Presentation on theme: "Knowledge and Capacity Development"— Presentation transcript:
1Knowledge and Capacity Development A case study of the Water and Sanitation Sub-Sectorin UgandaPresenter: Caroline Murungi30th May 2013
2Content: Leadership in the sector a) Step by step guide in Actor Assessmentb) Application of AAMOverall analysis of actors' contributionLessons learnt, Innovations, study limitations & conclusions6) Proposition providing basis for discussion based on the findingsContent:Introductory Informationa) Background informationb) Institutional arrangement of the water sector in Uganda2) Research methodologyKnowledge creation and transfer with focus on;a) Functionality of the sectorb) How is K & CD organized andc) Challenges encounteredExpert meeting within scope of 5th Delft Symposium-> short pres on rationale, focus & envisaged outputs of SymposiumSymposium being organised in partnership with ADB, Cap-Net, Min Foreign Affairs and VEI.
3Background Information Location, land area, water resources & popn sizeMap of UgandaUganda is a landlocked country located in East Africa bordered to the: North by Sudan, East by Kenya, South by Tanzania, Southwest by Rwanda andWest by the Democratic Republic of CongoUganda has a total area of 241,550.7 square kilometresOpen water and swamps cover 41,743.2sq. kms.Land area is 199,807.4 sq. kmsUganda’ s fresh open water resources cover a total of 17.3% of the total Uganda’s surface area (MWE, 2012)Uganda has a population of 34 million people.5.01million (14.7%) - urban areas and29.09 million, (85.3%) - rural areas. (MWE, 2012)Leading up to Symposium, solliciting range of inputs:Commissioned papers:LeadershipCapacity developmentCountry case studies on WS KCDExpert meeting: generate important input for further discussion during SymposiumSource:
4Institutional Arrangement for the Water and Environment Sector Overall coordination between government, Dev't partners and NGOsMoLGMoEMDMoTIMAAFMWEMoESMoFPEDMoHMoGLSDNational level:-Monitoring and Assessment-Planning and Regulation-Advise and Facilitation-Laws and Policies-Quality assurance and guidanceCapacity developmentFinancial assistance and fundingWESWGWater Policy Committee:- MWE MoEMD-NEMA - MoLGMAAIF - NWSCMoTIParastatal organizations:- NEMANWSCNFADWRMDWDDEASub- groups-ENR-WSSUrban water supply and sanitationRural water supply and sanitationWater for productionRegional level:-Monitoring and Assessment-Planning and Regulation-Advise and Facilitation-Quality assurance and guidanceCapacity developmentFinancial assistance and fundingPrivate SectorDecentralized Regional FacilitationTechnical Support Units (TSUs)Umbrella Organizations (UOs)Water Management Zones (WMZs)Water and Sanitation Development Facility (WSDF)Contractors and consultants providing services at national, regional and community levelsCommunity level:-Coordination of mgt and Dev't activities-Implementation of infrastructure, projects and progs-Operation and Maintenance-Community mobilization and stakeholder participationCommunications and awareness raisingDistrict Local Government:District Water Office (DWO)District Environment Officer(DEO)District Forestry Office (DFO)District Directorate of Health Services (DDHS)District Education Office (DEO)Community Based Organizations (CBOs)Catchment- based Management Organizations (CMOs)Water User Associations (WUAs)District Water and Sanitation Coordination Committees (DWSCCs)NGOsRepresented nationally by UWASNETAccountabilityAdvice and facilitation
5Research methodology & research objectives Identify ways in which the national water sector is functioningIdentify how the generation and transfer of knowledge and capacity is organizedIdentify who feels responsible for , and is taking the lead in K & CD1.Semi-structured interviews & literature reviewActor Assessment Matrix ToolActorInterestR’cesImportanceEngagement in CDoverallScoreList of resource sscoreHow the actor is involved in CD2.Semi-structured interviews, FGD & literature reviewUndecidedSupportResistanceActor B, FActor DCircle of Influence Graphics Tool3.Semi-structured interviews, FGD & literature reviewSupported with the Actor Assessment Matrix & Circle of influence Graphics Tools
6Functionality & performance of the sector AspectsUrban(large towns)Small towns (municipalities & town councils)Rural Growth centres (popn. btn 1,500- 5,000)Rural areas (communities/villages popn. Up to 1,500)WaterPolicy formulationMinistry of Water and Environment (MWE)Service provisionNWSCMWE/LG- through PWOMWE/LG- WUCC D initiativesMWE/WSDFs, APWO, NGOsMWE/ WSDFs & NGOsTSUs, UOs, ATC NGOsSanitationNWSC- sewerage, MoH (hh), MoES (primary Schools)MWE, MoES, MoHMoH, MoESCD initiativesMWE-WSDFsMWE- WSDFsNGOsMoH×MoES??? ?IndicatorAchievementsTargets10/1111/1212/13Access- % of people within 1 km (rural) and 0.2 km (urban) of an improved water sourceRural65%64%66%Urban69%Sanitation- % of people with access to improved sanitation (households)69.8%69.6%73%81%82%Sanitation- pupil to latrine/toilet stance ratio-schools66:169:150:1
7Knowledge Creation & Transfer - MWE Visser, 2011YearNumber of Districts1962171968181971191974371979331990341991381994391997452000562005702006792010112Knowledge Creation & Transfer - MWEIn the sector, whenever new districts are created, the MWE takes the lead to provide staff and equipment to facilitation provision of water mgt services- enabling env’tTraining progs. to DWO in information mgt and sharing to update the Water Atlas database.Introduction of institutional structures at regional level to facilitate implementation of WATSAN servicesTSUs provide CD to local Gov’t staff (DWO, CDO) in rural areas in terms of :Technical support in construction of water schemesPreparation of work plansBudgeting on allocation of resourcesGuidance on priority and implementation of activitiesSupervision and monitoringWith the use of training manuals and handbooks -UOs provide trainings to water boards in areas of:- water scheme sustainability- record keeping- conflict management- customer careATC undertakes innovative applied research in appropriate technologies for water and sanitation- this facilitates knowledge creation & transfer.To ensure sustainability & promote continued K transfer, ATC offers training programs to sector actors & communities e.g.- technicians -construction of water schemes,- district and extension staff – monitoring of technologies- community members e.g. those providing labour – acquire hand-on-skills- NGOs -project planning and implementation
8Knowledge Creation & Transfer - MWE Besides, other ways through which K is transferred include;Provision of dissemination workshopsSector stakeholders meet and share information of lessons learnt & the way forwardExchange visits where staff members are sent to identified areas of knowledge in needDocumentation of and sharing of best practices with sector organizationsProvision of training programs to PWO in business mgt skills – preparation of business plans and financial management & water management skills- technical aspects & water qualityMWE developed a one year training program targeting fresh graduatesStudents under go on-job training – technical skills required in the sectorMWE also organizes tailor –made courses, workshops and on-job training for its staff.Support to staff to pursue further studies at master levels and post degree academic qualificationsRegarding sanitation the MWE-Use of Community Total Led Sanitation (CTLS-to build capacity and awareness of communities on the need for improved sanitation services.With the support from WSP the trains the local masons to provide man power to communitiesThough it feels responsible for sanitation the MoH is not undertaking capacity development initiatives- the major reason behind this – limited funding
9Knowledge Creation & Transfer – NETWAS Uganda NETWAS Uganda is an NGO, which begun its operation in It operates on four pillars:i) Capacity Development ii) Information and Knowledge Managementiii) Evidence Based Advocacy & iv) Organization and Institutional DevelopmentTo enhance Knowledge Creation & Transfer, NETWAS offersLocal Government staff at District level,Community Dev’t Officers and Village Health Teams at community levelTailor-made TrainingsTrainingsDemand- driven TrainingsScheduled TrainingsNETWAS offers ToT to the LG Staff – e.g. - administering training materials to the LG staff.Engages staff during trainings on siteThrough partnership activities are done jointly e.g., sharing work plans, writing proposals , implementation, follow up, reporting, etcDuring preparation of learning sessions, NETWAS consults district stakeholders to choose themes for discussionDocumentation & publication of success stories- NETWAS is in partnership with Plan Uganda on a project focusing on increased access to WATSANNETWAS organizes reflection meetings- these can be inter-district capacity building workshopsDuring learning sessions, people are encouraged & also facilitated to document best practices
10Knowledge Creation & Transfer – NETWAS Uganda Depending on capacity needs assessment- NETWAS chooses and facilitates themes to sensitize communitiesThe application of Community Score Cards to assess performance & identify gapsAnnually, NETWAS organizes a 2-3 days learning forum where different actors from MWE, MoH, MoES and private sector involvementAt the community level, NETWAS provides training to WUC & VHT to manage community established structures and promote sanitation and hygiene.At District level NETWAS offers trainings to DWO & DHI to equip them with monitoring, evaluation and sanitation marketing approaches.To enhance knowledge and capacity dev’t for its own staff; NETWAS organizes the ff. programmes:On-job training which involves mentoringInvolving program officers in participatory learningDevelopment of training manuals and management of databaseOrientation progs for new staff on how the manuals developed, used, documentation of progress reports etc
11Knowledge Creation & Transfer- APWO APWO promotes CD through provision of training progs. and advise to private operators on technical aspects and service standards.With the use of training manuals, APWO undertakes the following activities to facilitate knowledge creation and transfer;a) Participatory Adult Learning Approaches- where operators are engaged in trainings‘how do you do it at your station’ – As a results experiences are shared and lessons are learntWith the support of Vitens Evides Int. , European Union, GIZ & NWSC, assess management trainings are provided to private operators to equip them with skills on asset operation and maintenance with emphasis on : -‘what to do, when, how and by whom’APWO encourages participatory development of business plans among water companies.this arrangement enables operators to learn and acquire skills to analyze business related aspects e.g. tariff structures & other components involvedDepending on the capacity needs assessment, APWO organizes tailor made courses in financial mgt e.g.Such courses may target cashiers to equipthem with skills – book keeping & related accountingProceduresTogether with financial support from AQUAYA –an NGO, APWO offers training programs to private operators on water quality focusing on water safety and promotion of hygiene.Under the GIZ funded WAVE programme, training courses covering the areas of Customer Care and Commercial Orientation (CCO) and Non Revenue Water (NRW) have been conducted.More recently other training courses have been conducted in the areas of Water Integrity, Sanitation Marketing and Management Development.Following the decentralization policy (1994), PWO came on board –to manage water schemes in small towns.To consolidate & coordinate the activities of the private operators, - the APWO was formed
12Factors hindering capacity development Among the capacity development challenges identified, include the following:MWEThe lack of coordination within the sector, has not given room to organizations providing capacity dev’t to know ‘what has been done for whom, how and by whom’- duplication of efforts and wastage of resources.The lack of formalized links with the water sector organisations limits the academic institutions to explore the skills required by the sector and thus design courses that address actual sector requirements. -More theoretical skillsIn some of the technical institutions, the teachers - inadequate capacity as the majority of them stem from the communities where the technical institutions are located – global outlook becomes very limited and grossly inhibits CDSome technical institutions lack the capacity to deliver well-equipped graduates.Extensive abuse of capacity development and training initiatives. Most staff seem to view training and capacity building as an additional source of income.Cross-cutting and cross-sectoral issues are also a challenge to capacity developmentSub-division of districts – fragments capacity and knowledge developedLimited resources and tools to transfer knowledge acquired inhibits capacity developmentLack of interest and willingness from subordinates to learn & staff turn overBureaucracy, corruption, political interference inadequate exemplary leadership & lack of incetivesNETWASProjects time frames limits possibilities to follow-up and assess the impact of knowledge transferred- limits identification of CD gapsAPWOLack of standardized training materials. Each time trainings are to be conducted- new manual are developedLack of permanent to offer CD trainings- this calls for outsourcing – becomes expensiveUOsPoor storage of materials & poor reading cultureMWE, NETWAS, NWSC & APWOlack of defined mechanisms for follow up to assess the extent of knowledge use
13Leadership in the Sector Step by step guide in Actors' AssessmentActor's Interest was assessed on a three point scale;Supportive+1UndecidedOpposing-1Actor's resources were assessed on a three point scale;High resources3Medium2low1Actor's level of attachment to the importance of CD and thus engagement was also assessed on a three point scale;High Importance & engagementLowTo analyze actors’contribution toK & CD, three aspects wereconsidered; i.e.Actor’s InterestActor’s resourcesActor’ s engagementinCD processesSource: European Commission Toolkit forCapacity Development
14Leadership in the Sector- UWASNET, ULGA & MWE Assessment ActorsInterestResourcesImportance and thus level of engagementScoreMWE (JPF)+1High financial support,Enabling environment,Power/Authority andPolicy development3Implementation through SWAp,technical support & guidance,monitoring and supervision9DANIDAPower/authority2Technical support and guidance, implementation, high engagement in CSOs work andmonitoring6Water AidModerate financial supportPartnership/networkingCD of members through Working Groups and other foras,Monitoring to through Good Governance WG and other joint programmes,Direct implementation with other members4Dutch Wash AllianceFinancial Support and networkingDirect implementation with members in the Rwenzori, Northern and Central regionsSNVTechnical support and networkingMentoring/ coaching while giving technical support and implementation of CD programmesGIZFinancial support (medium), technical support and guidanceImplementation, technical support and guidance through the development partnersHorizonT3000Technical support1Provision of technical advisors to the members- currently there is one technical staff at UWASNET secretariat
15Leadership in the Sector- NETWAS, NWSC & APWO Assessment ActorsInterestResourcesImportance and thus level of engagementScoreEU+1Financial resources1.5Supervision through the partners with whom the funds are entrusted1In Went Capacity Building International (GIZ)Human resources being high andHigh financial resources,Authority/power2.5Implementation and monitoring37.5Vitens Evides/NWSCHuman and financial resources2Implementation4AQUAYAModerate financial resourcesDutch WASHAllinace-DWAHigh Financial resources and human resources are a priority as wellImplementation. However, not strong in monitoring and evaluation.Water AidModerate financial resources,Power /authorityImplementation and supervisionTransparency InternationalLow financial resourcesMWEAuthority/power to develop policiesImplementation,Supervision andmonitoring9Plan UgandaModerate financial resources andHigh human resourcesDanidaHigh financial resources, low human resource andpowerImplementation and
16Leadership in the Sector- Overall Analysis The provision of:human and financial resources,setting up structural arrangements,policy development,power to influence policy development in favor of CD and mobilization of resources through networking , have given the MWE the ability to support CD development initiatives not only for itself, but also for other organizations.MWE is also involved in CD processes through;provision of training programs, implementation, supervision, monitoring and evaluation, policy guidance and provision of technical support.
17Lessons learnt , innovations & study limitations Much as water and sanitation aspects are combined, it is seen that sanitation has limited attention compared to water- most institutional setups with related activities seem to address water issuesThe lack of coordination among the three ministries responsible for sanitation- a contribution to limited CD on sanitationThe limited attention to sanitation- cld also be related to lack of defined leadership- MoU states responsibilities but doesn’t provide mandateThe factor of duplication of efforts stems from limited coordination -(failure/limited directive by the government on CD interventions –service providers & donors ) &also failure of donors to coordinate their interventionsSince there is no coordination mechanism, it is difficult to know who has provided what to which sector organisations – thus leaving questions on financial flows & accountabilitySustainability of CD initiatives remains a big challenge since most activities are donor based & as such are within specific time frames.InnovationsThe MWE recently developed a Sector Capacity Development Strategy (SCD), with the support of development partners:to improve coordination among sector organisations,standardization of training materials andharmonization of training methodologiesNWSC with the support from GIZ has initiated the development of a vocational training facility to offer both theory and practical skills to:plumbers,staff dealing with water quality,customer care advisors andelectro-mechanical engineers. To facilitate knowledge creation and transfer, a vocational skills development action plan, training modules and training materials are being developed.Limitations:The application of the AAM tool, has limited options to assess the actors’ contribution i.e. 1-3 – limits analyzing the actual extent of contributionThere was limited repeated analysis of actors; therefore the assessment might not be precise enough, but gives an overview of the situation
18Conclusion & recommendation In conclusion, considering the functionality, knowledge creation and transfer, and leadership:it is clear that institutional arrangements are in place to facilitate learning in the sectorroles and responsibilities for sector institutions are clearly defined &distinct and directed efforts are being taken to strengthen the knowledge and capacity base.From the analysis; it is also clear that :MWE has come out as the undisputed leader in CD for the water sectorHowever; major challenges remain. They include;1. the lack of formal mechanisms to assess the:a) application of acquired knowledge &extent to which specific modes KC & T have contributed to performance2. lack of coordination and oversight over CD providers, CD target groups and CD activities3. lack of involvement of line ministries responsible for sanitation4. limited coordination between higher education institutions and sector organisationsRecommendation:Concerned stakeholders convene and set up mechanisms to develop approaches to coordinate CD activities &build up monitoring and evaluation tools to assess post-training activities.The relationship between government and the :- water sector organisations on one hand;higher education system on the other handshould be strengthened –provide relevant tertiary education & academic output
19Proposition:Limited coordination to direct capacity development initiatives at different levels, coupled with lack of formal mechanisms to assess the extent of knowledge use and the extent to which specific ways of knowledge transfer contribute to performance, have strained the success of capacity development initiatives.WHAT IS????
20Thank you for your attention Contact details:Name: Caroline MurungiFunction:ResearcherOrganisation: UNESCO-IHE