Presentation on theme: "So the civil war is over…. NOW WHAT??? The Reconstruction After The Civil War 1865 - 1877."— Presentation transcript:
So the civil war is over…
The Reconstruction After The Civil War
Destruction The war destroyed… 2/3 of Southern shipping 9,000 miles of railroads 654,000 soldiers
southern farm property value plunged 70% Black southerners were homeless and starving, plantation owners were broke and without labor and poor white southerners couldnt compete with the new freedman
Lincolns Got a Plan! A state could be readmitted when the number of men who had taken a loyalty oath to the Union equaled one tenth of the number of voters in the 1860 presidential election (ten percent plan)
Most ex-Confederates would be granted amnesty if they took the loyalty oath High-ranking ex- Confederate officials would have to ask the President for a pardon to be granted amnesty
The new state constitutions had to ban slavery States had to provide free public education to blacks
…But, sadly, it never fully went into effect
On April , Abraham Lincoln, while watching a performance with his wife, was shot in the back of the head by John Wilkes Booth
After Lincolns death, Vice-President Andrew Johnson, who had been the only Southern senator not to leave Congress after secession, became president
Johnsons Plan Granted amnesty to former Confederates who would take an oath of loyalty to the Constitution and the federal laws Property was restored, except for slaves, and any land or goods all ready in the process of being confiscated
The ordinances of secession had to be revoked Confederate war debts could not be collected The states had to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment
During the first eight months of his term, Johnson took advantage of Congress being in recess and rushed through his own policies for Reconstruction,
which included allowing the South to set up "black codes," which essentially maintained slavery under another name
Black Codes 1) Allowed former slaves to: Marry fellow blacks Own personal property Sue and be sued
2) Didnt allow them to: serve on juries vote carry weapons without a license hold public office own land travel without a permit be out after curfew assemble in groups without a white person in attendance
3) required a former slave to buy a license to work 4) authorized the arrest and fining of unemployed blacks 5) allowed an employer to pay the fine of an unemployed black in exchange for the persons labor
Now what about those amendments?
13 th Amendment On January 1865, Congress passed the Thirteenth Amendment, and by December, the necessary twenty-seven states ratified it. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for a crime where of the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist in the United States.
14 th Amendment All persons born in the United State or naturalized were citizens of the U.S. and of the state in which they lived (blacks included) States were forbidden to deny citizens their rights without due process of law
All citizens were to enjoy equal protection under the law A state that denied voting rights to any adult male would have its representation in Congress reduced in proportion to the number of citizens who had been denied the vote
15 th Amendment In March, 1870, the 15 th Amendment was ratified The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Citizens Vote Free can 14 th 15 th 13 th
Reconstruction finally came to an end by 1876, when Hayes was elected president… Did reconstruction work?
The Successes Republicans carried out their main goals: To rebuild the Union and help repair the war- torn South Stimulated economic growth in the South & created new wealth in the north
The 13 th, 14 th, and 15 th Amendments were passed Freedmans Bureau helped newly freed blacks with schooling, housing, and jobs Southern states adapted public school systems
Failures Blacks were still in poverty and lacked property, economic opportunity, & political power Anti-black organizations (Ku Klux Klan) still prevented blacks from voting Racism still continued
White southern bitterness towards the North and the government Southern economy was still slow and agriculturally based Did not address the regulation of railroads, safer working conditions, or woman suffrage