavity Yellow marrow Periosteum Parts of a Long Bone Parts of Long Bones Part 2 Articular cartilage is a thin flexible substance that provides protection at movable points.

15 Bones of the Skull Cranium: encloses the brain (skull) Frontal
forehead Parietal Roof and upper sides of cranium Occipital Posterior floor and walls of cranium Temporal Sides and base of cranium

16 Bones of the Jaw Mandible Lower jaw bone Maxilla Upper jaw bone

17 Sutures Where cranial bones join & fuse Fontanelles:
Soft spots on infant skull

18 Sinuses Sinsuses Cavities that reduce the weight of a bone.
Frontal sinuses Ethmoid sinuses Maxillary sinuses Sphenoid sinuses

19 Spinal Column Structure & Function Spinal Column Cervical = 7
Thoracic = 12 Lumbar = 5 Sacrum = 5 fused Coccyx = 4 fused Consists of five sets of vertebrae

20 Thoracic cavity Ribs 12 pairs 7 pairs 3 pairs 2 pairs Called costals
Attach posterior to thoracic vertebrae 7 pairs True ribs Attached anterior to sternum 3 pairs False ribs Attached anterior to cartilage Joins with sternum 2 pairs Floating ribs Not attached anteriorly

21 Thoracic Cavity Sternum: Manubrium Body of sternum Xiphoid process
Upper portion of sternum Body of sternum Middle portion of sternum Xiphoid process Cartilage Lower portion of sternum

22 Shoulders Clavicle Collar bone Connects sternum Scapula Shoulder blade

23 Pelvic girdle HIPS Ilium Ischium Pubic bone Pubic symphysis
Upper blade shape Ischium Lower portion near hips Pubic bone Fuse together with sacrum Pubic symphysis Cartilage joint that holds bones together

24 Bones of the Extremities
Structure & Function Bones of the Extremities Bones of the Extremities Upper Arm Humerus Lower Arm Ulna Radius Hand and Fingers Carpals (wrist) Metacarpals (palm) Phalanges (fingers)

25 Bones of the Extremities Part 2
Structure & Function Bones of the Extremities Part 2 Bones of the Extremities (Cont’d) Upper Leg Femur (thigh) Lower leg Tibia (shin) Fibula (little fibber) Patella (kneecap) Feet and Toes Tarsals (ankle) Calcaneus (heel) Metatarsals (arch) Phalanges (toes)

26 Joints Types of Joints Amphiarthroses Moves slightly Vertebrae
Diarthroses Moves freely knee Joints (articulations) Synarthroses No movement Skull

27 Freely Moveable Joints
AKA: Synovial joints Lined with a synovial membrane Synovial fluid A joint lubricator Helps synovial joints move easier Bursa Sac lined with synovial membrane Helps reduce friction

28 Tendons and Ligaments Structure & Function Tendons and Ligaments
Tendons are bands of fibrous tissue that connect muscles to bone. Ligaments connect bones to other bones.

29 Muscles - Fascia Structure & Function Muscles
Most muscles are covered by a band of connective tissue called fascia, that covers & supports the muscle.

30 Muscles Structure & Function Muscles
Muscles contract (shorten) and extend to provide body movement. Types of Muscles Voluntary (striated) skeletal Involuntary smooth or visceral- Move internal organs Cardiac (striated)

31 Structure & Function Origin- Insertion-
Attachment to a stationary bone Insertion- Attachment to a movable bone

32 Muscles – Origin or Insertion
Lift up your right forearm to flex your bicep brachii as if making a fist. Identify the origin and insertion attachment by agreeing with one of the following statements: The radius is the origin and the scapula is the insertion. ---OR--- The scapula is the origin and the radius is the insertion.

33 Diagnostic, Procedural, and Laboratory Terms
Arthrography Examine joints using x-ray Arthroscopy Internal exam of a joint using an instrument

34 Diagnostic, Procedural, and Laboratory Terms
Diskography Exam of disks by injection of dye then an x-ray Electromyogram Image of electrical activity of muscles

35 Diagnostic, Procedural, and Laboratory Terms
Computerized tomography (CT) Multiple X-rays Computer puts in cross sectional views Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Magnets excite H ions Computer makes pic

36 Diagnostic, Procedural, and Laboratory Tests Pt 5
Other Tests Goniometer -Tests for ROM Densitometer -Measures bone density Goniometer

37 Pathology Pathology Causes of musculoskeletal disorders Birth defects
Injury Degenerative disease Systemic disorders

38 Pathology-Birth Defects
Spina bifida Incomplete closure of spinal cord & protrusion-meningocele

39 Pathology-Birth Defects
Talipes AKA: club foot congenital deformity of the foot curled shape or twisted position of the ankle, heel & toes

40 Pathology-Injuries Herniated disk Disk is compressed & protrudes
Presses on nerve causing sciatica Pain radiates from butt down leg to foot/toes

41 Pathology-Injuries Fractures Incomplete fracture Greenstick fracture
Fracture line doses not extend through bone or disrupt the entire thickness of bone Greenstick fracture Incomplete break that occurs almost exclusively in children

42 Pathology-Injuries Fractures, cont. Comminuted fractures
Bone broken in several places and splinters of bone can be embedded in surrounding tissue Compression fracture Bone collapses due to disruption of bone tissue

43 Pathology-Injuries Fractures, cont Compound:
Causes disruption of skin and soft tissue Fragment of bone punctures skin Often complicated by infection

44 Pathology-Injuries Injury or trauma to the joints or muscle may cause a sprain. Overuse of a muscle may cause a strain. Tendinitis: overuse of a joint Dislocation: when bones in a joint become displaced or misaligned Subluxation: partial dislocation

45 Pathology-Pain & Discomfort
Myalgia: muscle pain Myositis: muscle inflammation Arthritis: inflammation of joints Arthralgia: joint pain Ankylosis: stiff joints Osteoalgia- bone pain

46 Pathology-Abnormal Muscle Tone
Hypertrophy: abnormal increase in muscle size Atrophy: muscles shrink in size from disuse

47 Pathology-Abnormal Muscle Tone
Spasms: abnormal contractions Rigor: abnormal muscle stiffness Tetany: painfully long spasm

48 Pathology-Abnormal Postures
Kyphosis Rounded bowing of back at thoracic area Scoliosis Lateral curvature of spine

49 Pathology-Abnormal Postures
Lordosis Abnormal inward curvature of lumbar vertebrae

50 Surgical Terms Surgical Terms
Almost any major part of the musculoskeletal system can now be surgically repaired. Supportive devices Traction Prosthetic devices Cast Splints

51 Surgical Terms External fixation Internal fixation Splints or casts
Pins or rods

52 Surgical Terms Reduction: return of a part to normal position
Open reduction: done surgically Closed reduction: external manipulation of dislocated bones

53 Surgical Terms Traction
Aligns ends of a fracture by pulling the limb into a straight position

54 Surgical Terms Amputation Surgical removal of limb
Prosthesis replaces limb or joints

55 Surgical Terms Osteoplasty: surgical repair of bone
Osteoclasis: breaking of bone when not healed properly Osteotomy: incision into a bone Tenotomy: cutting of tendon to repair muscle Myoplasty: muscle repair Arthroplasty: joint repair Arthrocentesis: puncture of a joint

56 Surgical Terms Bunionectomy Laminectomy Removal of bunion on hallux
removes parts of the vertebrae) that is narrowing the spinal canal and squeezing the spinal cord and nerve roots.

57 Pharmacology Part 2 Pharmacology
Common medications for the Musculoskeletal System Analgesics- relieves pain Steroids- reduce inflammation Muscle Relaxants- relieve stiffness NSAID’s- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

58 Apply Your Knowledge "Apply Your Knowledge"
Mrs. Jones is concerned with the “soft spots” she feels on her baby’s head. You realize the medical term for these “soft spots” is: A. Fontanelle B. Fissure C. Foramen A. Fontanelle

59 Apply Your Knowledge Part 2
Head & Trunk Arms & Legs Identify the axial and appendicular portions of the skeleton.

60 Apply Your Knowledge Part 3
Mary is complaining of headache, stuffy nose and pressure with facial discomfort. Her physician tells her she has allergies. Which of the following conditions might she be experiencing? A. fracture of her vomer B. sinusitis C. stroke B. sinusitis

61 Apply Your Knowledge Part 4
Relieves pain 1 A. steroids B. analgesics C. muscle relaxants Reduces swelling 2 Relieves stiffness 3 Match the correct medication with its action.

62 Combining Forms Combining Forms
Match the following combining forms and meanings. heel bent joint arm ankyl (o) arthr (o) brachi (o) calcane (o)

63 Combining Forms Part 2 Combining Forms
Match the following combining forms and meanings. carp (o) cephal (o) chondr (o) dactyl (o) kyph (o) cartilage hump head wrist fingers, toes

64 Combining Forms Part 3 Combining Forms
Match the following combining forms and meanings. foot finger or toe bone muscle bone spinal cord; bone marrow my (o) myel (o) pod (o) oste (o) phalang (o)

65 Combining Forms Part 4 Combining Forms
Match the following combining forms and meanings. curved vertebra spine ulnar tendon rachi (o) scoli (o) spondyl (o) ten (o) uln (o)


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