2Objectives Objectives After studying this chapter, you will be able to:Name the parts of the musculoskeletal system and discuss the function of each part.Define combining forms used in building words that relate to the musculoskeletal system.
3Objectives Part 2 Objectives CONT’D Name the common diagnoses, laboratory tests, and clinical procedures used in treating the musculoskeletal system.Define the major pathological conditions of the musculoskeletal system.
4Objectives Part 3 Objectives CONT’D Define surgical terms related to the musculoskeletal system.List common pharmacological agents used in treating the musculoskeletal system.
6Structure and Function Structure & FunctionStructure and FunctionForms the body frameworkProtects and supports internal organsEnables the bodyto moveConsists of bones, joints and muscles
7Bones Structure & Function Bones Bone cells are called osteocytes Consists of a rich supply of blood vessels and nervesOsteoblasts are bone-forming cellsOsteoclasts are responsible for reabsorbing dead bone tissue
8Ossification Structure & Function Bones The development of osteocytes and the hardening process is called ossification.Ossification depends on:calciumphosphorusvitamin D
9Divisions of the Skeleton AxialSkullSpinal columnRibsSternumAppendicularUpper & lower extremitiesPelvic girdle
10Common Bone Categories Structure & FunctionCommon Bone CategoriesBonesThe adult skeleton has 206 bones.Common Bone CategoriesLong bones(Femur)Short bones(Wrist bones)Flat bones(Skull)Irregular bones(Vertebrae/Facial)Sesamoid bones(Kneecap)
11Parts of the Long Bone Diaphysis Epiphysis Compact bone FemurDistal epiphysisDiaphysisProximal epiphysisEpiphyseal disksSpongy boneArticular cartilageSpace containing red marrowCompact boneMedullary cavityYellow marrowPeriosteumParts of the Long BoneDiaphysisShaft or longest portionCompact boneHard dense part of bone that does not bendSpongy boneCovers medullary cavityEpiphysisEnds of long boneEpiphyseal plates: growth platesContains red marrow
12Parts of the Long Bone Medullary cavity Tissues of a bone FemurDistal epiphysisDiaphysisProximal epiphysisEpiphyseal disksSpongy boneArticular cartilageSpace containing red marrowCompact boneMedullary cavityYellow marrowPeriosteumParts of the Long BoneMedullary cavityHollow spaceContains yellow marrowTissues of a bonePeriosteum-outer covering of boneEndosteum-lines medullary cavity
13Parts of Long Bones Bone marrow Red bone marrow Yellow bone marrow Manufactures erythrocytes & leukocytesYellow bone marrowComposed of fat cellsFunctions as fat storage
14Parts of Long Bones Part 2 FemurDistal epiphysisDiaphysisProximal epiphysisEpiphyseal disksSpongy boneArticular cartilageSpace containing red marrowCompact boneMedullary cavityYellow marrowPeriosteumParts of a Long BoneParts of Long Bones Part 2Articular cartilage is a thin flexible substance that provides protection at movable points.
15Bones of the Skull Cranium: encloses the brain (skull) Frontal foreheadParietalRoof and upper sides of craniumOccipitalPosterior floor and walls of craniumTemporalSides and base of cranium
16Bones of the JawMandibleLower jaw boneMaxillaUpper jaw bone
17Sutures Where cranial bones join & fuse Fontanelles: Soft spots on infant skull
18Sinuses Sinsuses Cavities that reduce the weight of a bone. Frontal sinusesEthmoid sinusesMaxillary sinusesSphenoid sinuses
19Spinal Column Structure & Function Spinal Column Cervical = 7 Thoracic = 12Lumbar = 5Sacrum = 5 fusedCoccyx = 4 fusedConsists of five sets of vertebrae
20Thoracic cavity Ribs 12 pairs 7 pairs 3 pairs 2 pairs Called costals Attach posterior to thoracic vertebrae7 pairsTrue ribsAttached anterior to sternum3 pairsFalse ribsAttached anterior to cartilageJoins with sternum2 pairsFloating ribsNot attached anteriorly
21Thoracic Cavity Sternum: Manubrium Body of sternum Xiphoid process Upper portion of sternumBody of sternumMiddle portion of sternumXiphoid processCartilageLower portion of sternum
23Pelvic girdle HIPS Ilium Ischium Pubic bone Pubic symphysis Upper blade shapeIschiumLower portion near hipsPubic boneFuse together with sacrumPubic symphysisCartilage joint that holds bones together
24Bones of the Extremities Structure & FunctionBones of the ExtremitiesBones of the ExtremitiesUpper ArmHumerusLower ArmUlnaRadiusHand and FingersCarpals (wrist)Metacarpals (palm)Phalanges (fingers)
25Bones of the Extremities Part 2 Structure & FunctionBones of the Extremities Part 2Bones of the Extremities (Cont’d)Upper LegFemur (thigh)Lower legTibia (shin)Fibula (little fibber)Patella (kneecap)Feet and ToesTarsals (ankle)Calcaneus (heel)Metatarsals (arch)Phalanges (toes)
27Freely Moveable Joints AKA: Synovial jointsLined with a synovial membraneSynovial fluidA joint lubricatorHelps synovial joints move easierBursaSac lined with synovial membraneHelps reduce friction
28Tendons and Ligaments Structure & Function Tendons and Ligaments Tendons are bands of fibrous tissue that connect muscles to bone.Ligaments connect bones to other bones.
29Muscles - Fascia Structure & Function Muscles Most muscles are covered by a band of connective tissue called fascia, that covers & supports the muscle.
30Muscles Structure & Function Muscles Muscles contract (shorten) and extend to provide body movement.Types of MusclesVoluntary (striated)skeletalInvoluntarysmooth or visceral- Move internal organsCardiac (striated)
31Structure & Function Origin- Insertion- Attachment to a stationary boneInsertion-Attachment to a movable bone
32Muscles – Origin or Insertion Lift up your right forearm to flex your bicep brachii as if making a fist. Identify the origin and insertion attachment by agreeing with one of the following statements:The radius is the origin and the scapula is the insertion.---OR---The scapula is the origin and the radius is the insertion.
33Diagnostic, Procedural, and Laboratory Terms ArthrographyExamine joints using x-rayArthroscopyInternal exam of a joint using an instrument
34Diagnostic, Procedural, and Laboratory Terms DiskographyExam of disks by injection of dye then an x-rayElectromyogramImage of electrical activity of muscles
35Diagnostic, Procedural, and Laboratory Terms Computerized tomography (CT)Multiple X-raysComputer puts in cross sectional viewsMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI)Magnets excite H ionsComputer makes pic
36Diagnostic, Procedural, and Laboratory Tests Pt 5 Other TestsGoniometer-Tests for ROMDensitometer-Measures bone densityGoniometer
38Pathology-Birth Defects Spina bifidaIncomplete closure of spinal cord & protrusion-meningocele
39Pathology-Birth Defects TalipesAKA: club footcongenital deformity of the footcurled shape or twisted position of the ankle, heel & toes
40Pathology-Injuries Herniated disk Disk is compressed & protrudes Presses on nerve causing sciaticaPain radiates from butt down leg to foot/toes
41Pathology-Injuries Fractures Incomplete fracture Greenstick fracture Fracture line doses not extend through bone or disrupt the entire thickness of boneGreenstick fractureIncomplete break that occurs almost exclusively in children
42Pathology-Injuries Fractures, cont. Comminuted fractures Bone broken in several places and splinters of bone can be embedded in surrounding tissueCompression fractureBone collapses due to disruption of bone tissue
43Pathology-Injuries Fractures, cont Compound: Causes disruption of skin and soft tissueFragment of bone punctures skinOften complicated by infection
44Pathology-InjuriesInjury or trauma to the joints or muscle may cause a sprain.Overuse of a muscle may cause a strain.Tendinitis: overuse of a jointDislocation: when bones in a joint become displaced or misalignedSubluxation: partial dislocation
45Pathology-Pain & Discomfort Myalgia: muscle painMyositis: muscle inflammationArthritis: inflammation of jointsArthralgia: joint painAnkylosis: stiff jointsOsteoalgia- bone pain
46Pathology-Abnormal Muscle Tone Hypertrophy: abnormal increase in muscle sizeAtrophy: muscles shrink in size from disuse
47Pathology-Abnormal Muscle Tone Spasms: abnormal contractionsRigor: abnormal muscle stiffnessTetany: painfully long spasm
48Pathology-Abnormal Postures KyphosisRounded bowing of back at thoracic areaScoliosisLateral curvature of spine
49Pathology-Abnormal Postures LordosisAbnormal inward curvature of lumbar vertebrae
50Surgical Terms Surgical Terms Almost any major part of the musculoskeletal system can now be surgically repaired.Supportive devicesTractionProsthetic devicesCastSplints
51Surgical Terms External fixation Internal fixation Splints or casts Pins or rods
52Surgical Terms Reduction: return of a part to normal position Open reduction: done surgicallyClosed reduction: external manipulation of dislocated bones
53Surgical Terms Traction Aligns ends of a fracture by pulling the limb into a straight position
54Surgical Terms Amputation Surgical removal of limb Prosthesis replaces limb or joints
55Surgical Terms Osteoplasty: surgical repair of bone Osteoclasis: breaking of bone when not healed properlyOsteotomy: incision into a boneTenotomy: cutting of tendon to repair muscleMyoplasty: muscle repairArthroplasty: joint repairArthrocentesis: puncture of a joint
56Surgical Terms Bunionectomy Laminectomy Removal of bunion on hallux removes parts of the vertebrae) that is narrowing the spinal canal and squeezing the spinal cord and nerve roots.
57Pharmacology Part 2 Pharmacology Common medications for the Musculoskeletal SystemAnalgesics- relieves painSteroids- reduce inflammationMuscle Relaxants- relieve stiffnessNSAID’s- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
58Apply Your Knowledge "Apply Your Knowledge" Mrs. Jones is concerned with the “soft spots” she feels on her baby’s head. You realize the medical term for these “soft spots” is:A. FontanelleB. FissureC. ForamenA. Fontanelle
59Apply Your Knowledge Part 2 Head & TrunkArms & LegsIdentify the axial and appendicular portions of the skeleton.
60Apply Your Knowledge Part 3 Mary is complaining of headache, stuffy nose and pressure with facial discomfort. Her physician tells her she has allergies. Which of the following conditions might she be experiencing?A. fracture of her vomerB. sinusitisC. strokeB. sinusitis
61Apply Your Knowledge Part 4 Relieves pain1A. steroidsB. analgesicsC. muscle relaxantsReduces swelling2Relieves stiffness3Match the correct medication with its action.
62Combining Forms Combining Forms Match the following combining forms and meanings.heelbentjointarmankyl (o)arthr (o)brachi (o)calcane (o)
63Combining Forms Part 2 Combining Forms Match the following combining forms and meanings.carp (o)cephal (o)chondr (o)dactyl (o)kyph (o)cartilagehumpheadwristfingers, toes
64Combining Forms Part 3 Combining Forms Match the following combining forms and meanings.footfinger or toe bonemusclebonespinal cord; bone marrowmy (o)myel (o)pod (o)oste (o)phalang (o)
65Combining Forms Part 4 Combining Forms Match the following combining forms and meanings.curvedvertebraspineulnartendonrachi (o)scoli (o)spondyl (o)ten (o)uln (o)