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Ownership and Risk of Loss in Sales Transactions

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Presentation on theme: "Ownership and Risk of Loss in Sales Transactions"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ownership and Risk of Loss in Sales Transactions
Chapter 16

2 The Power to Transfer Ownership
Lesson 16-1

3 Goals Describe various types of goods
Discuss who may transfer ownership of goods Explain what is required for transfer of ownership of goods Identify when the ownership of goods has transferred

4 Who may transfer the ownership of goods?
Brad stole a cassette player from Fuller’s car. He then sold it to Standon, who knew it was stolen. Did either Brad or Standon receive good title to the cassette player? No, neither received title and Standon is guilty of receiving stolen property because he know it was stolen

5 Power to Transfer Ownership
Only the true owner of goods may legally transfer Stolen goods – receive possession, but no title, because the thief did not have good title to give True whether the buyer is innocent or knows that the goods were stolen Stolen goods often are not clearly identified and therefore not returned to the owner Public Auction

6 Transfer of Ownership 4 exceptions to transfer of ownership
Authorized persons Buyers in a sale induced by fraud Holders of negotiable documents of title Merchants with possession of sold goods

7 1. Authorized persons May validly sell what they do not own if the owner has authorized Salespeople, Auctioneers and Sheriffs

8 2. Buyers in a sale induced by fraud
If an owner of goods is induced by fraud to sell the goods, the buyer obtains a voidable title The victimized seller may cancel the contract and recover the goods unless an innocent third party has given value and acquired rights in them Good faith purchaser The defrauded seller must seek damages from the original fraudulent buyer Case (page 247)

9 3. Holders of negotiable documents of title
Certain documents are often used as a substitute for possession of goods Warehouse receipts, bills of lading, airbills Ownership transfers by transferring the document alone May be negotiable or nonnegotiable If negotiable, the goods are to be delivered to the bearer, who is the person in possession of the document (holder) Holders are deemed to have title to the goods

10 4. Merchants with possession of sold goods
Sometimes a buyer will allow the merchant seller to temporarily retain possession of the goods Tort of conversion – using property in a manner inconsistent with the owner’s rights Case (page 248)

11 What’s Your Verdict? O’Dell was preparing for a gala New Year’s Eve charity ball. He could not decide which of three tuxedos to buy from Signet Styles. At O’Dell’s request, the manager set all three aside until the next day so O’Dell’s friend could come in to help him decide. That night a fire destroyed the store and its contents. Must O’Dell pay for the tuxedos that were set aside?

12 Requirements for Transfer of Ownership
For transfer of ownership goods must be BOTH existing and identified Existing goods Are physically in existence even though they may not be in a fully assembled and immediately deliverable condition Owned by the seller Identified goods Have been specifically designated as the subject matter of a particular sales contract Marked, separated, or made distinct

13 Requirements for Transfer of Ownership
Future goods Is a contract to sell rather than a sale Neither ownership nor risk of loss passes at the time of the agreement Unless goods are BOTH existing and identified, they are future goods Fungible goods (exception to identification) Goods of a homogenous or essentially identical in nature (each unit is equal to every other unit) Corn, oil, canned fruits in a warehouse Buyer becomes owner at the time of agreement Goods pass without selection or identification

14 When Does Ownership Transfer?
Page 249 – What’s Your Verdict? Once goods are identified and existing, disputes arise over who has title Risk of loss if goods are damaged, stolen, or destroyed Courts will examine the sales agreement If no agreement, look to the UCC for a solution Neither the method of payment nor the time of payment governs the outcome of ownership

15 Seller delivers goods to the destination
Title passes when goods are tendered at the specified destination Tender of delivery Means that the seller places (or authorizes a carrier to place) the proper goods at the buyer’s disposal and notifies the buyer so that delivery can be received

16 Seller ships, but does not deliver, goods to the destination
Authorized the seller to ship the goods buy does not obligate the seller to deliver them to the destination Title passes to the buyer at the time and place of shipment, when possession is transferred to the carrier

17 Seller delivers document of title
Seller is to deliver a document of title (airbill) Title passes when and where the document is delivered Example- Degory bought 600 tons of oats from Delta. The oats were stored in a public grain elevator. Title passed when an authorized agent of Delta delivered a negotiable warehouse receipt for the oats to Degory

18 Buyer takes possession at place of sale
Title passes at the time and place where the sales contract is made

19 Risk of Loss and Insurable Interest

20 Goals Explain when the risk of loss from seller to buyer transfers in different situations Explain when insurable property interests transfer in different situations

21 Seller Ships Goods by Carrier
If seller is to deliver the goods to a particular destination using a carrier (railroad) Risk of loss passes to the buyer at destination, upon tender of delivery If seller is NOT to deliver the goods to a particular destination using a carrier Risk of loss passes to the buyer when the goods are delivered to the carrier

22 What’s Your Verdict? (Page 251)
Case (Page 251)

23 FOB Free on Board FOB Atlanta FOB, Buyer’s warehouse, NYC
Seller agrees to deliver the goods only to the carrier’s freight station in Atlanta FOB, Buyer’s warehouse, NYC Risk of loss remains with seller until the goods are delivered to the warehouse Buyer NYC Seller Atlanta

24 Foreign Shipments CIF Price Seller contracts for adequate insurance
Cost, Insurance, and freight Seller contracts for adequate insurance ROL transfers when the seller delivers the goods to the carrier Insurance provides protection

25 Goods Held by Bailee Bailee
Has temporary possession of another person’s goods, holding them in trust for a specified purpose (public warehouse) The goods may be sold by the owner, yet the contract may call for delivery to the buyer without the goods being moved ROL transfers to buyer in any of the following situations: When the buyer receives a negotiable document of title (warehouse receipt) When the bailee acknowledges the buyer’s right to the possession of the goods After the buyer receives a non-negotiable document of title or other written direction to a bailee to deliver the goods

26 Breach After Goods Identified
The seller sometimes breaches by providing goods so faulty that the buyer rightly rejects them ROL remains with the seller until the defects are corrected

27 Goods neither shipped by carrier nor held by bailee
If seller is a merchant, ROL falls on the buyer If the seller is NOT a merchant, the ROL transfers to the buyer as soon as the seller makes a tender of delivery Cases (Page 252)

28 Insurable Interest Buyer obtains a special property interest in goods at the time of their identification to the contract The special interest gives the buyer the right to buy insurance Identification Setting aside, marking, tagging, labeling, boxing, branding, or shipping What’s Your Verdict? (Page 252)

29 Insurable Interest In addition to the insurable interest, the buyer has the following rights: To inspect the identified goods at a reasonable hour To compel delivery if the seller wrongfully withholds delivery To collect damages from third persons who take or injure the goods

30 Specific Transactions
Cash-and-Carry Sales Pay cash and take immediate delivery Title passes at time of transaction Checks are common but are not legal tender Check is not considered payment until the check is paid by the bank Does not affect the timing of the transfer or the ROL for the buyer

31 Specific Transactions
Sales on Credit A sale that calls for payment for the goods at a later date Ownership and ROL may pass even though the time of payment or delivery is delayed COD Sale Collect on Delivery If the buyer does not pay, goods are not delivered Seller retains control over goods until paid

32 Specific Transactions
Sale or Return Is a completed sale in which the buyer has an option of returning the goods Ownership and ROL pass to the buyer upon delivery If the goods are returned in a reasonable amount of time, ownership and ROL transfer back to the seller (goods must be in original condition) The good are subject to the buyers creditors What’s Your Verdict? (Page 253)

33 Specific Transactions
Sale on Approval “on trial” or “on satisfaction” Ownership and ROL do not transfer until the buyer approves the goods Words, payment, any conduct indicating approval, or retention of goods Buyer is liable for any damage to them caused by his or her negligence Buyer may reject the goods for any cause (reasonable or not)

34 Specific Transactions
Sale of an Undivided Interest A person who sells a fractional interest in a single good or in a number of goods that are to remain together Ownership and ROL pass to each buyer at the time of the sale Auction Public sale to the highest bidder The auctioneer accepts the highest bid on behalf of the owner of the goods Ownership passes at that time ROL passes upon tender of the goods in exchange for payment “With Reserve” and “Without Reserve”

35 Specific Transactions
Bulk Transfer Transfer, generally by sale, of all or a major part of the goods of a business in one unit at one time Goods include materials, supplies, merchandise, and equipment if sold with the inventory Law protects dishonest merchants who sell out secretly, keep the proceeds, and disappear The UCC requires notice to the seller’s creditors before the bulk transfer is made

36 Assignment Page #1-10 Page 256 #1-9 Page 257 #17-19

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