Presentation on theme: "CH 05: Part A: Revenue Recognition"— Presentation transcript:
1CH 05: Part A: Revenue Recognition Self-Study:1. Discuss the general objective of the timing of andthe two criteria for revenue recognition.SEC’s SAB 1013. Discuss the implications for revenue recognition of allowing customers the right of return.In Class:2. Describe the installment sales and cost recovery methods of recognizing revenue4. Identify situations that call for the recognition of revenue over time and distinguish between the percentage-of-completion and completed contract methods of recognizing revenue for long-term contracts.
2Learning Objectives5. Discuss the revenue recognition issues involving multiple-deliverable contracts, software, and franchise sales.6. Identify and calculate the common ratios used to assess profitability.Addendum:Discuss the primary differences between U.S. GAAP and IFRS with respect to revenue recognition.
3Revenue Recognition Current Environment Revenue Recognition at the Point of SaleRevenue Recognition before DeliveryRevenue Recognition after DeliveryGuidelines for revenue recognitionDepartures from sale basisSAB Q&ASales with buyback agreementsSales when right of return existsTrade loading and channel stuffingConsignment SalesPercentage-of-completion methodCompleted-contract methodLong-term contract lossesDisclosuresCompletion-of-production basisInstallment-sales methodCost-recovery methodDeposit methodSummary of basesConcluding remarksGAAP vs. IFRSService Cost - Actuaries compute service cost as the present value of the new benefits earned by employees during the year. Future salary levels considered in calculation.Interest on Liability - Interest accrues each year on the PBO just as it does on any discounted debt.Actual Return on Plan Assets - Increase in pension funds from interest, dividends, and realized and unrealized changes in the fair market value of the plan assets.Amortization of Unrecognized Prior Service Cost - The cost of providing retroactive benefits is allocated to pension expense in the future, specifically to the remaining service-years of the affected employees.Gain or Loss - Volatility in pension expense can be caused by sudden and large changes in the market value of plan assets and by changes in the projected benefit obligation. Two items comprise the gain or loss:difference between the actual return and the expected return on plan assets and,amortization of the unrecognized net gain or loss from previous periods
4CH 5: Revenue Recognition The focus of this chapter is revenue recognitionOverviewThe timing of revenue recognition is critical to income measurement.Revenue affects income, and, under the matching principle, expenses are recognized in the period in which the related revenues are recognized.Therefore, revenue recognition determines the recognition of some expenses as well.
5The Current Environment Definition of Revenue:Inflows or other enhancements of assets of an entity or settlements of its liabilities (or a combination of both) from delivery or producing goods, rendering services, or other activities that constitute the entity’s ongoing major or central operations. [FASB Concepts Statement No. 6, Element of Financial Statements, paragraph 78]Separate definition for GainsLO 1 Apply the revenue recognition principle.
6The Current Environment Guidelines for Revenue RecognitionThe revenue recognition principle (FASB Concept Stmt. No. 5) provides that companies should recognize revenuewhen it is realized or realizable andwhen it is earned.Revenues are realized when goods and services are exchanged for cash or claims to cash (receivables).Revenues are realizable when assets received in exchange are readily convertible to known amounts of cash or claims to cash.Revenues are earned when the entity has substantially accomplished what it must do to be entitled to the benefits represented by the revenues, that is, when the earnings process is complete or virtually complete.
7Revenue Recognition at Delivery Recognize RevenueWhen the product or service has been delivered to the customer and cash has been received or a receivable has been generated that has reasonable assurance of collectibility.While revenue usually is earned during a period of time, it often is recognized at one specific point in time when both revenue recognition criteria are satisfied, that is, when the product or service has been delivered to the customer and cash has been received or a receivable has been generated that has reasonable assurance of collectibility. Revenue from the sale of products usually is recognized at the point of product delivery. The point of delivery refers to the date legal title to the product passes from seller to buyer.For service revenue, if there is one final service that is crucial to the earnings process, revenues and costs are deferred and recognized after this service has been performed. For example, a moving company will pack, load, transport, and deliver household goods for a fixed fee. Although packing, loading, and transporting all are important to the earning process, delivery is the culminating event of the earnings process. So, the entire service fee is recognized as revenue after the goods have been delivered.
8Consignment SalesSometimes a company arranges for another company to sell its product under consignment.Because the consignor retains the risks and rewards of ownership of the product and title does not pass to the consignee, the consignor does not record a sale until the consignee sells the goods and title passes to the eventual customer.Sometimes a company arranges for another company to sell its product under consignment. The “consignor” physically transfers the goods to the other company (the consignee), but the consignor retains legal title. If the consignee can’t find a buyer within an agreed-upon time, the consignee returns the goods to the consignor. However, if a buyer is found, the consignee remits the selling price (less commission and approved expenses) to the consignor. Because the consignor retains the risks and rewards of ownership of the product and title does not pass to the consignee, the consignor does not record a sale (revenue and related expenses) until the consignee sells the goods and title passes to the eventual customer. Of course, that means goods on consignment still are part of the consignor’s inventory.
9Revenue Recognition at Point of Sale (Delivery) Implementation problems:Sales with Buyback Agreements => No Sale!Sales When Right of Return Exists => Est. ReturnsTrade Loading and Channel Stuffing => No Sale!
10Revenue Recognition at Point of Sale (Delivery) Sales with Buyback Agreements (FAS 49)When a repurchase agreement exists at a set price and this price covers all cost of the inventory plus related holding costs, the inventory and related liability remain on the seller’s books.* In other words, no sale.* “Accounting for Product Financing Arrangements,” Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 49 (Stamford, Conn.: FASB, 1981).LO 2 Describe accounting issues for revenue recognition at point of sale.
11Reduce both Sales and Cost of Goods Sold Right of ReturnIn most situations, even though the right to return merchandise exists, revenues and expenses can be appropriately recognized at point of delivery.Estimate the returnsRetailers usually give their customers the right to return merchandise if they are not satisfied. In most situations, even though the right to return merchandise exists, revenues and expenses can be appropriately recognized at point of delivery. Based on past experience, a company usually can estimate the returns that will result for a given volume of sales. These estimates are used to reduce both sales and cost of goods sold in anticipation of returns. The purpose of the estimates is to avoid overstating gross profit in the period of sale and understating gross profit in the period of return. Because the return of merchandise can negate the benefits of having made a sale, the seller must meet certain criteria before revenue is recognized in situations when the right of return exists. The most critical of these criteria is that the seller must be able to make reliable estimates of future returns. In certain situations, these criteria are not satisfied at the point of delivery of the product. For example, manufacturers of semiconductors like Intel Corporation and Motorola Corporation usually sell their products through independent distributor companies. Economic factors, competition among manufacturers, and rapid obsolescence of the product motivate these manufacturers to grant the distributors the right of return if they are unable to sell the semiconductors. So, revenue recognition often is deferred beyond the delivery point to the date the products actually are sold by the distributor to an end user.Reduce both Sales and Cost of Goods Sold
12Revenue Recognition at Point of Sale (Delivery) Sales When Right of Return ExistsRecognize revenue only if six conditions (FAS 48) have been met:The seller’s price to the buyer is substantially fixed or determinable at the date of sale.The buyer has paid the seller, or the buyer is obligated to pay the seller, and the obligation is not contingent on resale of the product.The buyer’s obligation to the seller would not be changed in the event of theft or physical destruction or damage of the product (Legal Risk).LO 2 Describe accounting issues for revenue recognition at point of sale.
13Revenue Recognition at Point of Sale (Delivery) Sales When Right of Return ExistsRecognize revenue only if six conditions have been met.The buyer acquiring the product for resale has economic substance (Profit motive, Market risk e.g. price fluctuation, etc) apart from that provided by the seller.The seller does not have significant obligations for future performance to directly bring about resale of the product by the buyer.The seller can reasonably estimate the amount of future returns.
14Revenue Recognition at Point of Sale (Delivery) Trade Loading (Booking tomorrow’s revenues today):“Trade loading is a crazy, uneconomic, insidious practice through which manufacturers (trying to show sales, profits, and market share they don’t actually have) induce their wholesale customers, known as the trade, to buy more product than they can promptly resell.”*In other words, no sale.* “The $600 Million Cigarette Scam,” Fortune (December 4, 1989), p. 89.
15Revenue Recognition at Point of Sale (Delivery) Channel Stuffing (Booking tomorrow’s revenues today):In channel stuffing, the software maker offers deep discounts to its distributors to overbuy and records revenue when the software leaves its loading dock.When this process takes place, the distributors’ inventories become bloated and the marketing channel gets stuffed, but the software maker’s financial statements are improved.Found mostly in the computer software industryIn other words, no sale.* “Lucent Slashes First Quarter Outlook…,” WSJ (December 22, 2000).
16The Current Environment Departures from the Sale Basis (Point of Delivery)Earlier recognition is appropriate if there is a high degree of certainty about the amount of revenue earned. Example: Percentage of Completion method.Delayed recognition is appropriate if thedegree of uncertainty concerning the amount of revenue or costs is sufficiently high orsale does not represent substantial completion of the collection process.Example: Installment sales & Cost Recovery method
17The Current Environment The SEC has indicated that IMPROPERRevenue Recognition is the largest causefor financial Statement restatements.One study noted restatements of revenue:Result in larger drops in market capitalization than other types of restatement.Caused eight of the top ten market value losses in a recent year.
18The Current Environment A January 2002 Wall Street JournalArticle reported that more restatementsof financial statements had occurred inthe past three years than in the previous10 years combined.
19The Current Environment SEC’s SAB 101:In December 1999, the SEC issued Staff Accounting Bulletin (SAB) 101, “Revenue Recognition in Financial Statements,” Which was Followed by (in October 2000) “Revenue Recognition in Financial Statements: Frequently Asked Questions.” SAB 101 was effective starting the fourth fiscal quarter for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2000.
20The Current Environment SEC’s SAB 101:SAB 101 Criteria for Revenue Recognition For revenue to be recognized under SAB 101, it must meet all of the four following criteria:-Persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists.-Delivery has occurred or services have been rendered.-The seller’s price to the buyer is fixed or determinable.-Collectibility is reasonably assured.
21The Current Environment SEC’s SAB 101:Because SAB 101 was released to curtail specific abuses, it should not be seen as a comprehensive set of guidelines on the entire area of revenue recognition.In December 2003, four years after the release of SAB 101, the SEC released SAB 104, which includes a revised version of SAB 101, adapted to include developments in revenue recognition accounting since 1999.In-Class Discussion (Next Week):Read SAB 101, Pages 1 -10, Q & A: 1- 10
22The Current Environment SEC’s SAB 101 (104) provides guidance on the following revenue recognition issues:-Timing of approval for sales agreements;-“Side” arrangements: Buybacks, Consignments, Extended Financing arrangements, and Right of return.- Bill and hold sales;-Layaway programs;-Nonrefundable, up-front fees;-Membership fees/services. -Cancellation or termination provisions;-Contingent rental income;
23SAB 101 Discussion Format Discuss the assigned Q&A Discuss “Sales Type” or “Issue Type”Provide a DEMO (Numeric) ProblemSolve the DEMO Problem with JEsProvide a REAL-WORLD Example of a Company in violation of the specific Q&A (FRAUD):
24Realization Principle Revenue recognition is often tied to delivery of the product from the seller to the buyer.This graphic relates various revenue-recognition methods to critical steps in the earnings process. Recall that the realization principle indicates that the central issues for recognizing revenue are (a) judging when the earnings process is substantially complete and (b) whether there is reasonable certainty as to the collectibility of the cash to be received. Often this decision is straightforward and tied to delivery of the product from the seller to the buyer. At delivery, the earnings process is virtually complete and the seller receives either cash or a receivable. At other times, though, recognizing revenue upon delivery may be inappropriate. It may be that revenue should be deferred to a point after delivery because the seller is unable to estimate whether the buyer will return the product or pay the receivable. Or, sometimes revenue should be recognized at a point prior to delivery because the earnings process occurs over multiple reporting periods and the company can better inform financial statement users by making reliable estimates of revenue and cost prior to delivery.
25Revenue Recognition After Delivery When we are unable to make reasonable estimates of uncollectible amounts or customer returns of products, we delay recognizing revenue from the sale until the uncertainty has been resolved.Installment Sales MethodCost Recovery MethodRecognizing revenue when goods and services are delivered assumes we are able to make reasonable estimates of amounts due from customers that potentially might be uncollectible. For product sales, this also includes amounts not collectible due to customers returning the products they purchased. Otherwise, we would violate one of the requirements of the revenue realization principle we discussed earlier—that there must be reasonable certainty as to the collectibility of cash from the customer. In this section we address a few situations in which uncertainties are so severe that they could cause a delay in recognizing revenue from a sale of a product or service. For each of these situations, notice that the accounting is essentially the same—deferring recognition of the gross profit arising from a sale of a product or service until uncertainties have been resolved.Installment sales can be accounted for using the installment sales method or the cost recovery method.The installment sales method recognizes the gross profit by applying the gross profit percentage on the sale to the amount of cash actually collected.The cost recovery method defers all gross profit recognition until cash equal to the cost of the item sold has been collected.
26Installment-Sales Method Type of sale for which payment is required in periodic installments over an extended period of time.This is due to the fact that the ultimate profit is more uncertain in installment sales than in ordinary sales because collection is more doubtful.Recognize income in the periods of CASH collection rather than in the period of sale. Selling and administrative expenses are not deferred.
27Installment Sales Method On November 1, 2011, the Belmont Corporation, a real estate developer, sold a tract of land for $800,000. The sales agreement requires the customer to make four equal annual payments of $200,000 plus interest on each November 1, beginning November 1, The land cost $560,000 to develop. The company’s fiscal year ends on December 31.To deal with the uncertainty of collection, the installment sales method recognizes revenue and costs only when cash payments are received. Each payment is assumed to be composed of two components: (1) a partial recovery of the cost of the item sold and (2) a gross profit component. These components are determined by the gross profit percentage applicable to the sale.On November 1, 2011, the Belmont Corporation, a real estate developer, sold a tract of land for $800,000. The sales agreement requires the customer to make four equal annual payments of $200,000 plus interest on each November 1, beginning November 1, The land cost $560,000 to develop. The company’s fiscal year ends on December 31.Let’s see how Belmont Corporation will account for this sale using the installment sales method. One of the first things we need to do is to calculate the gross profit percentage as shown on the slide.Gross Profit $240,000 ÷ $800,000 = 30%
28Installment Sales Method During 2011, Belmont Corporation collected $200,000 on its installment sales.Part IIn the first entry, Installment Sales Receivable is debited for $800,000. Inventory is credited for the portion of the receivable that represents the cost of the land sold. The difference is Deferred Gross Profit. Deferred Gross Profit is a contra account to the installment sales receivable.Part IIWhen payments are received, gross profit is recognized. The second set of entries records the collection of the first installment and recognizes the gross profit component of the payment, $60,000. Realized gross profit gets closed to income summary as part of the normal year-end closing process and is included in net income in the income statement.The income statement for 2011 would report a gross profit from installment sales of $60,000. Sales and cost of goods sold usually are not reported in the income statement under the installment method, just the resulting gross profit. Journal entries to record the remaining three payments on November 1, 2012, 2013, and 2014, are identical.This entry records the Realized Gross Profit by adjusting the Deferred Gross Profit account.
29Revenue Recognition after Delivery Cost-Recovery MethodRecognizes no profit until cash payments by the buyer exceed the cost of the merchandise sold.APB Opinion No. 10 allows a seller to use the cost- recovery method to account for sales in which “there is no reasonable basis for estimating collectibility.”In addition, FASB Statements No. 45 (franchises) and No. 66 (real estate) require use of this method where a high degree of uncertainty exists related to the collection of receivables.
30Cost Recovery MethodOn November 1, 2011, the Belmont Corporation, a real estate developer, sold a tract of land for $800,000. The sales agreement requires the customer to make four equal annual payments of $200,000 plus interest on each November 1, beginning November 1, The land cost $560,000 to develop. The company’s fiscal year ends on December 31.In situations where there is an extremely high degree of uncertainty regarding the ultimate cash collection on an installment sale, an even more conservative approach, the cost recovery method, can be used. This method defers all gross profit recognition until the cost of the item sold has been recovered. The gross profit recognition pattern applying the cost recovery method to the Belmont Corporation situation is illustrated on this slide.Now, let’s use the same data for Belmont Corporation and use the cost recovery method. One of the first things to notice is that under this method, gross profit will not be recognized until 2013.
31Cost Recovery MethodThis slide summarizes all the entries using the cost recovery method. Notice that the first entry is exactly the same and that the other entries have the same structure as the entries we just did using the installment sales method, but the timing of the gross profit realization differs between the two methods.In the first entry, Installment Sales Receivable is debited for $800,000. Inventory is credited for the portion of the receivable that represents the cost of the land sold. The difference is Deferred Gross Profit.The second entry records the $200,000 Belmont Corporation collected on its installment sales during The entry is to debit Cash and credit Installment Sales Receivable. Belmont Corporation will make this same entry on November 1, 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014.The third entry on November 1, 2013, records the Realized Gross Profit by adjusting the Deferred Gross Profit account. The amount of the entry is $40,000 which is the amount of the cost recovered at this payment date.The forth entry on November 1, 2014, records the remainder of the Realized Gross Profit of $200,000 and adjusts the Deferred Gross Profit account.
32Exercises and Problems In Class: E 4 and E5 (2011)Home Work: E 1 and 2, Prob. 4
33Revenue Recognition Prior to Delivery Completed Contract MethodLong-term ContractsPercentage-of-Completion MethodRevenue recognition when an earnings process is virtually complete is inappropriate for certain types of long-term contracts. The types of companies that make use of long-term contracts are many and varied. A recent survey of reporting practices of 600 large public companies indicates that approximately one in every four companies engages in long-term contracts. And they are not just construction companies. In fact, even services such as research, installation, and consulting often are contracted for on a long-term basis.The general revenue recognition criteria described in the realization principle suggest that revenue should be recognized when a long-term project is finished (that is, when the earnings process is virtually complete). This is known as the completed contract method of revenue recognition. The problem with this method is that all revenues, expenses, and resulting income from the project are recognized in the period in which the project is completed; no revenues or expenses are reported in the income statements of earlier reporting periods in which much of the work may have been performed. Net income should provide a measure of periodic accomplishment to help predict future accomplishments. Clearly, income statements prepared using the completed contract method do not fairly report each period’s accomplishments when a project spans more than one reporting period. Much of the earnings process is far removed from the point of delivery.The percentage-of-completion method of revenue recognition for long-term construction and other projects is designed to help address this problem. By this approach, we recognize revenues (and expenses) over time by allocating a share of the project’s expected revenues and expenses to each period in which the earnings process occurs, that is, the contract period. Although the contract usually specifies total revenues, the project’s expenses are not known until completion. Consequently, it’s necessary for a company to estimate the project’s future costs at the end of each reporting period in order to estimate total gross profit to be earned on the project.
34Using the percentage-of-completion method, we recognize a portion of the estimated gross profit each period based on progress to date.Using the percentage-of-completion method we recognize a portion of the estimated gross profit each period based on progress to date. How should progress to date be estimated? One approach is to use output measures. Progress to date can be estimated as the proportion of the project’s cost incurred to date divided by total estimated costs, or by relying on an engineer’s or architect’s estimate. Regardless of the specific approach used to estimate progress to date, under the percentage-of-completion method we determine the amount of gross profit recognized in each period using the following logic:Gross profit recognized this period = (total estimated gross profit × percentage completed to date) − gross profit recognized in prior periods, where total estimated gross profit = total estimated revenue – total estimated cost.
35Percentage-of-Completion Method Measuring the Progress toward Completion using Cost-to-Cost basis:Costs incurred to datePercentage of completion=Most recent estimate of total costsGross profit to be recognized to datePercent complete x Estimated total =Gross ProfitGross profit to be recognized to dateGross profit recognized in prior periodsCurrent-period Gross profit-=LO 3 Apply the percentage-of-completion method for long-term contracts.
36Completed Contract and Percentage-of-Completion Methods Compared At the beginning of 2011, the Harding Construction Company received a contract to build an office building for $5 million. The project is estimated to take three years to complete. According to the contract, Harding will bill the buyer in installments over the construction period according to a prearranged schedule. Information related to the contract is shown on this slide. Construction costs include the labor, materials, and overhead costs directly related to the construction of the building. Notice how the total of estimated and actual construction costs changes from period to period. Cost revisions are typical in long-term contracts in which costs are estimated over long periods of time.
37Timing of Gross Profit Recognition Under the Percentage-of-Completion Method Using the percentage-of-completion method, we recognize a portion of the estimated gross profit each period based on progress to date.We determine the amount of gross profit recognized in each period using the following logic:Using the percentage-of-completion method we recognize a portion of the estimated gross profit each period based on progress to date. How should progress to date be estimated? One approach is to use output measures. Progress to date can be estimated as the proportion of the project’s cost incurred to date divided by total estimated costs, or by relying on an engineer’s or architect’s estimate. Regardless of the specific approach used to estimate progress to date, under the percentage-of-completion method we determine the amount of gross profit recognized in each period using the following logic:Gross profit recognized this period = (total estimated gross profit × percentage completed to date) − gross profit recognized in prior periods, where total estimated gross profit = total estimated revenue – total estimated cost.
38Percentage-of-Completion Method Allocation of Gross Profit This slide illustrates the calculation of gross profit for each of the years for our Harding Construction Company example, with progress to date estimated using the cost-to-cost ratio. Earlier we showed the journal entries used to recognize gross profit in each period.
39Accounting for the Cost of Construction and Accounts Receivable With both the completed contract and percentage-of-completion methods, all costs of construction are recorded in an asset account called construction in progress.With both the completed contract and percentage-of-completion methods, all costs of construction are recorded in an asset account called construction in progress. This account is equivalent to the asset work-in-process inventory in a manufacturing company. This is logical since the construction project is essentially an inventory item in process for the contractor. Notice that periodic billings are credited to billings on construction contract. This account is a contra account to the construction in progress asset. At the end of each period, the balances in these two accounts are compared. If the net amount is a debit, it is reported in the balance sheet as an asset. Conversely, if the net amount is a credit, it is reported as a liability.Note that a problem that could occur with these sorts of transactions is double accounting – having both a physical asset (construction in progress) and a financial asset (accounts receivable or, once the receivable is collected, cash) on the books at the same time. We avoid this problem by having billings as a contra account to construction in progress. Recognizing the financial asset (accounts receivable) serves to reduce the net carrying value of the physical asset (construction in progress less billings).
40Gross Profit Recognition—General Approach The top portion shows the journal entries to recognize revenue, cost of construction (think of this as cost of goods sold), and gross profitunder the completed contract method, while the bottom portion shows the journal entries that achieve this for the percentage-of-completion method.It’s important to understand two key aspects of these journal entries. First, the same amounts of revenue, cost, and gross profit are recognized under both the completed contract and percentage-of-completion methods. The only difference is timing. Second, notice that in both methods we add gross profit (the difference between revenue and cost) to the construction in progress asset. That seems odd—why add profit to what is essentially an inventory account? The key here is that, when Harding recognizes gross profit, Harding is acting like it has sold some portion of the asset to the customer, but Harding keeps the asset in Harding’s own balance sheet (in the construction in progress account) until delivery to the customer. Putting recognized gross profit into the construction in progress account just updates that account to reflect the total value (cost + gross profit = sales price) of the customer’s asset. However, don’t forget that the billings on construction contract account is contra to the construction in progress account. Over the life of the construction project, Harding will bill the customer for the entire sales price of the asset. Therefore, at the end of the contract, the construction in progress account (containing total cost and gross profit) and the billings on construction contract account (containing all amounts billed to the customer) will have equal balances that exactly offset to create a net value of zero.In both methods the same amounts of revenue, cost, and gross profit are recognized.In both methods we add gross profit to the construction in progress asset.
41Gross Profit Recognition—General Approach The same journal entry is recorded to close out the billings on construction contract and construction in progress accounts under the completed contract and percentage-of-completion methods.When title officially passes to the customer, Harding will prepare a journal entry that removes the contract from its balance sheet by debiting billings on construction contract and crediting construction in progress for the entire value of the contract. As shown on this slide, the same journal entry is recorded to close out the billings on construction contract and construction in progress accounts under the completed contract and percentage-of-completion methods.
42Percentage-of-Completion Method Allocation of Gross Profit Notice that the gross profit recognized in each period is added to the construction in progress account.The T-accounts for the percentage-of-completion method are illustrated on this slide. Notice that the gross profit recognized in each period is added to the construction in progress account.
43Balance Sheet Recognition Billings on construction contract are subtracted from construction in progress to determine balance sheet presentation.CIP > BillingsAssetIn the balance sheet, the construction in progress (CIP) account (containing costs and profit) is offset against the billings on construction contract account, with CIP > Billings shown as an asset and Billings > CIP shown as a liability. Because a company may have some contracts that have a net asset position and others that have a net liability position, we usually will see both net assets and net liabilities shown in a balance sheet at the same time.Construction in progress in excess of billings essentially represents an unbilled receivable. Sometimes companies include it as a component of accounts receivable in their balance sheets, or as part of inventory. The construction company is incurring construction costs (and recognizing gross profit using the percentage-of-completion method) for which it will be paid by the buyer. If the construction company bills the buyer an amount exactly equal to these costs (and profits recognized) then the accounts receivable balance properly reflects the claims of the construction company. If, however, the amount billed is less than the costs incurred (plus profits recognized) the difference represents the remaining claim tocash—an asset.On the other hand, Billings in excess of construction in progress essentially indicates that the overbilled accounts receivable overstates the amount of the claim to cash earned to that date and must be reported as a liability. This is similar to the unearned revenue liability that is recorded when a customer pays for a product or service in advance. The advance is properly shown as a liability representing the obligation to provide the good or service in the future.Billings > CIPLiability
44Balance Sheet Recognition The balance in the construction in progress account differs between methods because of the earlier gross profit recognition that occurs under the percentage-of-completion method.The balance sheet presentation for the construction-related accounts by both methods is shown on this slide. The balance in the construction in progress account differs between methods because of the earlier gross profit recognition that occurs under the percentage-of-completion method.
45Percentage-of-Completion Method Allocation of Gross Profit The income statement for each year will report the appropriate revenue and cost of construction amounts.Income statements are more informative if the sales revenue and cost components of gross profit are reported rather than the net figure alone. So, the income statement for each year will report the appropriate revenue and cost of construction amounts. For example, in 2011, the gross profit of $500,000 consists of revenue of $2,000,000 (40% of the $5,000,000 contract price) less the $1,500,000 cost of construction. In subsequent periods, we calculate revenue by multiplying the percentage of completion by the contract price and then subtracting revenue recognized in prior periods, similar to the way we calculate gross profit each period. The cost of construction, then, is the difference between revenue and gross profit. In most cases, cost of construction also equals the construction costs incurred during the period. The table on this slide shows the revenue and cost of construction recognized in each of the three years of our example. Of course, as you can see in this illustration, we could have initially determined the gross profit by first calculating revenue and then subtracting cost of construction.
46Income RecognitionThe same total amount of profit or loss is recognized under both the completed contract and the percentage-of-completion methods, but the timing of recognition differs.Earlier we illustrated the journal entries that would determine the amount of revenue, cost, and therefore gross profit that would appear in the income statement under the percentage-of-completion and completed contract methods. Comparing the gross profit patterns produced by each method of revenue recognition demonstrates the essential difference as shown on this slide. Although both methods yield identical gross profit of $900,000 for the entire 3-year period, the timing differs. The completed contract method defers all gross profit to 2013, when the project is completed. Obviously, the percentage-of-completion method provides a better measure of the company’s economic activity and progress over the three-year period. That’s why the percentage-of-completion method is preferred, and, as mentioned previously, the completed contract method should be used only when the company is unable to make dependable estimates of future costs necessary to apply the percentage-of-completion method.
47Timing of Gross Profit Recognition Under the Completed Contract Method Under the completed contract method, all revenues and expenses related to the project are recognized when the contract is completed.The timing of gross profit recognition under the completed contract method is simple. As the name implies, all revenues and expenses related to the project are recognized when the contract is completed. As shown earlier and in the T-accounts below, completion occurs in 2013 for our Harding example. Prior to then, construction in progress includes only costs, showing a balance of $1,500,000 and $2,500,000 of cost at the end of 2011 and 2012, respectively, and including $4,100,000 of cost when the project is completed in Harding includes an additional $900,000 of gross profit in construction in progress when the project is completed in 2013 because the asset is viewed as “sold” on that date. The company records revenue of $5,000,000, cost of construction (similar to cost of goods sold) of $4,100,000, and the resulting $900,000 gross profit on that date.
48Long-term Contract Losses Loss Projected for Entire ProjectEstimated loss is fully recognized in the first period the loss is anticipated and is recorded by a credit to Construction in Progress account.Periodic Loss for Profitable ProjectsDetermine periodic loss and record loss as a credit to the Construction in Progress account.Unfortunately, losses sometimes occur on long-term contracts. Losses are recognized in the period in which they are determined, regardless of the revenue recognition method used.For a periodic loss on an overall profitable project, the loss is recorded as a credit to the Construction in Progress account if the project is accounted for under the percentage-of-completion method. No entry is made under the completed contract method.For an overall loss on the entire project, the estimated loss is fully recognized in the first period the loss is anticipated and is recorded by a credit to Construction in Progress account.
49Exercises and Problems In Class: E 9 (as is) + Gross Profit Schedule+ JE for 2011 (% of Completion)Home Work: E10 (Requirements 1 - 3)P 5 (Requirements 1 - 3)
50U. S. GAAP vs. IFRSThere are similarities and differences between IFRS and U.S. GAAP when considering revenue recognition for long-term construction contracts.Requires percentage-of-completion when reliable estimates can be made.Requires completed contract method when reliable estimates can’t be made.IAS No. 11 governs revenue recognition for long-term construction contracts. Like U.S. GAAP, that standard requires the use of the percentage-of-completion method when reliable estimates can be made. However, unlike U.S. GAAP, IAS No. 11 requires the use of the cost recovery method rather than the completed contract method when reliable estimates can’t be made. Under the cost recovery method, contract costs are expensed as incurred, and an offsetting amount of contract revenue is recognized to the extent that it is probable that costs will be recoverable from the customer. No gross profit is recognized until all costs have been recovered, which is why this method is also sometimes called the “zero-profit method.” Note that under both the completed contract and cost recovery methods no gross profit is recognized until the contract is essentially completed, but revenue and construction costs will be recognized earlier under the cost recovery method than under the completed contract method. Also, under both methods an expected loss is recognized immediately.Requires percentage-of-completion when reliable estimates can be made.Requires cost recovery method when reliable estimates can’t be made.
51U. S. GAAP vs. IFRSNotice that revenue recognition occurs earlier under the cost recovery method than under the completed contract method, but gross profit recognition occurs at the end of the contract for both methods.To see this difference between the completed contract and cost recovery methods, this slide shows a comparison of the revenue, cost and gross profit recognition under the two methods. Notice that revenue recognition occurs earlier under the cost recovery method than under the completed contract method, but gross profit recognition occurs at the end of the contract for both methods. As a result, gross profit as a percentage of revenue differs between the two methods at various points in the life of the contract.
52Software and Other Multiple- Deliverable Arrangements If a sale includes multiple elements (software, future upgrades, postcontract customer support, etc.), the revenue should be allocated to the elements that have stand-alone value (e.g., aren’t contingent). Otherwise, defer revenue recognition until the last item delivered.Software: base allocation on VSOEOther: can use estimated selling prices. This includes tangible products that contain essential software.The software industry is a key economic component of our economy. Microsoft alone reported revenues in excess of $58 billion for its 2009 fiscal year. Yet, the recognition of software revenues has been a controversial accounting issue. The controversy stems from the way software vendors typically package their products. It is not unusual for these companies to sell multiple software deliverables in a bundle for a lump-sum contract price. The bundle often includes product, upgrades, postcontract customer support, and other services. The critical accounting question concerns the timing of revenue recognition.The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) issued authoritative guidance in this area. The AICPA position indicates that if an arrangement includes multiple elements, the revenue from the arrangement should be allocated to the various elements based on “vendor-specific objective evidence” (“VSOE”) of fair values of the individual elements. It doesn’t matter what separate prices are indicated in the multiple-element contract. Rather, the VSOE of fair values are the sales prices of the elements when sold separately by that vendor. If VSOE doesn’t exist, revenue recognition is deferred until VSOE is available or until all elements of the arrangement are delivered.For non-software arrangements, revenue now can be allocated to deliverables that have stand-alone value (e.g., aren’t contingent on the delivery of other items) based on the selling prices of those elements. Unlike for software, estimated selling prices can be used. This is a departure from prior guidance (EITF 00-21), which required objective and reliable value of fair value. And, this extends to products that involve both hardware and software for which the software is an integral part of the product. So, for example, if a vendor sells a computer that includes an operating system that is essential to the computer’s operation, and also includes ongoing customer support, revenue can be allocated to the computer and the customer support based on estimated selling prices.
53U. S. GAAP vs. IFRSIFRS contains very little guidance about multiple-deliverable arrangements.Revenue should be allocated to the various elements based on the stand-alone selling prices of the individual elements. These can be estimated for non-software arrangements if VSOE is not available, but have to use VSOE for software arrangements.May be necessary to apply the recognition criteria to the separately identifiable components of a single transaction.Allocation of total revenue to individual components are based on fair value.IFRS contains very little guidance about multiple-deliverable arrangements. IAS No. 18 simply states that: ”. . . in certain circumstances, it is necessary to apply the recognition criteria to the separately identifiable components of a single transaction in order to reflect the substance of the transaction” and gives a couple of examples. Allocations of total revenue to individual components are based on fair value, with no requirements to focus on VSOE (for software) or stand-alone selling prices (for other multiple-deliverable arrangements). Also, IFRS tends to encourage focus on the underlying economics of revenue transactions, so particular contractual characteristics like contingencies may matter less under IFRS than they do under U.S. GAAP.
54Revenue recognition criteria for U.S. GAAP and IFRS include: U. S. GAAP vs. IFRSRevenue recognition criteria for U.S. GAAP and IFRS include:Earnings process is complete or virtually complete.Reasonable certainty as to the collectibility of the asset to be received.Revenue and costs can be measured reliably.Probable that economic benefits will flow to the seller.Risk and rewards are transferred to buyer and seller does not manage or control the goods.Stage of completion can be measured reliably.IAS No. 18 governs most revenue recognition under IFRS. Similar to U.S. GAAP, it defines revenue as “the gross inflow of economic benefits during the period arising in the course of the ordinary activities of an entity when those inflows result in increases in equity, other than increases relating to contributions from equity participants.” IFRS allows revenue to be recognized when the following conditions have been satisfied:(a) The amount of revenue and costs associated with the transaction can be measured reliably,(b) It is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the seller,(c) (for sales of goods) the seller has transferred to the buyer the risks and rewards of ownership, and doesn't effectively manage or control the goods,(d) (for sales of services) the stage of completion can be measured reliably.These general conditions typically will lead to revenue recognition at the same time and in the same amount as would occur under U.S. GAAP, but there are exceptions. For example, later in this chapter we discuss differences between IFRS and U.S. GAAP that may affect the timing of revenue recognition with respect to multiple-deliverable contracts. More generally, IFRS has much less industry-specific guidance that does U.S. GAAP, leading to fewer exceptions to applying these revenue recognition conditions.
55Franchise Sales Initial Franchise Fees Continuing Franchise Fees Generally are recognized at a point in time when the earnings process is virtually complete.Continuing Franchise FeesRecognized over time as the services are performed.The use of franchise arrangements has become increasingly popular in the United States over the past 30 years. In the franchise arrangement, the franchisor grants to the franchisee the right to sell the franchisor’s products and use its name for a specified period of time. The fees paid by the franchisee to the franchisor usually comprise the initial franchise fee and the continuing franchise fee.Continuing franchise fees are paid to the franchisor for continuing rights as well as for advertising and promotion and other services provided over the life of the franchise agreement. These fees sometimes are a fixed annual or monthly amount, a percentage of the volume of business done by the franchise, or a combination of both. Continuing franchise fees are recognized over time as the services are performed.The challenging revenue recognition issue pertains to the initial franchise fee. The initial franchise fee is usually a fixed amount that may be payable in installments. In many cases, the initial franchise fee covers significant services to be performed in the future. And, if the fee is payable in installments over an extended period of time, it creates an additional concern of collectibility. Specific guidance for revenue recognition of the initial franchise fee is provided in GAAP, which requires that substantially all of the initial services of the franchisor required by the franchise agreement be performed before the initial franchise fee can be recognized a revenue. In situations where the initial franchise fee is collectible in installments, the installment sales method or cost recovery method should be used for profit recognition, if a reasonable estimate of uncollectibility cannot be made.
56The Boards appear committed to improving accounting in this area. U. S. GAAP vs. IFRSThe FASB and IASB are currently working on a new, comprehensive approach to revenue recognition.Has over 100 revenue-related standards that sometimes contradict each other.Has two primary standards that also sometimes contradict each other and that don’t offer guidance in some important areas (like multiple deliverables).The FASB and IASB are currently working on a new, comprehensive approach to revenue recognition. Why? Currently, the FASB has over 100 revenue-related standards that sometimes contradict each other and that treat similar economic events differently. The IASB has two primary standards (IAS No. 11 and IAS No. 18) that also sometimes contradict each other and that don’t offer guidance in some important areas (like multiple deliverables). And, although both the FASB and IASB define revenue in terms of flows of assets and liabilities, the FASB guidance typically bases revenue recognition on the earnings process, while the IASB standards base it on the transfer of the risks and rewards of ownership, which can lead to different outcomes. So, the accounting guidance on revenue recognition could use some improvement.The Boards are working on a new approach that defines revenue as resulting from inflows and outflows of assets and liabilities that underlie the “performance obligations” inherent in a contract between a company (the “seller”) and its customer. Revenue is recognized when the seller satisfies a performance obligation by transferring a promised asset (a good or a service) to the customer, with “transfer” having occurred when the customer controls the asset (a service is viewed as an asset that is consumed immediately by the customer, so it typically doesn’t appear in the customer’s balance sheet as an asset). Revenue is measured at the transaction price (the amount of consideration that the customer promises when the contract is made). If a contract requires that the seller provide multiple goods and services, the seller estimates the stand-alone selling price of each of those goods and services and allocates the transaction price to each good and service on that basis.For many types of sales arrangements, adopting this new approach would not change current practice much, but in some areas it would change practice considerably. For example, because revenue is recognized only when the seller transfers control of the asset to the buyer, percentage-of-completion accounting would not be allowed unless the customer controls the asset being constructed. On the other hand, some performance obligations that now are ignored from a revenue recognition standpoint (like a warranty that is not sold separately and which we will discuss in Chapter 13) would now be viewed as producing revenue, with estimation necessary to allocate part of the transaction price to the warranty. It is likely that this comprehensive revenue standard will be controversial, and it could change or even be abandoned before implementation. However, the Boards appear committed to improving accounting in this area.The Boards appear committed to improving accounting in this area.