Presentation on theme: "1 TECHNOLOGY. 2 Productivity A university President has observed that education is one of the few areas that has not improved productivity in decades."— Presentation transcript:
2 Productivity A university President has observed that education is one of the few areas that has not improved productivity in decades. He indicated that since Harvard, one of the oldest and most prestigious universities in America was established, the teaching model has been one instructor teaching 20 students for a fixed period.
3 The Beginning of Change With the advent of distance learning and the development of powerful new teaching and learning technologies, rapid technological changes are now taking place in continuing education operations. There are still significant points of resistance such as tradition, accrediting, faculty members and student perceptions of appropriate methods of learning.
4 Failure to Automate Effectively One of the most significant factors that prevents effective use of the new technologies is the tendency to merely automate old systems, without considering how new systems can maximize learning by using totally new methods.
5 Changing Administrative Systems Changes in program delivery systems are also creating significant changes in administrative systems including: 1. on-line capabilities 2. marketing 3. registration 4. payment methods
6 Administrative Technology Many technologies contribute to the efficiency of CE activities. These include: 1. automated management systems 2. voice mail 3. facsimile (FAX) 4. wireless telephones Creative people find ways to use all of these tools in the operation of the CE program. For example, specifically selected classes can be marketed by FAX.
7 Lifelong Learning Systems Integrated software systems are making significant contributions to CE operations. These systems are often referred to as lifelong learning systems. Some of the essential elements of the packages include: * A registration module that handles all registration options such as on-line, mail, and telephone * A marketing module * A financial analysis module
8 Lifelong Learning Systems Lifelong Learning (continued) * A financial module that includes accounting, financial analysis reports, tracking and evaluation * A mail module of mail lists and mail processes * A participant module with participant information, including financial history and participation by course * A course module providing data for marketing staff, registration staff, and/or the customer
9 Lifelong Learning Systems Lifelong Learning (continued) * An instructor module including specific information such as personal, financial, evaluation, and course history * A location and facilities module * Other modules designed for a specific applications Many of these modules have previously been used, but the new systems now have the capacity to move data from one module to another, creating one seamless management system.
10 Technology Impacts the Organizational Structure Adoption of such a system now only leads to changes in the way we typically do things but eventually, will lead to changes in the organization structure. For example, as more activities become technology based, more staff will be needed to provide technical support. These positions often become professional positions. Another side effect is an increased need for additional technical training for the entire staff.
11 Program Delivery Technologies The rapid changes in program delivery technologies are in the process of restructuring higher education as a whole, including continuing education. These technologies have changed what were once local captive markets to open markets for programmers worldwide. They have created a buyers market for many types of programs. Institutional service areas have expanded from a small radius to virtually the entire world. A redefinition of the target markets and their needs can lead to redefining the scope and mission of the organization.
12 Changing Investment Strategies Dynamic CE programs are frantically trying to determine the required investment in hardware and programming software to effectively compete in the future. For example, a typical electronic classroom may cost over $100,000. This contrasts significantly with a room with desks, a blackboard and chalk. Many CE managers have seen large, early investments dissipate as new technology arrived on the scene making earlier investments obsolete.
13 Changing Competition Another serious side effect of the new technologies is the entry of new players in the traditional continuing education arena. The new technologies have opened the door for profit oriented organizations from the communication, entertainment, and business fields to compete with universities for continuing education customers. Individuals with expertise in program development for these new presentation systems and communication channels can now compete with universities.
14 Improved Learning These new delivery systems allow us to more effectively serve existing markets and reach new markets. They also present opportunities for the improvement of instruction by incorporating advanced presentation systems. Kozma and Johnston described eight ways in which instructional technology can support and improve learning. These included: 1. Enabling active engagement in the construction of knowledge 2. Making real world situations available 3. Providing representations in multiple modalities (e.g. 3-D, auditory, graphic, and text)
15 Improved Learning Improved Learning (continued) 4. Drilling basic concepts for mastery 5. Facilitating collaborative activity among students. 6. Seeing interconnections among concepts through hypertext 7. Learning to use the tools of scholarship 8. Simulating laboratory work
16 Web-Based Instruction This mode of instruction will eventually fulfill the promise of offering training any place and any time. In its most complex form, it offers almost all of the forms of effective presentation such as video, text, and voice in real time and virtual time. It also has the ability to portray dynamic, interactive models.
17 The Necessity of Team Development Programmers for this mode of instruction require all of the traditional program planning skills and added skills in operating systems such as e-mail, Web browsers, Web search engines, Web site development and editing, and presentation systems. Few current programmers possess all of these skills; therefore, the individual programmer is being replaced with a team of specialists.
18 Cost Effectiveness The new management skill that is required is the ability to build and coordinate the efforts of these teams. Another factor is that teams are expensive. Therefore, the cost of new program development is astronomical. One estimate is one month of development time per hour of instruction. It can only be justified if it is assumed that large numbers of participants can be attracted to the program within a reasonable time, or that the program content will be desirable over a long time period.
19 Marketing After the program has been developed, the next hurdle is to market it to a very large regional or global market. Few universities have an image that is recognized globally and can attract the large numbers of participants needed to cover the investment in the program. This has led to consortium activities like the Western Governors University and the Southern Regional Education Boards Electronic Common Market in an attempt to be large enough to reach an awareness threshold. It has also created a market for program wholesale operations to franchise courses to universities for sale in their local service area.
20 Consolidation of Providers The large investments required and necessary global marketing may eventually result in a few large operations being the sole providers of this type of programming. Individual CE operations may be reduced to purchasing wholesale and marketing these programs and traditional program development of custom programs to limited audiences. Another related role for university CE operations may be the sorting and evaluation of the mass of new programs available and providing consultation and distribution of the best to a local or regional market.
21 Student Support The Web necessitates new systems of student support and administrative services. In some ways, these services may even be more accessible than on- campus services. Some institutions have programmed outstanding virtual campuses with every service well defined and an alternative personal contact via a toll free number.
22 Interactive Video Instruction The technology is based upon compressed video, either two way or one-way, with an audio return from the students. It requires a significant up-front investment and generates high operating costs. Program development costs are relatively low because instructors can teach in much the same way they have taught in the past. This delivery system has both local and global capabilities. Local and area programming can be relatively economical, especially if total class size can be increased significantly.
23 Re-Inventing Universities This methodology may eventually reshape the nature of universities. In most states, public universities are now tied together through landlines. This makes it possible for instructors to teach to multiple campuses and multiple classrooms. If this practice continues, there could eventually be only one interconnected institution in each state. The independent campuses would become learning centers.
24 Economies of Scale At the global level, this mode of instruction can be relatively economical for short courses and seminars that attract relatively large audiences. Similar to Web-based instruction, effective global marketing becomes a problem. This has led to partnerships between institutions that provide a broad marketing network that can successfully reach a large number of local markets.
25 Presentation Systems The impact of new and powerful presentation systems are not limited to courses by distance. When used effectively, they are having a major impact upon individual instruction. CE programmers should encourage and support their use in CE classes. However, this will require additional investment in equipment and possible modification of facilities.
26 Components of the New Investments The investment includes the acquisition of video projection systems, computers, screens, and support staff training. With the emphasis on visual presentations, facilities may need adjustments in lighting and removal of sight line barriers. One of the early issues to be resolved is whether the equipment will be portable so it can be moved between classrooms, or stationary and installed in each classroom.
27 Principles of Good Practice The Southern Regional Education Board, through their Electronic Common Market (ECM) has developed the following, Principles of Good Practice: Basic Assumptions 1. The program or course offered electronically is provided by or through an institution that is accredited by a nationally-recognized accrediting body and authorized to operate in the state where the program or course originates.
28 Principles of Good Practice Basic Assumptions (continued) 2. The institutions programs holding specialized accreditation meet the same requirements when offered electronically. 3. The institution may be a single institution or a consortium of institution. 4. These principles are generally applicable to degree or certificate programs and to courses offered for academic credit.
29 Principles of Good Practice Basic Assumptions (continued) 5. It is the institutions responsibility to review educational programs and courses it provides electronically and certify continued compliance with these principles. 6. Participation in the Electronic Common Market will be coordinated by the appropriate state agency or organizations in the state where it is offered. 7. Institutions offering programs or for-credit courses are responsible for satisfying all in-state approval and accreditation requirements before students are enrolled.
30 Principles of Good Practice Basic Assumptions (continued) 8. Participating states agree to accept, in addition to other state regulations or policies, certification of compliance with the Principles of Good Practice by the offering institution and the state where the offering institution is located. 9. Priority shall be given in enrolling students for ECM courses and programs who are otherwise qualified residents of the SREB region.
31 Curriculum and Instruction Each program or course of study results in learning outcomes appropriate to the rigor and breadth of the degree or certificate awarded. * A degree or certificate program offered electronically is coherent and complete. * The course provides for appropriate interaction between faculty and students and among students.
32 Curriculum and Instruction Curriculum and Instruction (continued) * Qualified faculty will provide appropriate supervision of the program/course that is offered electronically. * Academic standards for all programs or courses offered electronically will be the same as those for other programs or courses offered at the institution where the programs originate. * Student learning in programs delivered electronically should be comparable to student learning in programs offered at the campus where the programs originate.
33 Institution Context and Commitment Role and Mission * The program is consistent with the institutions role and mission. * Review and approval processes insure the appropriateness of the technology being used to meet program or course objectives.
34 Students and Student Services * The program or course profiles students with clear, complete, and timely information about the curriculum, course and degree requirements, nature of faculty/student interaction, assumptions about technological competence and skills, technical equipment requirements, availability of academic support services, and financial aid resources, and costs and payment policies.
35 Students and Student Services Student Services (continued) * Enrolled students have reasonable and adequate access to the range of student services and student rights to support their learning. * The institution has admission/acceptance criteria in place to assess whether the student has the background, knowledge, and technical skills required to under-take the course/program.
36 Students and Student Services Student Services (continued) * Advertising, recruiting. and admissions materials clearly and accurately present the program and the services available.
37 Faculty Support * The program provides faculty support services specifically related to teaching via an electronic system. * The institution assures appropriate training for faculty who teach using technology. * The program provides adequate equipment, software, and communications to faculty for interaction with students, institution, and other faculty.
38 Commitment to Support * Policies for faculty evaluation include appropriate recognition of teaching and scholarly activities related to programs or courses offered electronically. * The institution demonstrates a commitment to ongoing support, both financial and technical, and to continuation of the program or course for a period sufficient for students to complete a degree or certificate.
39 Evaluation and Assessment * The institution evaluates program and course effectiveness, including assessment of student learning outcomes, student retention, and student and faculty satisfaction. * At the completion of the program or course, the institution provides for assessment and documentation of student achievement in each course.
40 Evaluation and Assessment Eval. & Assmt. (continued) * Program or course announcements and electronic catalog entries provide appropriate information. * Common standards based on the Principles of Good Practice are used to evaluate courses and programs offered through ECM.