2 Productivity A university President has observed that education is one of the few areas that has not improved productivity indecades. He indicated that since Harvard, one of theoldest and most prestigious universities in America wasestablished, the teaching model has been one instructorteaching 20 students for a fixed period.
3 The Beginning of Change With the advent of distance learning and thedevelopment of powerful new teaching and learningtechnologies, rapid technological changes are now takingplace in continuing education operations. There are stillsignificant points of resistance such as tradition,accrediting, faculty members and student perceptions ofappropriate methods of learning.
4 Failure to Automate Effectively One of the most significant factors that prevents effectiveuse of the new technologies is the tendency to merelyautomate old systems, without considering how newsystems can maximize learning by using totally newmethods.
5 Changing Administrative Systems Changes in program delivery systems are alsocreating significant changes in administrativesystems including:1. on-line capabilities2. marketing3. registration4. payment methods
6 Administrative Technology Many technologies contribute to the efficiency of CEactivities. These include:1. automated management systems2. voice mail3. facsimile (FAX)4. wireless telephonesCreative people find ways to use all of these tools in theoperation of the CE program. For example, specificallyselected classes can be marketed by FAX.
7 Lifelong Learning Systems Integrated software systems are making significantcontributions to CE operations. These systems are oftenreferred to as lifelong learning systems. Some of the essentialelements of the packages include:* A registration module that handles all registration optionssuch as on-line, mail, and telephone* A marketing module* A financial analysis module
8 Lifelong Learning Systems Lifelong Learning (continued)* A financial module that includes accounting, financial analysis reports, tracking and evaluation* A mail module of mail lists and mail processes* A participant module with participant information, including financial history and participation by course* A course module providing data for marketing staff, registration staff, and/or the customer
9 Lifelong Learning Systems Lifelong Learning (continued)* An instructor module including specific information such aspersonal, financial, evaluation, and course history* A location and facilities module* Other modules designed for a specific applicationsMany of these modules have previously been used, but the newsystems now have the capacity to move data from one moduleto another, creating one seamless management system.
10 Technology Impacts the Organizational Structure Adoption of such a system now only leads to changes inthe way we typically do things but eventually, will leadto changes in the organization structure. For example, asmore activities become technology based, more staff willbe needed to provide technical support. These positionsoften become professional positions. Another side effectis an increased need for additional technical training forthe entire staff.
11 Program Delivery Technologies The rapid changes in program delivery technologies are in theprocess of restructuring higher education as a whole,including continuing education. These technologies havechanged what were once local captive markets to openmarkets for programmers worldwide. They have created abuyer’s market for many types of programs. Institutionalservice areas have expanded from a small radius to virtuallythe entire world. A redefinition of the target markets and theirneeds can lead to redefining the scope and mission of theorganization.
12 Changing Investment Strategies Dynamic CE programs are frantically trying to determine therequired investment in hardware and programming softwareto effectively compete in the future. For example, a typicalelectronic classroom may cost over $100,000. This contrastssignificantly with a room with desks, a blackboard and chalk.Many CE managers have seen large, early investmentsdissipate as new technology arrived on the scene makingearlier investments obsolete.
13 Changing CompetitionAnother serious side effect of the new technologies is theentry of new players in the traditional continuing educationarena. The new technologies have opened the door for profitoriented organizations from the communication,entertainment, and business fields to compete withuniversities for continuing education customers.Individuals with expertise in program development for thesenew presentation systems and communication channels cannow compete with universities.
14 Improved LearningThese new delivery systems allow us to more effectively serve existingmarkets and reach new markets. They also present opportunities for theimprovement of instruction by incorporating advanced presentationsystems. Kozma and Johnston described eight ways in which instructionaltechnology can support and improve learning. These included:1. Enabling active engagement in the construction of knowledge2. Making real world situations available3. Providing representations in multiple modalities (e.g. 3-D, auditory, graphic, and text)
15 Improved Learning 4. Drilling basic concepts for mastery Improved Learning (continued)4. Drilling basic concepts for mastery5. Facilitating collaborative activity among students.6. Seeing interconnections among concepts through hypertext7. Learning to use the tools of scholarship8. Simulating laboratory work
16 Web-Based Instruction This mode of instruction will eventually fulfill thepromise of offering training any place and any time.In its most complex form, it offers almost all of theforms of effective presentation such as video, text,and voice in real time and virtual time. It also has theability to portray dynamic, interactive models.
17 The Necessity of Team Development Programmers for this mode of instruction require all ofthe traditional program planning skills and added skillsin operating systems such as , Web browsers, Websearch engines, Web site development and editing, andpresentation systems. Few current programmers possessall of these skills; therefore, the individual programmeris being replaced with a team of specialists.
18 Cost EffectivenessThe new management skill that is required is the ability tobuild and coordinate the efforts of these teams. Another factoris that teams are expensive. Therefore, the cost of newprogram development is astronomical. One estimate is onemonth of development time per hour of instruction. It canonly be justified if it is assumed that large numbers ofparticipants can be attracted to the program within areasonable time, or that the program content will be desirableover a long time period.
19 Marketing After the program has been developed, the next hurdle is to market it to a very large regional or global market. Fewuniversities have an image that is recognized globally and canattract the large numbers of participants needed to cover theinvestment in the program. This has led to consortiumactivities like the Western Governor’s University and theSouthern Regional Education Board’s “Electronic CommonMarket” in an attempt to be large enough to reach anawareness threshold. It has also created a market for programwholesale operations to franchise courses to universities forsale in their local service area.
20 Consolidation of Providers The large investments required and necessary globalmarketing may eventually result in a few large operationsbeing the sole providers of this type of programming.Individual CE operations may be reduced to purchasingwholesale and marketing these programs and traditionalprogram development of custom programs to limitedaudiences. Another related role for university CE operationsmay be the sorting and evaluation of the mass of newprograms available and providing consultation anddistribution of the best to a local or regional market.
21 Student Support The Web necessitates new systems of student support and administrative services. In some ways, theseservices may even be more accessible than on-campusservices. Some institutions have programmedoutstanding virtual campuses with every service welldefined and an alternative personal contact via a tollfree number.
22 Interactive Video Instruction The technology is based upon compressed video, either twoway or one-way, with an audio return from the students.It requires a significant up-front investment and generateshigh operating costs. Program development costs arerelatively low because instructors can teach in much the sameway they have taught in the past.This delivery system has both local and global capabilities.Local and area programming can be relatively economical,especially if total class size can be increased significantly.
23 Re-Inventing Universities This methodology may eventually reshape the nature ofuniversities. In most states, public universities are nowtied together through landlines. This makes it possiblefor instructors to teach to multiple campuses andmultiple classrooms. If this practice continues, therecould eventually be only one interconnected institutionin each state. The independent campuses would becomelearning centers.
24 Economies of ScaleAt the global level, this mode of instruction can berelatively economical for short courses and seminarsthat attract relatively large audiences. Similar toWeb-based instruction, effective global marketingbecomes a problem. This has led to partnershipsbetween institutions that provide a broad marketingnetwork that can successfully reach a large numberof local markets.
25 Presentation SystemsThe impact of new and powerful presentation systemsare not limited to courses by distance. When usedeffectively, they are having a major impact uponindividual instruction. CE programmers shouldencourage and support their use in CE classes.However, this will require additional investment inequipment and possible modification of facilities.
26 Components of the New Investments The investment includes the acquisition of videoprojection systems, computers, screens, and support stafftraining. With the emphasis on visual presentations,facilities may need adjustments in lighting and removalof sight line barriers. One of the early issues to beresolved is whether the equipment will be portable so itcan be moved between classrooms, or stationary andinstalled in each classroom.
27 Principles of Good Practice The Southern Regional Education Board, through theirElectronic Common Market (ECM) has developed thefollowing, Principles of Good Practice:Basic Assumptions1. The program or course offered electronically is provided by or through an institution that is accredited by anationally-recognized accrediting body and authorized to operate in the state where the program or course originates.
28 Principles of Good Practice Basic Assumptions (continued)2. The institution’s programs holding specialized accreditation meet the same requirements when offered electronically.3. The institution may be a single institution or a consortium of institution.4. These principles are generally applicable to degree or certificate programs and to courses offered for academic credit.
29 Principles of Good Practice Basic Assumptions (continued)5. It is the institution’s responsibility to review educational programs and courses it provides electronically and certify continued compliance with these principles.6. Participation in the Electronic Common Market will be coordinated by the appropriate state agency or organizations in the state where it is offered.7. Institutions offering programs or for-credit courses are responsible for satisfying all in-state approval and accreditation requirements before students are enrolled.
30 Principles of Good Practice Basic Assumptions (continued)8. Participating states agree to accept, in addition to other state regulations or policies, certification of compliance with the Principles of Good Practice by the offering institution and the state where the offering institution is located.9. Priority shall be given in enrolling students for ECM courses and programs who are otherwise qualified residents of the SREB region.
31 Curriculum and Instruction Each program or course of study results in learning outcomesappropriate to the rigor and breadth of the degree orcertificate awarded.* A degree or certificate program offered electronically is coherent and complete.* The course provides for appropriate interaction between faculty and students and among students.
32 Curriculum and Instruction Curriculum and Instruction (continued)* Qualified faculty will provide appropriate supervision of the program/course that is offered electronically.* Academic standards for all programs or courses offered electronically will be the same as those for other programs or courses offered at the institution where the programs originate.* Student learning in programs delivered electronically should be comparable to student learning in programs offered at the campus where the programs originate.
33 Institution Context and Commitment Role and Mission* The program is consistent with the institution’s role and mission.* Review and approval processes insure the appropriateness of the technology being used to meet program or course objectives.
34 Students and Student Services * The program or course profiles students with clear, complete, and timely information about the curriculum, course and degree requirements, nature of faculty/student interaction, assumptions about technological competence and skills, technical equipment requirements, availability of academic support services, and financial aid resources, and costs and payment policies.
35 Students and Student Services Student Services (continued)* Enrolled students have reasonable and adequate access to the range of student services and student rights to support their learning.* The institution has admission/acceptance criteria in place to assess whether the student has the background, knowledge, and technical skills required to under-take the course/program.
36 Students and Student Services Student Services (continued)* Advertising, recruiting. and admissions materials clearly and accurately present the program and the services available.
37 Faculty Support* The program provides faculty support services specifically related to teaching via an electronic system.* The institution assures appropriate training for faculty who teach using technology.* The program provides adequate equipment, software, and communications to faculty for interaction with students, institution, and other faculty.
38 Commitment to Support* Policies for faculty evaluation include appropriate recognition of teaching and scholarly activities related to programs or courses offered electronically.* The institution demonstrates a commitment to ongoing support, both financial and technical, and to continuation of the program or course for a period sufficient for students to complete a degree or certificate.
39 Evaluation and Assessment * The institution evaluates program and course effectiveness, including assessment of student learning outcomes, student retention, and student and faculty satisfaction.* At the completion of the program or course, the institution provides for assessment and documentation of student achievement in each course.
40 Evaluation and Assessment Eval. & Assmt. (continued)* Program or course announcements and electronic catalog entries provide appropriate information.* Common standards based on the Principles of Good Practice are used to evaluate courses and programs offered through ECM.