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Appendix Roadmaps Proposed by WGs and Points to be in Minds.

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Presentation on theme: "Appendix Roadmaps Proposed by WGs and Points to be in Minds."— Presentation transcript:

1 Appendix Roadmaps Proposed by WGs and Points to be in Minds

2 Manufacturing 1

3 Low-Carbon Manufacturing Sector – Roadmap (1) Energy consumption: - 30% to -40 % from current level Roadmap Objectives Becoming a "smart" low-carbon manufacturing country FY 2011 FY 2011 Using the funds from the Carbon Tax, strengthening aforementioned measures/programs Program to promote measures Program to develop measures Fostering and creating personnel and places for low-carbon technology, infrastructure and business development Continuous efforts to make each manufacturing process a low-carbon one Infrastructure development to realize a low-carbon manufacturing sector Establishing a system of cooperation among stakeholders Gathering wisdom for promotion of low-carbon R&D Fostering personnel who contribute to low-carbon R&D Fostering personnel who contribute to low-carbon technology development Fostering researchers/technicians who support low-carbon manufacturing and taking over existing skills/technologies Improving school education/on-the-job training to foster technicians Incentives for low-carbon manufacturing technology Establishing educational institutes for low-carbon technology researchers/technicians Accepting low-carbon technology researchers/technicians/foreign students (Carbon Passport, etc.) Stimulating the consumption of low-carbon products Improving competitiveness of low- carbon products The Carbon Tax Green procurement by the government Technology selection Program design Introducing bi-/ multi-lateral government approval Fostering low-carbon Japanese lifestyles and values Visualizing CO2 emissions in daily life, such as CO2 emissions for each product Popularizing "Environmental Concierges" Gaining understanding of low-carbon society by improving education and awareness (Such as "Challenge 25") Fostering low-carbon Japanese lifestyles and values Accumulating wisdom and improving services, such as the dispatch of analysts Credits for carbon-offsets and purchase of low-carbon products (a system to circulate money within the country) Developing initial demand and a popularization strategy that takes advantage of market pull Promoting collaborative development w. researchers and businesses nationally/internationally Special low-carbon districts: Designating prospective cities Regularly hosting international conferences and exhibitions Creating an environment that is attractive to foreign businesses Active national/international promotion Giving long-term continuous support for fundamental R&D (focusing on materials and equipment) Field test: investing in field tests Supporting the development of materials that replace rare metals Promoting image-building strategies of low-carbon, cool Japan (products, usage and lifestyle) Encouraging Japanese businesses to invest in Japan National/international expansion of low-carbon business 2

4 2050 Low-Carbon Manufacturing Sector – Roadmap (2) Roadmap FY 2011 FY 2011 Using the funds from the Carbon Tax, strengthening aforementioned measures/programs Program to promote measures Program to develop measures Supporting the development and market penetration of low-carbon products/business Establishing/awarding economic incentives for excellent products/businesses Recognizing excellent products and businesses Continuing the top-runner system Supporting systems for low-carbon venture businesses and business matching Promoting consideration of climate change in financing/investing Improving systems for calculating, reporting and publishing greenhouse gas emissions (incl. reports on emission/activity by supply chain) Integration of non-financial reports and financial reports (accountability system that measures the environmental management of a company) Proper accounting of carbon debt Support through the corporate taxation system and political finance Improving reliability and comparability of environmental reports Information provision on guidelines for low-carbon financing of public funds, incl. pensions Development of fund management evaluation Fund management based on long-term assessment Energy consumption: -30% to-40% from current level Objectives Becoming a "smart" low-carbon manufacturing country National/international expansion of low-carbon business Continuous efforts to make each manufacturing process a low-carbon one Infrastructure development to realize a low-carbon manufacturing sector Establishing a system of cooperation among stakeholders Popularizing low-carbon business management and financing International strategic development of low-carbon technology Strategic involvement in establishing international standards/rules Supporting international penetration of Japan's technology Establishing international negotiation organizations/fostering full-time specialists Supporting green ODA and the penetration of low-carbon Japanese technology Selecting prospective technology Thorough non-fluorocarbon promotion (promoting the collection of fluorocarbon refrigerants, implementing fluorocarbon mitigation measures, accelerating market penetration of non-fluorocarbon products) Making the most of Japanese technology and expertise for emissions reduction/international contribution by widespread use of non-fluorocarbon products Designing system for diagnosis technicians Fostering personnel for environmental management diagnosis (advisors) Operating a system for the dispatch of environmental management diagnostic technicians (advisors) Supporting CO2 reduction by using emissions reduction guidelines and introducing credits for the purchase of low-carbon products Sharing wisdom for reducing greenhouse gas emissions Continuous diplomatic efforts to introduce fair international standards/rules Thorough green procurement by government System design/technology selection Promoting early achievement of targets by combination of min. criteria/recommended criteria and "sunset system" R&D, production control, quality management, inventory cycle management, ICT use-promotion for equipment and social systems Reviewing information provision items and calculation methods Educational program for persons in charge of environmental financing Domestic CO2 emissions trading by cap-and-trade Introducing credits for carbon-offset and purchase of low-carbon products (a system to circulate funds within the country) Evaluating carbon reductions Supporting investment in installations that reduce environmental load (incl. through corporate tax reductions, elastic depreciation, and subsidies for interest/leasing fees) System design/technology selection Mutual accreditation of environmental management systems for small and mid-sized businesses Fostering specialists in management technology, implementing measures to retain personnel w. technological skills, talent and knowledge, implementing measures to maintain technological skills and provide financial support to establish overseas business 3

5 Points to Keep in Mind in Designing a Roadmap for the Manufacturing Sector fully verify the effectiveness and feasibility of individual policiesit is vital to design a roadmap that sufficiently considers In implementing the roadmap proposed here, it is important to fully verify the effectiveness and feasibility of individual policies. In addition, it is vital to design a roadmap that sufficiently considers the conditions of each industry and the state of global competition. continuous efforts and corporation are required This will be a great challenge To realize a smart low-carbon manufacturing nation, continuous efforts and corporation are required not only on the part of the central government but also on the part of private firms, consumers and local governments. This will be a great challenge. it is important to build a system that encourages self-sustaining growth In consideration of Japans financial situation, it should be noted that governmental subsidies and tax breaks will be limited. Sound business management is essential for the growth of the manufacturing sector, and it is important to build a system that encourages self-sustaining growth by undertaking systemic reforms. it should be noted cannot solve all of Japans economic issues (employment, economic growth, etc.) Study for this sector has been conducted to find ways to achieve growth in a low-carbon society strictly from the viewpoint of manufacturing, and it should be noted that implementation of the proposed roadmap for the manufacturing sector alone cannot solve all of Japans economic issues (employment, economic growth, etc.). The countrys growth strategy needs to be studied comprehensively, together with that of the service industry, which accounts for 70% of employment. regularly assess and review progress In addition, the roadmap has been studied in view of the manufacturing sectors current conditions, and any changes in this sectors conditions are likely to also change the strategy to be taken. It is desirable to regularly assess and review progress while closely observing global trends. Manufacturing WG 4

6 Housing/Buildings 5

7 Daily Life (Housing/Buildings) - Roadmap (Housing/Residential Sector) 6

8 Daily Life (Housing/Buildings) - Roadmap (Building/Commercial Sector) 7

9 Need for early action a: Houses and buildings are used for many years. Various measures and policies need to be enforced as soon as possible in order to achieve long-term targets. b: For the realization of zero-emission houses and buildings, it is important to strongly promote houses and buildings that have high environmental performance and are regarded as complying with recommended standards. Amount of measures introduced, and intensity of policy enforcement a: An image has been made of the extent and degree of measures and the intensity of policy enforcement, and this image has been used to specify the scale of tasks and the need for action towards achieving the targets. b: Each point needs further review. Arrangement of a system for the stable supply of energy-saving equipment and machinery a: To achieve mid-term targets, energy-saving equipment and machinery need to achieve rapid diffusion. It is important to pay attention to the establishment of various systems that will ensure a stable supply of energy-saving equipment and machinery. Importance of altering lifestyles a: Measures for the housing and building sector need to be taken in cooperation with the public. b: It is important to have the viewpoint that each individual should do what he or she can do in a comfortable manner; thus, incentives need to be presented to encourage the public to shift to low-carbon lifestyles by starting their efforts on something easy. Problems with systems, etc. a: There are systems that could be obstacles in promoting a low-carbon society. Some of these systems need to be reviewed to promote such a society while paying attention to the balance between safety, health and the like. b: The housing and building sector is short of statistical data on its actual status. Systematic data compilation is required, as is effective use of existing information. Points to Keep in Mind in Taking Measures Housing/Buildings WG 1/3 8

10 Points to Keep in Mind in Taking Measures (Issues involved in formulating systems) System and FrameworkOutline Housing Sector (1) Electricity contracts for the use of solar power A: Electricity selling price for housing complex set at the same level as individual housing (eliminating the situation where a housing complex is regarded as subject to an electricity contract for industrial use) B: Terms for the sale of electricity by tenants of rental housing (for example, having the terms of contract made at the time of installation of solar power systems continue to be valid after the change of tenants) (2) Inadequate information disclosure and statistical information use A: Use of information from smart meters for public purposes (establishing benchmark values) (3) Regulations on the drainage of household wastewater A:Use of storm sewers for draining water from latent-heat-recovery water heaters B: Review of standards based on decisions made by the managers of public sewerage systems Building Sector (1) Standards for the indoor environment of buildings A: Easing of lighting standards whose minimum value is relatively high compared to Western countries B: Examining indoor air standards such as humidity and CO2 levels (considering the balance between maintaining adequate indoor environment and energy saving) (2) Inadequate information disclosure and statistical information use A: Use of information from smart meters for public purposes B: Use of data reported in accordance with Act on the Rational Use of Energy for public purposes (establishing benchmark values) (3) Issues related to achieving a balance between energy savings and indoor environmental standards including those in the Act on Maintenance of Sanitation in Buildings A: Responses such as making adjustments in accordance with actual usage in the case of rooms with few people present, since the ventilation turnover may be too high (4) Shared incentives for energy cost reduction A: Owner and tenants jointly bearing the cost of energy consumed beyond a certain level Common Problem (1) Limited availability of various new housing construction subsidies for the purpose of alleviating environmental burdens A: Various subsidies are available for new construction, but in the case of subsidies that are not aimed at making houses or buildings eco-friendly, they may be difficult to use for new construction that includes eco-equipment. B: Review of all subsidies to include eco-friendly design as one of the application purposes Housing/Buildings WG 2/3 9

11 Points to Keep in Mind in Taking Measures (Re: Non-energy Benefits) Source: Shuzo Murakami, Recommendation of Healthy, Energy-Saving Housing - Economic Benefits from Thermal Environment Realized by Improved Insulation, Association for Assembly Persons for Promoting Healthy Energy-Saving Housing Example of EB and NEB by insulation improvement. Not only can residents benefit from reductions in electricity and heating (EBs), but they can also enjoy NEBs. Stakeholders other than residents (i.e., residential suppliers, governments) enjoy NEBs. Not only can residents benefit from reductions in electricity and heating (EBs), but they can also enjoy NEBs. Stakeholders other than residents (i.e., residential suppliers, governments) enjoy NEBs. Housing/Buildings WG 3/3 10

12 Automobile / Transportation 11

13 Automobile Sector - Roadmap Program to promote measures FY 2011 Using funds from the Carbon Tax, strengthening the aforementioned measures/programs Program to prepare measures Subsidy for introducing a business vehicle Objectives Roadmap Supporting purchases Establishment of related business models for widespread secondary use of batteries, battery replacement-type EV taxis, etc. Improving the power supply network A fine-tuned system that provides tax incentives according to the car's environmental load Supporting development of high-performance cells/next-generation cells Market penetration of hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles NGV/HV/FCV development and popularization for mid-size/large vehicles Increasing NGV fuel stations Developing mid-distance vehicles Measures for each vehicle (dissemination of next-generation vehicles, fuel economy improvements to conventional vehicles) Fuel economy standards Steps Operation of auto-related taxation scheme Developing E10- compatiblestandards Promoting the establishment of a supply/distribution system Starting accreditation of E10-compatible vehicles Accelerated market diffusion Post new long-term regulations/challenging targets Supporting purchases of urban vehicles Low-carbon fuels Development and market penetration of fuel cell vehicles Technological development, education, field testing, field infrastructure testing Supporting leasing and purchasing Developing hydrogen stationsCO2 budget and economic evaluation Low-carbon use of vehicles (eco-driving, car sharing) Improving fuel economy of cars by 65% (sales of next-generation vehicles: 250 mil. cars) Making next-generation vehicles available in any type (most new cars are next-generation vehicles). Market penetration of green diesel vehicles Market penetration of hybrid off- road vehicles Supporting purchases Low-interest loans Furthering corporation w. public facilities and public transportation systems Providing incentives for eco-driving Introducing eco-driving benchmarking Supporting pervasion of EV car sharing Promoting eco-driving Promoting car sharing Accelerated market diffusion Common programs Supporting cross-sectoral technology development Development of a general-purpose kinetic energy recovery system for energy regeneration and exhaust heat energy use Low-carbon automobiles Market introduction of FCV Low-carbon mid-size/large automobiles Developing low-carbon special vehicles Popularization of large hybrid trucks Changing use awareness Making devices w. eco-driving mode and for idling reduction as standard features Establishing business models that motivate eco-driving Traffic flow measures (Examined by the Local Development WG) Organizing educational activities on low-carbon driving (fostering eco-driving habits and an awareness of avoiding unnecessary vehicle use) Increasing the share of biofuel use Developing production technology 2020: Establishment of fuel economy standards 2015: Early achievement of fuel economy standards 2020: Early achievement of fuel economy standards Promoting the use of natural gas Supporting the introduction of eco-driving support devices 12

14 Points to Keep in Mind in Designing a Roadmap for the Automobile Sector International competition over next-generation vehicles is intensifying, and since Japan leads the world in hybrid cars, electric cars and other next-generation vehicles, it is important to provide various support policies in order to maintain the countrys competitiveness in the development and distribution of such vehicles. International markets are diversifying; thus, policies need to be promoted not only for next-generation vehicles but also for fuel efficiency improvement of conventional cars from the viewpoint of securing competitiveness. Policies for both the supply side (support for R&D, fuel efficiency regulations, etc.) and the demand side (subsidies, tax systems, dissemination and public awareness raising, etc.) are to be enforced comprehensively, aiming at a low-carbon automobile sector. To achieve introduction targets under the scenarios proposed in this report (15%-25% reduction), there are issues to be solved, including how to boost consumer willingness to buy automobiles with excellent environmental performance, such as next-generation vehicles, how to ease or eliminate the risk involved in hefty investment in the development and production of next-generation vehicles, etc., and how to facilitate the practical use of technologies undergoing development. It should be noted that the resolution of the above issues is the prerequisite for achieving the targets. Automobile WG 1/3 13

15 Points to Keep in Mind in Designing a Roadmap for the Automobile Sector For buses and trucks, exhaust gas regulations with a challenging NOx reduction target are scheduled to be applied by the end of 2016; thus, the task of improving fuel efficiency while meeting the regulations needs to be fulfilled. The diffusion of next-generation vehicles and the fuel efficiency improvement of conventional vehicles are an important combination of measures for each car. It is important that both measures be combined in accordance with each manufacturers fuel efficiency improvement strategy. In addition to the improvement of each cars fuel efficiency, it is important to comprehensively promote measures to alter driving behavior, such as those that promote eco-driving and those related to traffic flow, while actively using advanced ITS technology to facilitate the fuel efficiency improvement of actual driving. In urban areas, measures such as car sharing that reduce car use are also effective. For these to be effective, they should be promoted along with urban planning policies. On the other hand, in rural areas, based on the assumption that cars are frequently used, it is important to facilitate low-carbon car use by taking measures that motivate drivers to engage in eco-driving. For the diffusion of next-generation vehicles such as electric cars that require expensive, high-performance batteries, it is important to develop cars that put less load on the battery and to facilitate the promotion of battery performance improvement and cost reduction by establishing and developing business models related to battery utilization, such as secondary use and leasing of batteries or taxis with replaceable batteries. Equally important measures for CO2 reduction in the automobile sector are those related to traffic flow and logistics, such as the improvement of freight transportation efficiency, which are subject to study in the Local Development WG, and it is vital for the whole automobile sector to vigorously take action by combining these measures with others mentioned before. Housing/Buildings WG 2/3 14

16 Objectives Roadmap Continuous support for R&D and overseas sales of innovative energy-saving technologies and their use Promoting replacement by high-fuel-efficiency ships (incl. tax incentives) Continuous support for the introduction of alternative energy (incl. tax incentives) Promoting the introduction of shore-to-ship power supply systems (expanding the development of power transmission facilities and promoting the introduction of power receiving system on ships) Developing and disseminating high-fuel-efficiency ships Using alternative energy Establishing and disseminating shore-to-ship power supply systems Low-carbon railway sector Railway, Ship, Air Transportation Sector - Roadmap Continuous support for R&D and overseas sales of innovative energy-saving technologies and their application Promoting energy saving rail carriages (introduction of tax incentives) Energy saving (electric/diesel) carriages Promoting modal shift Launching zero-emission ships (Examined by the Local Development WG) Measures taken by power suppliers (Examined by the Energy Supply WG) Low-carbon air transport sector Standardization of jet fuel (Mixing rate of biofuel: 50%) Promoting replacement by high-fuel-efficiency ships (incl. tax incentives) Supporting purchases of biofuel (tax incentives) R&D for application of biofuel production technology Continuous support for R&D and overseas sales of innovative energy-saving airplanes Development and dissemination of high-fuel-efficiency airplanes Conversion to biofuel Improving the efficiency of operation systems Development and dissemination of ground power units Supporting practices of energy saving operation by optimizing flying routes Accelerating the introduction to major airports Standardization of jet fuel (Mixing rate of biofuel : 100%) Promoting modal shift (Examined by the Local Development WG) Share of airplane biofuel use: 100% Developing energy-saving rail carriages and high- fuel-efficiency ships/airplanes, and replacing conventional rail carriages, ships and airplanes. Establishing fuel economy standards Low-carbon ship transport sector Program to promote measures Program to prepare measures Continuous support of R&D for alternative energy use technology Supporting energy-saving operation practices of ships (incl. crew education, introduction of operation management systems, coordination w. shippers and port businesses) Improving the efficiency of operation systems Establishing fuel economy standards FY 2011 Using funds from the Carbon Tax, strengthening the aforementioned measures/programs 15

17 Points to Keep in Mind in Designing a Roadmap for the Railway, Seaway and Airway Sectors The assessment and review in this report were conducted to identify improvement technologies that are expected to produce promising outcomes in each sector, and the improvement rates of energy consumption per unit that are established are those that are considered attainable by combining the above technologies. The introduction rates of energy-saving trains, ships and aircraft are estimated based on certain assumptions. To achieve each sectors introduction targets for energy-saving trains, ships and aircraft under the scenarios proposed in this report (15%-25% reduction), the government needs to provide policy support to businesses that are working toward introducing energy-saving trains, ships and aircraft. Especially in the seaway sector, since shipbuilding has been at a standstill, resulting in the rapid aging of existing ships, the enforcement of additional policies is required to promote the construction of energy- saving ships as alternatives to old ships. As for the railway sector, since the electrification of trains is making great headway, the realization of low-carbon energy (electricity) supply on the supply side will be effective as well. Automobile WG 3/3 16

18 Local Development 17

19 Realizing Compact Cities based on Local Development and Public Transportation Systems - Roadmap Roadmap Promoting the use and efficiency improvement of existing public transport systems Development of LRT, BRT Improving transit and access at suburban stations Public cost bearing of operation expenses for increasing services, reducing fares Examination of development/operation systems Increasing ridership by improving the transit system at suburban stations, improving P&R/C&R facilities, introducing a transit discount system Financing the construction of new routes Active use of LRT, BRT, etc. Replacing high-efficiency rail carriages, supporting financing for construction of new stations Promoting the use of public transportation systems by residents' participation Promoting relocation of residents in a station influenced sphere Reviewing zoning of urbanization promotion areas Increasing population density in urban areas Construction of public transportation systems from the users' perspective Mobility management to encourage the use of public transportation Restricting vehicle access to city centers Utilizing low-density areas and shrinking urbanization promotion areas Visualization of the advantages of being a compact city Setting population density targets Supporting activities of community develop- ment association of transportation service Providers (public/private) and residents Introducing sunlight and solar heat utilization by combining open lots and relocation Strengthening the ability to implement plans through administrative decentralization Establishing transit/access in and around stations Supporting program planning by municipalities, and providing incentives National propagation of best practices developed under the "special zones" system Making the most of local talent Calculating and announcing emissions by municipality (already done in some municipalities) Modifying the system, reforming regulations Implementing the regional model project Fostering low-carbon plan practitioners rooted in the local community Supporting local liaison councils Reviewing and strengthening of local global warming action plans Strengthening cooperation with community development Strengthening ties with urban planning, assisting in forming consensus, incorporating low-carbon policy into objectives of every local development plan Early construction on extensions of existing routes/planned routes, introduction of BRT Situating public and private facilities where many people gather within a walkable distance Community development to create a community that is accessible to pedestrians and cyclists Improving the pedestrian/cycling environment Developing pedestrian/cycling spaces Enforcing restrictions on establishing businesses on arterial roads in suburbs, and providing incentives for locating in civic cores. Networking of pedestrian walkways and cycling roads, and drafting a facility plan Relocating public facilities to civic cores Establishing a public facility utilization plan National propagation of best practices (incl. cities that already have systems) (especially for local core cities) Supporting and promoting businesses and residential relocation Promoting cooperation between the municipality's environmental and urban planning sections, and fostering personnel Establishing "residents' participation" type plans that link administration and businesses (incl. financial support) ±0 10% reduction 30% to 40% reduction Cycling lanes 50 thou. km DID pop. density: 60 to 80 people/ha Population density in station influenced sphere: 80 people/ha DID pop. density: 40 to 60 people/ha Modal share of public transportation double that of today Extension of LRT/BRT: 1,500 km (Trip share base in a local city sphere) Objectives Passenger vehicle mileage (person km/year vs. 2005) Improving local global warming action plans (every municipality develops its own plan) Securing funds by income from the Carbon Tax, etc. Introducing ridership promotion measures incl. public transport eco-points, road toll systems incorporating model shift effect, residence funding Establishing a road space sharing plan Establishing a mobility management system Development of fringe parking Comprehensive pricing in view of environment, incl. EV, priority lanes, LRT and greening Reviewing the system by residents' participation; visualization for smaller unit than "district By regional characteristic Setting benchmarks Establishing an extension plan Program to promote measures FY 2011 Using the funds from the Carbon Tax, strengthening the aforementioned measures/programs Program to prepare measures 18

20 Local Development/ Development of Low-Carbon District by Utilizing Local Resources - Roadmap Roadmap Developing a low-carbon district that makes the most of local resources Financing installation of new heat supply main pipes Creating a natural capital/local resource demand map Expanding the area where energy is flexibly given/taken among buildings Mandatory introduction Strengthening incentives Drafting a low-carbon district plan Utilizing/regenerating natural capital Supporting financing of municipalities for regeneration project of natural capital Municipal utilization/regeneration plan Developing a method to asses urban climate change Clarifying future images in city planning and controlling construction Strengthening the ability to implement plans through administrative decentralization Supporting program planning by municipalities, and providing incentives Nationally propagating the best practices developed under the "special zones" system Making the most of local talent Strengthening cooperation with local development Promoting greening by reallocating urban spaces resulting from decrease in parking City planning based on climate change Improving local global warming action plans (every municipality develops its own plan) Max. introduction of renewable energy to a district (incl. sunlight, solar heat, ground heat, micro-hydroelectric power generation, biomass) Relocating incineration plants to utilize urban waste heat Effective use of urban waste heat Organizing systems to make the most of urban waste heat Supporting investment in incineration plants Relocation of incineration plants to utilize urban waste heat Examination through a model project Municipal support for drafting a supply plan by municipality Mandatory introduction of use of urban waste heat Setting reduction target by district Introducing incentives to promote development in the promotion district Promoting technology to utilize urban waste heat (incl. ground heat, sewer heat) Designation of a promotion district for urban waste heat use Max. utilization of urban waste heat Reduction rate of waste heat Reduction: 1 mil. t-CO2 Reduction rate of waste heat Reduction: 7 mil. t-CO2 Target Understating the effect of a model project for a low-carbon district development plan Promoting cooperation between the municipality's environmental and urban planning sections, and fostering personnel Utilization and regeneration of urban/regional natural capital 100% 50% Securing funds by income from the Carbon Tax, etc. Promoting energy resources in the district Strengthening ties with urban planning, assisting in forming consensus, incorporating low-carbon policy into objectives of every local development plan Regular review of maps/plans in response to the social situation and technology development Promoting the establishment of subordinate plans suited to the features of the region, i.e., urban area, district/area, agricultural and mountain village (Cooperation w. agricultural and mountain villages incl. carbon offset, green electricity ) (incl. a space reorganization plan in a shrinking district) Visualization of the advantages of of being a compact city Introducing sunlight and solar thermal utilization by combining open lots and consolidation Rate of municipalities that have drafted a natural capital/local resource map (all municipalities) Area where measures are taken based on the low-carbon district plan 20 thou. ha 200 thou. ha 40 thou. ha Program to promote measures FY 2011 Using the funds from the Carbon Tax, strengthening the aforementioned measures/programs Program to prepare measures Introducing the heat supply system of best effort type 19

21 Low-Carbon Local Development, and Physical Distribution and Regional Passenger Transport - Roadmap Roadmap Modal splits of vehicles for passenger and freight transport Establishing principal policies and strategies Studying methods for long-term improvement of the main distribution network Low-carbon inter-regional passenger transportation Supporting development of carbon offset tourism/overnight business trips Visualizing CO2 emissions for each mode of transportation Visualizing CO2 emissions and providing incentives Awarding system for shipping/transportation businesses Supporting SCM business development in which small/mid-sized businesses may participate Establishing SCM information standards Dissemination of SCM to integrate distribution networks and consolidate freight Strengthening transportation of the main distribution network Reducing fixed property tax for rail carriages and ships; providing subsidies for replacement of rail carriages/ships Establishing a basic policy for low carbon in regional planning Strengthening support for modal shift under the Act for Comprehensive Efficiency Improvement of Physical Distribution Changing consumer behavior through use of carbon footprint Improving efficiency of physical distribution by SCM *1 Improving convenience of railroads (high-speed rail, increased transport capacity, punctuality, seamless transit w. other modes, redevelopment of station vicinities, wireless Internet access in every passenger carriage) Development of inter-modal facilities/modal network as public facilities Reorganization of main physical distribution network, incl. development of new routes Visualizing CO2 emission and providing incentives Improving convenience of railroads Improving efficiency of transportation systems (air, ship, rail, road) Continuous implementation and scope-expansion of "top-runner" system Target Mandatory calculation and announcement of CO2 emissions of business travel Visualizing CO2 emissions of each mode of transportation *1 SCM (supply chain management): a strategic business management method to achieve optimization of entire business processes by sharing/managing information on product supply among related businesses/sections of a company Setting transportation fees that reflect CO2 emissions Introducing a public transportation eco-points system Continuous implementation and scope-expansion of "top-runner" system Improving efficiency of physical distribution within a city Supporting the promotion of urban traffic measures incl. those for loading/unloading facilities Reducing transport distance by reviewing locations of physical distribution facilities and shrinking urbanized areas Improving efficiency of transportation systems (air, ship, rail, road) about 60% 50-60% 40-50% Developing a system whereby a shipper can chose a shipping method with lower CO2 emissions Amending the Energy-Saving Act to increase obligations and to expand its scope Energy saving, low-carbon lifestyle and work style Visualizing CO2 emissions and promoting changes in user traffic behavior Increasing incentives for selecting low-carbon transportation modes through introduction of the carbon tax Visualizing CO2 emissions for each mode of transportation Low-carbon physical distribution Introducing the qualification of professional advisor, providing continuous environmental education in regions/at businesses Program to promote measures Program to prepare measures Strengthening aforementioned measures/programs by making the most of income from the Carbon Tax (enforcement: FY 2011), and domestic CO2 emissions trading by cap and-trade) 20

22 Example of a Roadmap of Local Core Cities (Realizing Compact Cities Based on Public Transportation Systems (1) Roadmap Promoting living in station influenced spheres of new stations Reviewing zoning of urbanization promotion area Increasing population density in urbanized area Utilizing low-density regions and shrinking urbanization promotion areas Visualizing the advantages of being a compact city Providing incentives for large-scale consolidation of vacant lots Situating public and private facilities where many people gather within a walkable distance Community development to create a community that is accessible to pedestrians and cyclists Improving the pedestrian/cycling environment Improving pedestrian/cycling spaces at and around existing stations and in urban areas Enforcing restrictions on establishing businesses on arterial roads in suburbs, and providing incentives for locating in civic cores. Networking of pedestrian walkways and cycling roads, and drafting a facility plan Relocating large public facilities to cores Planning relocation of large public facilities ±0 10% reduction 30% to 40% reduction Population density in the station influenced sphere: 80 people/ha Objectives Passenger vehicle mileage (person- km/year vs. 2005) Program to promote measures FY 2011 Using the funds from the Carbon Tax, strengthening the aforementioned measures/programs Program to develop measures Establishing comprehensive regional low-carbon implementation plan Establishing city/regional transportation plan Specifying cores District global warming measures Establishing implementation plan Visualization of the advantages of being a compact city Reviewing designation of urbanization promotion areas Reviewing of implementation plan for the district global warming measures Traffic restriction implementation plan for CBD Specifying station influence sphere Specifying population density/land-use objectives Securing premises for occupation Specifying structure of natural capital Natural capital utilization plan Promoting the location of businesses and residences to the existing CBD Policy of the national government Establishing a long-term reduction plan and incorporating it into the master plan Changing land use zoning at the core DID pop. density: 60 to 80 people/ha DID pop. density: 40 to 60 people/ha In spheres influenced by new stations, developing pedestrian/cycling spaces In CBD developing pedestrian/cycling spaces Compiling/Revising manuals for establishing district implementation plan Improving low-carbon measures in the city planning system Combining of small vacant lots/space within an area/district Financial assistance to provide incentives Visualizing the effects of establishing a model district Developing low-carbon land use/transportation model, and supporting the use of the model 21

23 Local Development 22

24 Example of a Roadmap (Realizing Compact Cities Based on Public Transportation Systems (2) Roadmap Improving integration w. existing public transportation systems Developing LRT Improving transit and access at suburban stations Public cost-bearing of operation expenses for increasing services, reducing fares Increasing ridership by improving the transit system at suburban stations, improving P&R/C&R facilities, introducing a transit discount system Active use of LRT, BRT, etc. Supporting financing for replacement by high-efficiency rail carriages Establishing transit/access at and around stations Operation ±0 10% reduction 30% to 40% reduction Objectives Passenger vehicle mileage (person- km/year vs. 2005) Establishing development/ management plan Program to promote measures FY 2011 Using the funds from the Carbon Tax, strengthening the aforementioned measures/programs Program to develop measures Developing BRT Constructing LRT Operation Establishing development/ management plan Constructing BRT Optimizing vehicle use Constructing public transportation systems from the users' perspective Mobility management for existing pubic transportation system Expanding CBD subject to traffic restrictions Supporting activities of community development associations by public transportation operators, businesses and residents Promoting public transportation use by residents' funding, eco-points, local currency, etc. Establishing a road space sharing plan Financing LRT/BRT construction Extension of LRT/BRT: Development length 20 km Financing LRT/BRT operation Policy of the national government Establishing of new stations on existing railroads Establishing vicinity development plan for a new station Construction of a new station Providing subsidy for operation of existing railroad Supporting financing for installation of new stations Restricting vehicle traffic flow into the CBD Reviewing locations of parking in urban centers Encouraging use of public transportation for businesses Improving systems for promotion of use by residents Introducing restrictions on vehicle traffic to designated areas in CBD In CBD, developing and increasing pedestrian/cycling spaces Providing incentives for driving license cancellation, car sharing and freight receiver actions Expanding vehicle types (such as freight vehicles) subject to restriction of driving into CBD Implementing measures for securing traffic flow of freight vehicles by developing shared-use loading/unloading spaces 23

25 Example of a Roadmap of Local Core Cities (Developing Low-Carbon Districts using Local Resources (1) Roadmap Creating a natural asset/local resource demand map Target Promoting establishment of subordinate programs in response to the features of each municipality, such as urban area, area/district and agricultural and mountain region. Share of municipalities that have drafted a natural asset/local resource map (all municipalities) Area where measures are taken based on the low-carbon area/district plan Program to promote measures FY 2011 Using the funds from the Carbon Tax, strengthening the aforementioned measures/programs Program to develop measures Policy of the national government Establishing a regional comprehensive low-carbon implementation plan Specifying local cores District w. global warming measures Establishing implementation plan Specifying structure of natural capital Natural capital utilization plan In CBD, promoting use of waste energy (i.e., heat of river water) Organizing systems to make the most of urban waste heat Relocation of incineration plants etc. to utilize urban waste heat Setting reduction target by area/district Introducing incentives to promote development in the promotion area Max. use of urban waste heat (especially in CBD) Expanding the area where energy is flexibly given/taken among buildings Expanding measures targeting wide areas Regular review of maps/plans in response to the social situation and technological development Expanding area of mandatory introduction Designating subject area for measures and establishing CO2 reduction plan Establishing a local resources utilization plan Establishing a long-term reduction plan and incorporating in into the master plan Reviewing designation of urbanization promotion areas Reviewing of implementation plan for the district global warming measures Improving low-carbon measures in the city planning system Designating subject area for measures and Mandatory introduction Financing installation of heat supply pipes Examination of system modification through a model project Supporting combining energy demand Drafting business plan Supporting use of waste energy by incentive system Identifying natural/historical capital other than historic sites/parks Clarifying carbon-reduction effects Developing a method to asses urban climate change Cooperation w. agricultural and mountain regions through carbon offsets, green power sources Compiling/Revising manuals for establishing district implementation plan Changing land-use zoning in the subject area Constructing facilities using river water heat In CBD drafting a low-carbon area/district plan 24

26 Example of a Roadmap of Local Core Cities (Developing a Low-Carbon District using Local Resources (2) Roadmap Utilization/regeneration of natural capital Supporting financing of municipalities for regeneration projects of natural capital Promoting use of the district's energy resources (especially in suburban agriculture/forestry-related areas and service withdrawal areas) Promoting greening by reallocating urban spaces resulting from decrease in parking Target Utilization and regeneration of urban/regional natural capital Share of municipalities that have drafted a natural asset/local resource map (all municipalities) Area where measures are taken based on the low-carbon district plan Program to promote measures FY 2011 Using the funds from the Carbon Tax, strengthening the aforementioned measures/programs Program to develop measures Policy of the national government Developing a low-carbon area/district that makes the most of local resources (residential area) Promoting use of the district's energy resources (especially in residential areas, at station-influenced spheres of new stations) Making service withdrawal areas into low-carbon ones Developing a low-carbon area/district that makes the most of local resources (a station influenced sphere of new stations) Developing a low-carbon area/district that makes the most of local resources (suburban agriculture/forestry-related areas) Introduction of renewable energy to a region/district (incl. sunlight, solar heat, ground heat, micro-hydroelectric power generation, biomass) Introduction of renewable energy to a region/district (incl. sunlight, solar heat, ground heat, micro-hydroelectric power generation, biomass) Drafting a low-carbon Area/district plan using sewer heat Constructing sewer heat utiliz -ation facilities and developing a low-carbon area/district Additional financial support for model projects Reviewing zoning of urbanization promotion area Visualizing the advantages of being a compact city Providing incentives for large-scale consolidation of vacant lots Implementing low-carbon projects incl. installation of Photovoltaic power generation system in large vacant lots Strengthening green conservation area system Introducing renewable energy to a region/district (incl. sunlight, solar heat, ground heat, micro-hydroelectric power generation, biomass) and developing infrastructure for EVs and car sharing Developing a low-carbon area/district Setting CO2 reduction targets and greening targets by area/district Setting reduction targets by area/district Additional financial support for model projects Drafting a low-carbon area/ district plan using sewer heat (suburban agriculture/forestry- related areas) Developing a low-carbon area/district (Minus carbon) Establishing low-carbon concept at and around new stations Drafting a low-carbon area/ district plan using sewer heat (station-influenced spheres of new stations) Promoting greening by region/district Promoting energy saving by region/district 25

27 Points to Keep in Mind in Implementing Measures and Policies toward the Envisioned Future 1. Regional characteristics and innovations A package of measures based on the classification of each region is an example of a combination of measures, and in view of regional characteristics, it is important to identify the measures that are expected to be the most effective. It is necessary to present ambitious targets and to establish incentives and systems that multiply the effects of emissions reductions. 2. Establishment of systems and areas of cooperation from the viewpoint of multiple benefits, utilizing the characteristics of private businesses, citizens, etc. In forming a framework for an urban city or a regional community, the mere use of a present system with a government taking responsibility would limit areas where measures and policies can be enforced. Thus, it is necessary to properly establish systems and areas of cooperation from the viewpoint of multiple benefits to promote efforts on the part of private businesses and citizens. 3. Studying policies for promoting regional measures, combinations of measures for each item, or both of the above It is necessary to study policies promoting regional measures (establishment of car priority lanes designed for the environment, etc.) that enhance the effects of measures for each item, combinations of measures for each item (measures taken for houses and buildings using local resources, etc.) that multiply the effects of regional measures, or both of the above. 4. Need for policies focusing on the potential of farming, fishing and mountain villages, regions with low-population density, etc. when measures are introduced It is necessary to study the policies best suited for the realization of the envisioned future for the local development sector after taking into account the characteristics of various systems for renewable energy supply and the trade of environmental value such as that of greening efforts, etc. To enforce measures and policies toward the envisioned future, a system to support local efforts should be established by taking the following points into account. Local Development WG 26

28 Farming, Fishing and Mountain Village Sector: Outline of Roadmap (1) Benchmarks Roadmap Changes in social system Establishing, implementing and evaluating local zero-carbon plans that meet local features Expanding dissemination of carbon offsets and low-carbon-footprint products Promoting use of domestic materials for construction Promoting consumption of local and seasonal products Reducing CO2 emissions thoroughly Promoting energy savings in agriculture and forestry Promoting energy savings in agriculture and forestry Promoting mitigation measures Studying and establishing methods for evaluating GHG emission/recapture for entire regions Expanding dissemination of conventional forest carbon offsets Studying/establishing methods for assessing carbon footprints of agriculture, forestry and fisheries products Establishing policy for using lumber and standardization Reviewing systems based on the experience of model district National propagation of establishment, implementation and evaluation of regional planning Studying /establishing methods for multi-criteria regional evaluation Establishment, implementation and evaluation of regional- planning (intensive investment in a model district) Drafting guidelines for regional planning Expanding offset credits to farmland and HWP Implementing a system for evaluation/support of low-carbon footprint products (consumption of local/seasonal products) Implementing multi-criteria evaluation/support systems Promoting use of domestic lumber for houses and mid-size buildings Fostering distribution coordinators Regional wide promotion Building distribution system Providing opportunities for matching (information sharing) between producers and consumers Establishing/standardizing lifecycle carbon emission reduction for lumber (incl. indirect emission reduction effects) Further promoting use at public facilities (for school lunches, etc.) Establishing and announcing regional zero-carbon plans for every region Reducing fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions by 20 – 30% or avg. Every region achieves its regional zero-carbon plan Announcing multi-criteria regional evaluation results for each region Promoting introduction of heat pump and multi-layered covers to heated greenhouses Improving fuel efficiency of forestry machinery and energy saving of woodmills (incl. boilers) Fuel-efficient agricultural machinery and promoting shared use of agricultural machinery Converting fishing lights to LED and promoting energy-saving ship operation methods Mountain forestry village Rural farming village / rural stock breeding village Promoting reduction of nitrogen, conversion to forced fermentation and extending mid-summer drainage of rice paddies Rural farming village / rural stock breeding village Leading the use of woods for public buildings (realize low cost) Reducing fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions by 50 – 60% on avg. Studying /establishing multi-criteria evaluation methods 27

29 Farming, Fishing and Mountain Village Sector: Outline of Roadmap (2) Roadmap Active use of biomass resources Composting and making feed from waste biomass, and converting waste biomass into renewable energy Promoting use of renewable energy Effective use of land as a heat source and of businesses Utilization of seaweed as a new energy source or material Promoting active use of CO2 sinks Utilization of forests, wood products and farmland Promoting use of waste biomass Studying best collection/reuse system for the region Developing and installing composting/feed production/energy conversion facilities at proper sites Developing regional shared composting system using compost production center Installing micro-hydroelectric power generators at canals R&D and developing/establishing assessment methods (incl. study on feasible CO2 sinks) Using biomass energy sources/materials Promoting introduction of biomass boilers to lumber drying plants and heated greenhouses National propagation of regional energy businesses Promoting plowing of compost in farmland/using soil conditioners incl. charcoal Promoting domestic lumber/use of cascade Conducting proper forest management Common features Rural stock breeding village Rural farming village Common features Mountain forestry village Rural farming village / rural stock breeding village Common features Gathering data to assess potential value of land Mountain forestry village/rural farming village Reviewing systems based on the experience of model project Agriculture and mountain villages Biomass resource rich municipalities are categorized into agricultural regions on flat land, agricultural regions in mountains, and agricultural regions that have both of flat land and mountain under agricultural statistics. Categorization Regions with high potential of wood biomass, agricultural biomass or livestock biomass are named "mountain forestry villages", "rural agriculture villages" and "rural farming villages," respectively. When a municipality has substantial amounts of different types of biomass resources, then programs of different types of biomass resources, such as cooperation between farming and livestock breeding, should be coordinated. Policy to promote programs for reducing GHG emissions Preparatory policies for introducing the policies in the left-most column Fostering business entities for hydropower generation Implementing model project (incl. utilizing model regions) Fostering business entities for local energy production Studying business models for use of renewable energy that make the most of regional features (incl. installing solar panels on unused land) 28

30 while actively promoting emissions reduction measures such as energy saving, it is also necessary to study measures contributing to regional revitalizationIn general, farming, fishing and mountain villages have the clean image of being located amidst natural verdure. However, certain data suggest that their emissions per capita exceed those of urban areas, and it is believed that there may be room for additional emissions reductions. Thus, while actively promoting emissions reduction measures such as energy saving, it is also necessary to study measures contributing to regional revitalization. zoning strategy needs to be studied in terms of and feasibilityA zoning strategy that assigns to each plot of land and area a role (production of agricultural products, carbon absorption, supply of renewable energy, etc.) needs to be studied in terms of and feasibility. the preparation of basic dataWhile promoting the preparation of basic data, continuous study needs to be conducted on the emission mechanism and the identification of emissions reduction potential, etc. in farming, fishing and mountain villages. the establishment of a system (legal system) for the smooth, effective use of land is required the optimal utilization of renewable energy, etc. needs to be studied in view of the environmental conditions of the landAs a regional development measure, the establishment of a system (legal system) for the smooth, effective use of land is required, including such a system for the utilization of renewable energy in farming, fishing and mountain villages. Since unused land also includes locations with relatively low utility value, the optimal utilization of renewable energy, etc. needs to be studied in view of the environmental conditions of the land. study needs to be conducted on the development of a system for maximizing incentives for credit purchasers, the development and diffusion of methods for controlling initial investment amounts and the establishment of a system for human resource development matchingIn using carbon offset credits, etc., study needs to be conducted on the development of a system for maximizing incentives for credit purchasers, the development and diffusion of methods for controlling initial investment amounts and the establishment of a system for human resource development matching. the cost for biomass collection and transportation needs to be considered.In setting a purchase price for biomass power, etc., the cost for biomass collection and transportation needs to be considered. Regional characteristics should be fully taken into account in implementing measures.The uniform promotion of measures in urban areas and farming, fishing and mountain villages is not necessarily appropriate. Regional characteristics should be fully taken into account in implementing measures. Points to Keep in Mind in Implementing Measures and Policies toward the Envisioned Future Farming, Fishing and Mountain Village Sub-WG 29

31 Energy Supply 30

32 Transition to commercial insurance system Energy Supply Roadmap (Renewable Energy) 1/ Supporting establishment of infrastructure to disseminate renewable energy use Developing renewable energy technology Roadmap Economic measures incl. feed- in tariff system Establishing a stable biofuel supply system 2005 Mandatory introduction of renewable energy Establishing design methods for houses/buildings and fostering installation technicians Easy installation to existing houses/buildings through standardization and unification of attachments Reducing financial risk/burden of renewable energy business Developing thermal quantification method and constructing a system in which consumers can chose optimal integration of backup heat source Issuing renewable energy certificates for heat from renewable energy Heat Compiling information on potential and suitable/non-suitable (zoning) sites Establishing an action plan for dissemination of renewable energy and reviewing the plan according to its progress Compiling statistics on renewable energy Financial support incl. tax incentives for biofuel Fuel Renewable energy capacity/share Objectives Policy to promote programs to reduce GHG emissionsPreparatory policies for introducing the policies in the left-most column FY 2011 Using the funds from the Carbon Tax, strengthening the aforementioned measures/programs Developing technology that meets the natural environment and local social/natural environment Developing innovative technology/waste energy, conducting field experiments, accelerating practical application Power generation by off-shore wind, wave, geothermal, hot spring heat, etc. Technology for inclined geothermal wells, eco-conscious facility design, bird-strike prevention technology for wind turbines, second-generation biofuel technology and designs for these that are accepted by local community Renewable energy as a share of the primary energy supply: 5 Use of renewable energy: mil. kL Renewable energy as a share of the primary energy supply > 10 Increasing amount of renewable energy to between 140 and 160 mil. kL Mandatory introduction of solar thermal/photovoltaic power generation for large-scale facilities Mandatory introduction (Green obligation) Common for above Program design Power (*IRR 8% for commercial power generation) feed-in tariff system to induce commercial investment * Study for appropriate development sites, assistance to FS, etc. Debt guarantee by public institute: interest support Reducing initial cost by incentive leasing, etc. Studying financing systems through local financial institutesEstablishing financing methods that meet local needs Studying evaluation methods of project financingEstablishing assessment systems that incorporate local features Design and test operation of availability insurance system Information provision by developing a "one-stop-service" Developing database of related information 31

33 Energy Supply Roadmap (Renewable Energy) 2/ Roadmap Improving nation's awareness by educational activities Improving social acceptance and awareness Information disclosure system on impact on local environment Reviewing relevant acts and regulations Disclosing monitoring data of geothermal use, zoning information Promoting voluntary introduction and understanding of renewable energy use Program design Introducing accreditation/registration system for skilled installers, and maintenance obligations Supporting expanding the supply channels of renewable energy equipment for houses/buildings Constructing a social system where renewable energy is pervasive Providing advice during house/building construction Fostering renewable energy advisers and developing tools Providing information on optimal combinations of devices for renewable energy and energy-saving Method to promote voluntary introduction Method to promote understanding of renewable energy use Policy to promote programs to reduce GHG emissionsPreparatory policies for introducing the policies in the left-most column FY 2011 FY 2011 Using the funds from the Carbon Tax, strengthening the aforementioned measures/programs Policy to change the social system to meet the level of dissemination of renewable energy Introducing renewable energy that meets the local features Prefectures and specially designated large cities Municipalities Water rights, etc. Requirements of related acts/regulations and their prospect for enforcement; Early standardization of new technology for enforcement; Early standardization of new technology Electric Utility Law, etc. and early standardization of high concentration biofuel, etc. Model project by comprehensive special district Micro- / mid-size hydropower, geothermal and biomass, biofuel, etc. Coordination among stakeholders Promoting dissemination of renewable energy by introducing the Carbon Tax Promoting dissemination of renewable energy by introducing the domestic emissions trading system that adopts the cap-and-trade method. Leading introduction of renewable energy, implementing original support systems and organizing systems in local community Utilizing renewable energy for community development and regional revitalization Promoting installation to public facilities by public invitation of installation/operation of photovoltaic power generation systems Test introduction of new business model Hybrid model of co-financing by large business, local business and residents, etc. Fostering local professionals of renewable energy introduction Fostering coaches Establishing an association for introducing renewable energy that makes the most of local talent, resources and residents' fund toward regional revitalization 32

34 Making the most of existing infrastructure toward introduction of large capacity for renewable energy Developing a system for priority access to renewable-energy-derived electricity Energy Supply Roadmap (Energy Supply Infrastructure) Studying the next- generation grid network Installation and development of Smart Grids Measures for existing power grids Developing systems for large-scale renewable energy use Raisinghigh voltagedistribution Infrastructure for biofuel supply Infrastructure for hydrogen supply Studying hydrogen supply concept that takes into account technology development level Realizing zero-carbon power sources Rate of introduction of smart meters, etc.:>80% Diffusion rate of Japanese version of smart grid: 100 Infrastructure for gas supply Developing natural gas pipelines, biogas supply via. city gas infrastructure, support utilization of smart energy networks in which heat and electricity are effectively used, obligation of studying introduction, mandatory introduction Financially supporting production of biofuel Providing financial assistance to make existing fuel distribution infrastructure compatible with high-concentration biofuel System design that meets diversification of stable power supplier Advancement of business model of power company (Decoupling of sales/profit of power company and electricity sales) Objectives Energy Supply Infrastructure Promoting infrastructure development for next-generation energy supply Roadmap Policy to promote programs for reducing GHG emissions FY 2011 Using the funds from the Carbon Tax, strengthening the aforementioned measures/programs Providing incentives to power companies for their support of users' energy saving Providing incentives for next-generation infrastructure development Next-generation infrastructure development w. funds from the Carbon Tax (connectors) Other than power system Common Developing next-generation energy supply infrastructure by introducing the domestic emissions trading system that adopts the cap-and-trade method. Analysis of empty capacity of transmission/distribution lines Planned development of access transmission lines Accumulating weather data, trial estimation of power output Utilization of all system power supply Expanding transmission systems Facility/demand-supply planning to reflect demand control effect Full-scale operation of power generation output/demand-supply control Starting management Establishing fee system to control demand Demand control: dynamic pricing Energy carrier and conversion systems for surplus electricity Introduction of smart meters and energy management devices Demand control Dissemination of demand-side technology for energy storage and activation Buttery system, V2G Vehicle to Grid) utilization of power supply/demand between vehicle and grid system Introducing buttery system Making most of buttery charge control of plug-in hybrid EV Development of functions for automatic operation stop/preventing stand-alone operation Dissemination of renewable energy power generation system w. output control Photovoltaic power generation that meet power demand Output control of wind power generation Advancement of output control of photovoltaic power generation and wind power generation Automatic control by energy management system System power supply Establishing and developing Smart Grids Overseas development of Japanese Smart Grids Reviewing operation of existing infrastructure (incl. pump-up storage power generation and inter-regional supply Weather information/capacity of renewable-energy-derived electricity Establishing multi-location measurement of output Implementing local measures (incl. installations of distribution transformers and voltage controllers) Preparatory policies for introducing the policies in the left-most column 33

35 Energy Supply Roadmap (Fossil Fuel and Nuclear Energy) Disseminating low-carbon technology for thermal power stations Roadmap Realizing low-carbon use of fossil energy and increasing nuclear power supply while strictly maintaining safety Introducing high-efficiency power generation technology to thermal power stations Introducing CCS Low-carbon construction and operation of power plants/equipment Power source plan that takes into account of prices of coal, oil and natural gas Studying capacity of thermal power stations and reorganization of power supply system Reorganizing the power supply system Increasing nuclear power supply while strictly maintaining safety improving the operating rate of nuclear power plants, responding to aging of existing plants, reviewing operation systems Reviewing operation systems Introducing CCS-related acts and regulations and technology, conducting large-scale field tests, offering incentives for introduction Studying CCS-compatible plants (where CCS can be installed later) Introducing carbon recapture and sequestration Recapturing and sequestering 90.0 to thou. t-C/year (3,300 to183 mil. t-CO2/year) Overseas development of high-efficiency thermal power generation technology Objectives Fossil fuel and nuclear energy Promoting low-carbon systems by introducing the domestic emissions trading system that adopts the cap-and-trade method. Policy to promote programs for reducing GHG Policy to promote programs for reducing GHG emissionsPreparatory policies for introducing the policies in the left-most column FY 2011 Using the funds from the Carbon Tax, strengthening the aforementioned measures/programs Promoting low-carbon systems taking the opportunity of introduction of the Carbon Tax 34

36 Points to Keep in Mind for Realization of the Roadmap Renewable energy needs to be introduced at an unprecedented speed, and the amount to be introduced as assumed in this report cannot be achieved by a fixed-price electricity purchase system alone. The fixed-price purchase system is an important policy for achieving the mid-term targets, and it is necessary to consider in advance the shift to other measures in the event that a certain degree of cost reduction in those is achieved. The cost for establishing a power system that supports the mass introduction of renewable power needs to be studied while paying attention to competition with other types of energy. Study needs to continue on mandating the introduction of renewable energy in terms of who will be subject to mandatory introduction, when is should be mandated, and other details. In view of achieving a renewable energy target of 10% of primary energy supply by the year 2020, policy support is also required for the diffusion and expansion of heat sources and fuels other than renewable energy. In the future, many renewable energy projects suited to regional characteristics should bear fruit. It is desirable for the projects to be voluntarily initiated in regional areas, and to this end, areas to which the governmental should provide support in the immediate future such as the fostering of human resources in various sectors need to be steadily promoted. In this WG, all study is conducted from the viewpoint of the supply side. However in principle, the overall energy demand should be surveyed. While maximizing demand control by promoting energy saving on the demand side in accordance with energy supply capacity, energy that is truly necessary should be made low-carbon. Aiming at the realization of low-carbon energy supply, discussion has revolved around highly prioritized renewable energy. However, the realization of low-carbon utilization of fossil fuels including the use of CCS and the expansion of nuclear energy use are important policies as well, and appropriate policy measures should be enforced after sufficient consideration. The method for stable energy supply needs to be studied in view of the risk involved in cases such as the diffusion of renewable energy making little progress, the slow improvement of the operation rate of nuclear power plants, or the very rare construction of new nuclear power plants. Since fossil fuel supply can be secured or increased/decreased through storage or purchase from the market, study also needs to be conducted from the viewpoint that maintaining fossil-fuel related equipment in a balanced manner is possible especially for power generation. Necessary support measures should be taken for low-carbon energy technologies that are yet to be put into practical use (floating wind power, ocean energy, hot dry rock power generation, and clean coal technology which is currently at the stage of R&D, etc.) so that they can contribute to the realization of low-carbon society in the long run domestically and internationally. 35


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