Presentation on theme: "objectives Anatomy of the alimentary canal Explanation of nutrition"— Presentation transcript:
1objectives Anatomy of the alimentary canal Explanation of nutrition Food pyramidTherapeutic dietsCultural and religious concernsFeeding the dependent patient
2Gastrointestinal system and nutritional needs of patients
3The GI system is responsible for the physical and chemical breakdown of food. The food is broken down so it can be taken into the blood stream and used by the body, cells, and tissues.The alimentary canal begins at the mouth and ends at the anus.
4The alimentary canal:A) begins at the mouth and ends at the colonB) begins at the esophagus and ends at the large intestinesC) begins at the mouth and ends at the anusD) is part of the panama canal
5masticationThe teeth breakdown the food by. chewing and grinding the food. The tongue, a muscular organ, contains the taste buds necessary to taste: sweet, salt, sour and bitter.
6The soft and hard palate are the roof of the mouth and are responsible for separating the mouth from the nasal cavity.The uvula hangs down from the soft palate and helps prevent food from entering the nasopharynx during swallowing
7Chemical breakdown 3 pairs of salivary glands: The parotid, sublingual and submandibular glands produce saliva. Saliva lubricates the mouth during speech and chewing.Saliva also produces an enzyme called salivary amylase which starts the breakdown of carbohydrates into sugar.
8Amylase is responsible for : A) breaking down carbohydates for fat storageB) breaking down protein for healingC) breaking down carbohydratesD) breaking down fats
9What happens to the taste of a carb treat when you let the carb treat set in your mouth for 30 seconds breaking down the sugar?
10After the food is chewed and chemically broken down it is called a bolus. When the bolus is swallowed it enters the pharynx(throat)The epiglottis is a flap that covers the larynx preventing food from entering the lungs.
11The esophagus is the muscular tube dorsal( behind) the trachea. Students:Feel your trachea
12The food goes down the esophagus through peristalsis The food goes down the esophagus through peristalsis. The cardiac sphincter closes after food enters the stomach.People with acid reflux disease have problems with the cardiac sphincter.Pepcid AC, protonix,tagament, mylanta are common anti-acid meds
13What covers the trachea so food does not enter it? A) epiesophagusB) epiglottisC) tracheaglottisD) uvula
14Food stays in the stomach 1-4 hours Food stays in the stomach 1-4 hours. The pyloric sphincter prevents the food from leaving too soon. It is a muscular sphincter between the stomach and small intestine.
15While the food is in the stomach HCL kills bacteria,facillitates iron absorption and activates the enzyme pepsin.Pepsin starts protein digestion.The enzyme lipase is in the stomach which starts the breakdown of fat.
16The cardiac sphincter closes after food enters: The stomachThe espophagusThe pharynxThe heart
17When food leaves the stomach it is in a semi fluid material called chyme
18Accessory organsPancreas The pancreas is a large, elongated gland lying posteriorly to the stomach (fig. 1-53). As discussed earlier in "The Endocrine System," the pancreas has two functions: It serves both the endocrine system and the digestive system. The digestive portion of the pancreas produces digestive juices (amylase, proteinase, and lipase) that are secreted through the pancreatic duct to the duodenum. These digestive juices break down carbohydrates (amylase), proteins (proteinase), and fats (lipase) into simpler compounds
19Which enzyme is involved in protein breakdown? A)pepsodentB) pepto bismolC) preperation HD)pepsin
20Small intestine 20 feet long and one inch wide. It is divided into 3 sectionsDuodenum is the first 9 inchesBile from the gall bladder and liver and pancreatic juice are secreted into the duodenum creating more chemical breakdown.
23It metabolizes carbohydrates, fats, and proteins preparatory to their use or excretion. � It forms and excretes bile salts and pigment from bilirubin, a waste product of red blood cell destruction. � It stores blood; glycogen; vitamins A, D, and B12; and iron.� It detoxifies the end products of protein digestion and drugs. � It produces antibodies and essential elements of the blood-clotting mechanism.
24Gallbladder The gallbladder is a pear-shaped sac, usually stained dark green by the bile it contains. It is located in the hollow underside of the liver (fig. 1-53). Its duct, the cystic duct, joins the hepatic duct from the liver to form the common bile duct, which enters the duodenum. The gallbladder receives bile from the liver and then concentrates and stores it. It secretes bile when the small intestine is stimulated by the entrance of fats.
25Small intestinesThe jejunum is 8 feet in length and the ileums 12 feet and it connects to the large intestines via the cecum.The ileocecal valve separates the small and large intestines.Absorption of nutrients occur in the small intestines.
26What fluid is secreted into the duodenum? A) bileB) pancreatic juicesC) dopamineD) both a and b
27Intestinal juices in the small intestine include maltase, sucrase,and lactase which break down sugar into simpler forms.Peptidases completes the digestion of protein
28The walls of the intestine are lined with finger like projections called villi. The villi contain blood capillaries and lacteals. They carry the nutrients to the liver, where they are either stored or used by the body cells
29What is the largest gland? A) liverB) heartC) small intestineD) pineal
30The large intestine 5 feet long 2 inches wide. Functions: absorbtion of water, synthesis of vit k. elimination of waste.Cecum contains the appendix.Colon ascending colon, transverse colon,Descending colon. The descending colon is on the left side and connects to the sigmoid colon
31The rectum is the final 6-8 inches of the large intestine and is storage for indigestible and waste. It exits the anus
32Feeding the dependent patient Wash your handsProvide a bibGive ½ teaspoon at a time.Alternate with fluidsProvide a relaxed atmosphereNote personal preference ,such as eating all of one food at one time, mixing food ect
33Septo syringe feeding 10-15 cc at a time, side of mouth 30cc equals one ounce
34Religious and cultural beliefs Christian science: no tea, coffee, or alcohol
35catholic No food one hour prior to communion No meat during lent on Fridays
44Intake and outputEverything taken in po, IV, IM, NG tube, central line, G tube is all counted.Output includes, anything liquid: urine, emesis, diarrheaAverage intake ccOutput ccOutput should be close or equal to intake
45nutrition 64.5 % of american adults are overweight. The following diseases are related to poor nutrition: hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis,hypertension,obesity, cancer,Gallbladder disease, joint pain.
64Which of the following is ingested, digested, absorbed and used by the body? A) nutrientsB) caloriesC) vitaminsd) minerals
65Vitamins and minerals are in the carbs, protein and fat
66carbohydrates 45-60 % of our diet should be carbs. Individual with metabolic disorders such as diabetes should stick with the lower range.To determine how many grams of protein you should have complete the following question.
67If you eat a 2500 calorie diet and 60 % of your diet is carbs, how many grams of carbs should you have each day?Formula: calories X60%Divide that number by 4 since there are 4 calories in each gram of carb
682500 calories X60%= 1500 calories1500 calories divided by 4= 375 grams of carbs per day
71carbohydratesCarbohydrates are the sugars and starches found in food.they are made from carbon and oxygen molecules.45-60%of your diet should come from carbs.There are 2 general types of carbs:simple and complex
72The cells must have glucose for energy and to survive. Glucose that is not used immediately is converted to glycogen, a form of starch stored in the muscles and liver or it is converted to fat and stored until needed
73The main function of carb’s is to provide energy The main function of carb’s is to provide energy. We need 130 grams of carbs for normal brain function.People on the atkins diet often feel fuzzy due to the lack of carbs. Carbs are protein sparing so the body will use the carbs instead of breaking down muscle fibers for energy
74Simple carbohydrates also known as monosaccharides and disaccharides Simple sugars like fructose and glucose( are in fruits and vegetables)Milk has lactose(some people are lactose intolerant)Sucrose( found in the sugar cane) which is refined to produce table sugarGlucose: goes directly into the blood stream to provide quick energy. All other sugars must be converted to glucose before the body can use it.
76How many calories are in one gram of protein? B) 4C) 12D) 8
77Complex carbohydrates also known as polysaccharides Starches are complex carbohydrates that are made up of many units of glucose or other sugars which form long chains. The body must break down these long chains into simple single units of glucose.Starches provide energy over a longer period of time. Simple sugars give short time energy and complex carb give longer energy but it takes longer.
78examplesWhole grains, cerals , brown rice, pasta, pototoes, legumes , vegetable , fruit
79Carbs give you energy, but will turn to fat if it is not used Carbs give you energy, but will turn to fat if it is not used. A high carb diet stimulates the appetite and may create mood swings.We need balance in our diet.
80Dietary fiberA complex carbohydrate which comes from non digestible parts of plants.Soluble and insoluble fiber.Insoluble: absorbs water and provides bulk.Whole grains, skins, and seeds of fruits and vegetablesSoluble: assist with the removal of waste.Oat bran, apples, carrots, beans and barley
81Which of the following are examples of simple carbohydrates? A) honeyB) riceC) lasagnaD) water
82We need grams per day.Adequate fiber decreases colon cancer, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, constipation and hemorrhoids
84Carbs that are in the blood is called glucose Carbs that are in the blood is called glucose. Our glucose levels should be betweenWe have 5 grams of carbs in the bloodstream stored as glucose.400 grams stored as glycogen in the muscles.100 grams stored in the liver as glycogen
85fatsFats contains the most concentrated form of energy.you need a small amount of fat. Fat or lipids provide twice as much energy gram per gram to carbs.Fats are important parts of body tissue, used to transport and store vitamins and minerals, and give food flavor.
86Concerns about fatWe need 25% of our calories from fat but most Americans consume 40% of their calories from fat.30% or less of the calories should be from fat. Eg cookie has 100 calories but 3 grams of fat
87Saturated fatsSolid at room temperature. Butter, shortening, margarine,coconut or palm oilThey contain the maximum number of hydrogen molecules.Increase heart disease, blood vessel disease, obesity and some cancers
88Unsaturated fats Liquid at room temperature Olive oil, peanut oil, fish oils such as omega 3, vegetable oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil,Unsaturated fats are better than saturated. They have less hydrogen ions
89Trans fats Trans fats create free radicals and form LDL cholesterol. Anything that says hydrogenated is a trans fat
90cholesterolCholesterol is a waxy fat like substance created by the body.cholesterol is part of the membrane of the cell and is used by the body to form vitamin D and other hormones. Cholesterol is found in foods that come from animal like butter, eggs and meat. The body produces cholesterol in the liver so we do not need additional cholesterol from our food sources.
91LDL Cholesterol sticks to the vessel walls leading to arteriosclerosis. HDL the healthy cholesterol removes cholesterol from the cells and brings it to the liver to excrete or recycle.Exercise increases HDL
92protein The body needs protein to build and repair body tissue. Essential amino acids: there are different amino acids. 9 are essential which means it must be supplied by the food you eat. The other 11 AA your body will produce.
93Complete vs. incomplete protein Complete proteins are essential proteins which come from animals: milk, meat, cheese, poultry, and fish.Incomplete proteins are lacking some of the AA.you can make completes by combining:Beans and rice or peanut butter on wheat bread.
94Vitamin Water soluble: are excreted in the urine in 2 hours Vitamin B1 thiamineB2 riboflavinB3 niacinB6 pyrdoxineB12Folic acid
96How many essential proteins must we get from our food? B)9C)10D)11
97Fat soluble vitaminsADEKHigh levels can be deadly
98Vitamin trivia You should take a multi vitamin daily! Take vitamin C And iron at different times of the day for they compete for body cells and produce free radicalsDoes your vitamin have both iron and vit c?
99Take folic acid and vitamin E if your multi vitamin does not have 100% of the RDA. All sexually active females must take folic acid to prevent spina bifida
100Cancer fighters Broccoili: prevents breast and colon cancer Tomatoes: has antioxident: lycopenes:Olive oilRed grapesCarrotsFishbran
102dieting Small frequent meals 1200 or more calories Lose 2 pounds per weekThen do not go back to your old eating habits
103Be mindful and appreciative of what you eat. Focus on what you are eating, savor each bite. Don’t think about the next bite. Put your fork down. Chew your food for several chews don’t just put it in your mouth and swallow
104Stop eating when you are full Stop eating when you are full. It takes 20 minutes for your stomach to send the message to stop eating.drink water before you eat.Smell bananas or green apples…it decreases your appetite
105Graze…eat a small amount of healthy food every 2 hours instead of 3 big meals Keep healthy foods around you.
106What is a safe amount of weight to lose per week? A) 2 poundsB) 4 poundsC) 6 poundsD) 5.5 pounds
107water 64 ounces of water a day is needed for healthy cells Hunger pangs,mentally lethargy and fatigue can all be helped with an 8 ounce glass of water.Caffeine is dehydrating and keeps the water out of the cell
108Think about what you want to look and feel like. Think positive……I will be fit ,trim and happy
109calorie The amount of energy produced when the body burns fat. 3500 calories in one pound
11015 calories per body pound is needed to maintain weight without movement. Multiple your weight by 15
111How many calories do I need to lose X pounds? weight loss equation655 plus (4.4 x your goal weight in pounds) plus (4.6 x your height in inches) minus 4.7 x your age in in years equals base calories.Multiple this number by 1.2 if you get little or no exerciseBy 1.3 if you are active.Loss of 1-2 pounds per week
112Hippocrates , the father of modern medicine states: “Let food be your medicine and medicine be your food”