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Advanced Methodologies for Ash Utilization in Mines vis-à-vis Environment Protection: A Glimpse of Few Cases from United States Dr. Shiv Kumar Dube Senior.

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Presentation on theme: "Advanced Methodologies for Ash Utilization in Mines vis-à-vis Environment Protection: A Glimpse of Few Cases from United States Dr. Shiv Kumar Dube Senior."— Presentation transcript:

1 Advanced Methodologies for Ash Utilization in Mines vis-à-vis Environment Protection: A Glimpse of Few Cases from United States Dr. Shiv Kumar Dube Senior Fellow, TERI, New Delhi & Ex-General Manager Ash Management NTPC Limited 3 rd Annual International Summit on Fly Ash Utilization Mission Energy Foundation, New Delhi December 17, 2013

2 2 Welcome

3 Profile (a)Ph.D. IIT Delhi 1981 on Metal Oxide Catalysts: Petroleum Hydrocarbons (Petrol) from Methyl Alcohol likewise. (b)Ex- faculty to Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Illinois USA and University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. (c)6 Patents including the Development of the process for the Manufacture of pond ash based un-sintered light weight aggregates. (d)Chaired a Session Chair in an important event like 15 th International American Coal Ash Association Symposium at St. Petersburg, Florida, USA. (e)Had been invited for three consecutive years from 1996 to 1998 to Chair Sessions in American Power Conference, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago.


5 Translation of new ideas given in NTPC turned into reality: Year 1985 and onwards……

6 Responsible for Accomplishing First time in NTPC: Introduced the Concept of Fly ash bricks by showing Fly ash bricks in 1985: Introduced the Fly ash bricks concept to NTPC vide R&D Project F-401, 1983, completed by me at National Council for Cement and Building Materials (NCB, New Delhi). Manufacture of fly ash bricks: Completed first trials of manufacture of fly ash bricks at BTPS ash pond in 1987 and then produced steam-cured bricks in at M/s Hindustan Pre-fab Limited, New Delhi. Clay Fly Bricks: By conducting studies it was proved in that BTPS and Korba ash are suitable for the manufacture of Clay Fly bricks.

7 Responsible for Accomplishing First time in NTPC: Fly ash based Road: By constructing Test Track (road) at BTPS ash dyke, it was proved that there is saving of about 60% and 9% in the construction of sub-base course and base course respectively, as a CBIP Project Fly ash based lightweight aggregates: Developed the process for the manufacture of lightweight aggregates for making concrete using fly ash (PATENT No ). Introduction of Cenosphere Concept, 1988.

8 Responsible for Accomplishing First time in NTPC: Mine filling: based on the experience acquired in USA, arranged to initiate and then accomplished the Systematic study for filling ash in mines for the first time. Based on the exhaustive work of Ash Utilization Cell of R&D Department- Group Head- Dr. S. K. Dube; NTPC created a New Department known as Ash Utilization Division in 1991.

9 Certain Technical Developments (New Products And Processes) and Patents etc.(I): Development of Oil well cements using fly ash for class G and class J for the applications up to the depths of 4000 & 8000 meter (1982). Development of non-shrinking (expansive) cement(1982) Development of fly ash bricks manufacture in Development of process for manufacture of fly ash bricks for the fly as produced from Singrauli, Korba, Ramagundam and Farakka stations of NTPC Development of a process for the manufacture of lightweight aggregates for making concrete using fly ash (PATENT No /2003). 9

10 Certain Technical Developments (New Products And Processes) and Patents etc. (II): The Construction of road using fly ash and bottom ash and bringing down the expenditure by more than 55%. Development of Grouts for backfilling of underground mines. Development of Lightweight jute bags for packing cement for implementation in the cement industry. Development of Process for the manufacture of oxalic acid using Sarkanda (Sacchrum-Munja: a type of wild grass) with yield level of 40%. Successful pilot plant trials for the manufacture of Geo-Polymer Fly ash bricks. 10

11 11 Innovative Applications of Coal Ash 1. Ash along with OB filling in Mines 2. Ash-Bitumen wearing Course 3. Fly ash Geo-Polymer Concrete 4. Fly ash based foamed Concrete/ AAC 5. Fly Ash - Aluminum Composites / Foam 6. Resonance Shock Compression Technology 7. Cold Setting Technology: Building Bricks 8. Flux Bonded Technology: Building Bricks 9. Ash Based Wooden Components

12 Management & Administration of Research & Study Projects Conducted/ being conducted 1. Canal lining work, IIT Kanpur, (Singrauli) 2. Ceramic Products – NIIT, Trivandrum, (Ramagundam) 3. High Performance Concrete NCB, Ballabhgarh, Unchahar 4. Development of Fly ash based HDPE Products, Vindhyacal 5. Development of Poly Propylene Products, (Rihand) 6. Manufacture of Reef Balls, (Simhadri). 7. Railway Concrete Sleepers IIT, Kanpur 8. Removal of Toxic Elements: Chromium, Fluoride, Arsenic Cobalt from Effluents of Cottage Textile Industries (Tanda- NEERI) 9. Agriculture and waste land development work, (Vindhyachal- Tropical Research Institute, Jabalpur. 12

13 Activities for Ash filling in Mines Bottom ash stowing in Singreni Collieries Company Limited (SCCL) Design of Grouts for filling in Springfield mine and Peabody Coal mines in Illinois,USA Project Manager, Gorbi Mine Ash Haul Back project, NCL, Singrauli: US AID/ NETL/ WVU/ PSU/ CMPDI Support (pH 3.2) TOR/ (SOW) Development for South Balanda Mines, MCL,Angul District, Orissa (100% Ash Utilization since the year 2006)

14 Associated with the Activities for Ash filling in Mines Assessment of Ash haul back for Thermal Power Station in West Virginia, Pennsylvania and Maryland; USA TOR for random filling of ash with Overburden, SCCL mines, Ramgundam, (A.P.) Handling for initiating Mine filling activities for Gevra Mines, SCCL Interface with Ministry of (i) Envt. & Forests, (ii) Coal, (iii) Power, DGMS, CPMDI, EAC etc.




18 Certain data of Coal on USA (million short ton) YearCoal ProductionCoal Consumption 20051,131.51, ,162.71, ,146.61, ,171.81, , ,084.41, P 1,094.31,003.1 Ref:

19 ACAA: 2011/2012 Coal Combustion Product (CCP), Prod. and Use ton), Total CCPs – Cat.I (Dry) & II (Ponded) Fly Ash (A) Bottom Ash (B) Boiler Slag (C) FGD Material (D) Production (Ton) 59,900,000 25,100,000 16,500,000 14,100,000 2,002,764 1,720,945 25,000,000 24,200,000 CCP USE (Ton) 22,975,450 23,205,204 6,082,407 5,474,167 1,374,716 1,437,556 11,807,770 12,102,964 Individual Use 38.3% 44.54% 36.8% 38.82% 68.64% 83.53% 47.23% 50.01% TOTAL: A+B+C+D= (2011) 103,402,764 t; (2012) 81,120,945 ton USE: = ton; 42,219,881 ton % Use:= 40.85%52.04%

20 Ash Haulback Sites Visited Lauritta Mine – Fort Martin haulback Chaplin Hill mine – MEA haulback Metikki Mine – Mount Storm haulback Solomon Mine – Fort Martin Haulback On site landfills of: Mount Storm Power Station Harrison Power Station

21 Acid Mine Drainage Eastern U.S. bituminous coals can contain pyrite When oxidized and exposed to water, pyrite creates sulfuric acid and Fe ++ Major Environmental problem in Appalachian coal fields. Alkaline CCBs are used in the abatement and prevention of AMD

22 Ash haulback Coal Combustion Byproducts are hauled back to mines to: – Be used as alkaline amendments and bulk fill materials in surface mining – Fill mine voids in deep mines to prevent acid mine drainage and subsidence Ash haulback arrangements are becoming common practice with Appalachian Coal and Utilities.

23 Examples from Power Plants: Harrison Power Station, Allegheny Energy, WV Fort Martin, Allegheny Energy, WV Mount Storm, VEPCO, WV- Heated Scuba Diving Morgantown Energy Associates, Dominion, WV Bull Run Power Station, TVA Tennessee Beechurst Power Station, Morgantown, WV

24 Fort Martin Summary Ash backhauled three miles to open pit mine Ash used to: return landscape to approximate original contour Provide an alkaline amendment to soil Cap potentially toxic materials

25 Chaplin Hill Mines An Example of Ash Haulback and Coal Mining Together These are the mines located in the West Virginia Area. These are the mines where Coal Mining and Ash filling in the mines is taking simultaneously. To fill the Power plant coal ash in the mines in mandatory in the West Virginia to continue the mining of coal.

26 Chaplin Hill Mine-1 Coal Mining in Progress

27 Chaplin Hill Mine-2 Mandatory FBC ( Fluidized Bed Combustion) Fly Ash being placed in the mined out area.

28 Chaplin Hill Mine-3 Mine Overview

29 Chaplin Hill Mine-4 Coal Mining in Progress

30 Chaplin Hill Mine-5

31 Reclamation after coal mining Chaplin Hill Mine-10

32 FBC ash and bottom ash being dumped Chaplin Hill Mine-11

33 Patriot Mining Company Chaplin Hill Mine-15 Grass bed laid on the reclaimed mine Mined area brought to natural contour

34 Chaplin Hill Mine-18 Mined area brought to natural contour

35 Chaplin Hill Mine-19 Another view of the area

36 Chaplin Hill Mine-20 Photography of the site in progress

37 Chaplin Hill Mine-21

38 Chaplin Hill Mine-22 1.Reclaimed mine area here seen in two stages 2.Collection of water in a Pond 3.Water percolated from the reclaimed area.

39 Chaplin Hill Mine-23 Another view of the area

40 Chaplin Hill Mine-24 Construction of drainage for the collection of percolated and run off water in the pond.

41 Chaplin Hill Mine-25 Close up view of the water collection channel

42 Chaplin Hill Mine-26 Coal being mined from mine, processed and placed for dispatch to customers. Reclaimed area

43 Chaplin Hill Mine-27: OSAGE Surface Mine A sign placed before the mine entry

44 Chaplin Hill Mine-28 Coal Mining Area Mined out area Mandatory placement of FBC (Fluidized Bed Combustion) Fly Ash in the coal mined out zones.

45 Harrison Power Station Largest power station in Allegheny Power System ~ 2000 MW (Its three identical units, rated at 684 MWe each, were launched into service in 1972, 1973, and 1974): Super Critical Units; ~35 Years before India ushered into) Lime Scrubber It has one of the tallest chimneys (Stack) in the world (305 m), built in Got the best Power station Award of US EPA Some activity recently on ownership

46 Harrison Power Station (2000 MW), Haywood, West Virginia, USA

47 Harrison Power Station

48 Ash Reclamation Site at Harrison Power

49 Reclaimed and Vegetated Locations. Lime and Ash Mixed placed for disposal.

50 Land Site Reclaimed with the Ash Ash and Lime Mix dumped for Land Reclamation

51 Another View of the Land Reclamation Site

52 Land Reclaimed to the Natural Contour

53 Ash Brought in Trucks and dumped for Land Development near the Power Station

54 Bottom Ash Dumped for Land Development Ash and Lime Mixture Dumped for Land Development

55 Deeper View of Dumped Ash Mix for Land Development

56 Water Collection Channels from Ash Disposal Sites

57 Close-Up View of Water Collection Channels from Ash Disposal Sites

58 Close-Up View of Water Collection Channels from Ash Disposal Sites made up of Fibro Foam Material

59 Close-Up View of Water Collection System from Ash Disposal Sites

60 Water Collection and Treatment facility for the water released from Ash Disposal sites.

61 Section of Water Collection from Ash Disposal sites.

62 Summary of Ash Hual back Ash haulback is common practice in Appalachian Coal fields Used for acid mine drainage abatement Bulk fill material in reclamation Coal companies work ash haulback costs into price of coal Full measure are taken for the Environmental protection.

63 Let us join hands to march ahead!!!

64 May Like to Contact: Dr. S. K. Dube (1) (a) (b) (2) Phone: (O) +91 (11) (M) +91 (965)

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