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1Senior Fellow , TERI, New Delhi & Advanced Methodologies for Ash Utilization in Mines vis-à-vis Environment Protection: A Glimpse of Few Cases from United StatesDr. Shiv Kumar DubeSenior Fellow , TERI, New Delhi&Ex-General ManagerAsh ManagementNTPC Limited3rd Annual International Summit on“Fly Ash Utilization”Mission Energy Foundation, New DelhiDecember 17, 2013
3ProfilePh.D. IIT Delhi 1981 on Metal Oxide Catalysts: Petroleum Hydrocarbons (Petrol) from Methyl Alcohol likewise.Ex- faculty to Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Illinois USA and University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.6 Patents including the “Development of the process for the “Manufacture of pond ash based un-sintered light weight aggregates”.Chaired a Session Chair in an important event like 15th International American Coal Ash Association Symposium at St. Petersburg, Florida, USA.Had been invited for three consecutive years from 1996 to 1998 to Chair Sessions in American Power Conference, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago.
4LORD SHIVA IS THE FIRST PERSON IN THE UNIVERSE TO USE SISTER OF FLY ASH – THE ASHHE APPLIED IT TO HIS BODY
5Translation of new ideas given in NTPC turned into reality: Year 1985 and onwards……
6Responsible for Accomplishing First time in NTPC: Introduced the Concept of Fly ash bricks by showing Fly ash bricks in 1985: Introduced the Fly ash bricks concept to NTPC vide “R&D Project F-401, 1983”, completed by me at National Council for Cement and Building Materials (NCB, New Delhi). Manufacture of fly ash bricks: Completed first trials of manufacture of fly ash bricks at BTPS ash pond in 1987 and then produced steam-cured bricks in at M/s Hindustan Pre-fab Limited , New Delhi. Clay Fly Bricks: By conducting studies it was proved in that BTPS and Korba ash are suitable for the manufacture of Clay Fly bricks.
7Responsible for Accomplishing First time in NTPC: Fly ash based Road: By constructing Test Track (road) at BTPS ash dyke, it was proved that there is saving of about 60% and 9% in the construction of sub-base course and base course respectively, as a CBIP Project-1993. Fly ash based lightweight aggregates: Developed the process for the manufacture of lightweight aggregates for making concrete using fly ash (PATENT No ).Introduction of Cenosphere Concept, 1988.
8Responsible for Accomplishing First time in NTPC: Mine filling: based on the experience acquired in USA, arranged to initiate and then accomplished the Systematic study for filling ash in mines for the first time. Based on the exhaustive work of “Ash Utilization Cell of R&D Department- Group Head- Dr. S. K. Dube”; NTPC created a New Department known as“Ash Utilization Division” in 1991.
9Certain Technical Developments (New Products And Processes) and Patents etc.(I): Development of Oil well cements using fly ash for class G and class J for the applications up to the depths of 4000 & 8000 meter (1982).Development of non-shrinking (expansive) cement(1982)Development of fly ash bricks manufacture in 1983.Development of process for manufacture of fly ash bricks for the fly as produced from Singrauli, Korba, Ramagundam and Farakka stations of NTPCDevelopment of a process for the manufacture of lightweight aggregates for making concrete using fly ash (PATENT No /2003).
10Certain Technical Developments (New Products And Processes) and Patents etc. (II): The Construction of road using fly ash and bottom ash and bringing down the expenditure by more than 55%.Development of Grouts for backfilling of underground mines.Development of Lightweight jute bags for packing cement for implementation in the cement industry.Development of Process for the manufacture of oxalic acid using Sarkanda (Sacchrum-Munja: a type of wild grass) with yield level of 40%.Successful pilot plant trials for the manufacture of Geo-Polymer Fly ash bricks.
11Innovative Applications of Coal Ash “Ash along with OB” filling in MinesAsh-Bitumen wearing CourseFly ash Geo-Polymer ConcreteFly ash based foamed Concrete/ AACFly Ash - Aluminum Composites / FoamResonance Shock Compression TechnologyCold Setting Technology: Building BricksFlux Bonded Technology: Building BricksAsh Based Wooden Components
12Management & Administration of Research & Study Projects Conducted/ being conducted Canal lining work, IIT Kanpur, (Singrauli)Ceramic Products – NIIT, Trivandrum, (Ramagundam)High Performance Concrete NCB, Ballabhgarh, UnchaharDevelopment of Fly ash based HDPE Products, VindhyacalDevelopment of Poly Propylene Products, (Rihand)Manufacture of Reef Balls, (Simhadri).Railway Concrete Sleepers IIT, KanpurRemoval of Toxic Elements: Chromium, Fluoride, Arsenic Cobalt from Effluents of Cottage Textile Industries (Tanda-NEERI)Agriculture and waste land development work, (Vindhyachal-Tropical Research Institute, Jabalpur.
13Activities for Ash filling in Mines Bottom ash stowing in Singreni Collieries Company Limited (SCCL)Design of Grouts for filling in Springfield mine and Peabody Coal mines in Illinois,USAProject Manager, Gorbi Mine Ash Haul Back project, NCL, Singrauli: US AID/ NETL/ WVU/ PSU/ CMPDI Support (pH 3.2)TOR/ (SOW) Development for South Balanda Mines, MCL,Angul District, Orissa (100% Ash Utilization since the year 2006)
14Associated with the Activities for Ash filling in Mines Assessment of Ash haul back for Thermal Power Station in West Virginia, Pennsylvania and Maryland; USATOR for random filling of ash with Overburden, SCCL mines, Ramgundam,(A.P.)Handling for initiating Mine filling activities for Gevra Mines, SCCLInterface with Ministry of (i) Envt. & Forests, (ii) Coal, (iii) Power, DGMS, CPMDI, EAC etc.
18Certain data of Coal on USA (million short ton)YearCoal ProductionCoal Consumption20051,131.51,126.020061,162.71,112.320071,146.61,128.020081,171.81,120.520091,074.9997.520101,084.41,051.32011P1,094.31,003.1Ref:
19ACAA: 2011/2012 Coal Combustion Product (CCP), Prod. and Use ton), Total CCPs – Cat.I (Dry) & II (Ponded)Fly Ash(A)Bottom Ash(B)Boiler Slag(C)FGD Material(D)Production(Ton)59,900,00025,100,00016,500,00014,100,0002,002,7641,720,94525,000,00024,200,000CCP USE22,975,45023,205,2046,082,4075,474,1671,374,7161,437,55611,807,77012,102,964IndividualUse38.3%44.54%36.8%38.82%68.64%83.53%47.23%50.01%TOTAL: A+B+C+D= (2011) 103,402,764 t; (2012) 81,120,945 tonUSE: = ton; 42,219,881 ton% Use:= 40.85% %
20Ash Haulback Sites Visited Lauritta Mine – Fort Martin haulbackChaplin Hill mine – MEA haulbackMetikki Mine – Mount Storm haulbackSolomon Mine – Fort Martin HaulbackOn site landfills of:Mount Storm Power StationHarrison Power Station
21Acid Mine Drainage Eastern U.S. bituminous coals can contain pyrite When oxidized and exposed to water, pyrite creates sulfuric acid and Fe++Major Environmental problem in Appalachian coal fields.Alkaline CCBs are used in the abatement and prevention of AMD
22Ash haulback Coal Combustion Byproducts are hauled back to mines to: Be used as alkaline amendments and bulk fill materials in surface miningFill mine voids in deep mines to prevent acid mine drainage and subsidenceAsh haulback arrangements are becoming common practice with Appalachian Coal and Utilities.
23Examples from Power Plants: Harrison Power Station, Allegheny Energy, WVFort Martin, Allegheny Energy, WVMount Storm, VEPCO, WV-Heated Scuba DivingMorgantown Energy Associates, Dominion, WVBull Run Power Station, TVA TennesseeBeechurst Power Station, Morgantown, WV
24Fort Martin Summary Ash backhauled three miles to open pit mine Ash used to:return landscape to approximate original contourProvide an alkaline amendment to soilCap potentially toxic materials
25Chaplin Hill Mines An Example of Ash Haulback and Coal Mining Together These are the mines located in the West Virginia Area.These are the mines where Coal Mining and Ash filling in the mines is taking simultaneously.To fill the Power plant coal ash in the mines in mandatory in the West Virginia to continue the mining of coal.
38Chaplin Hill Mine-22Reclaimed mine area here seen in two stagesCollection of water in a PondWater percolated from the reclaimed area.
39Another view of the area Chaplin Hill Mine-23Another view of the area
40Chaplin Hill Mine-24Construction of drainage for the collection of percolated and run off water in the pond.
41Chaplin Hill Mine-25Close up view of the water collection channel
42Chaplin Hill Mine-26Reclaimed areaCoal being mined from mine, processed and placed for dispatch to customers.
43Chaplin Hill Mine-27: OSAGE Surface Mine signplacedbeforethemineentry
44Chaplin Hill Mine-28Coal Mining AreaMined out areaMandatory placement of FBC (Fluidized Bed Combustion) Fly Ash in the coal mined out zones.
45Harrison Power Station Largest power station in Allegheny Power System~ 2000 MW (It’s three identical units, rated at 684 MWe each, were launched into service in 1972, 1973, and 1974): Super Critical Units; ~35 Years before India ushered into)Lime ScrubberIt has one of the tallest chimneys (Stack) in the world (305 m), built in 1994.Got the best Power station Award of US EPASome activity recently on ownership
46Harrison Power Station (2000 MW), Haywood, West Virginia, USA
53Ash Brought in Trucks and dumped for Land Development near the Power Station
54Bottom Ash Dumped for Land Development Ash and Lime Mixture Dumped for Land Development
55Deeper View of Dumped Ash Mix for Land Development
56Water Collection Channels from Ash Disposal Sites
57Close-Up View of Water Collection Channels from Ash Disposal Sites
58Close-Up View of Water Collection Channels from Ash Disposal Sites made up of Fibro Foam Material
59Close-Up View of Water Collection System from Ash Disposal Sites
60Water Collection and Treatment facility for the water released from Ash Disposal sites.
61Section of Water Collection from Ash Disposal sites.
62Summary of Ash Hual back Ash haulback is common practice in Appalachian Coal fieldsUsed for acid mine drainage abatementBulk fill material in reclamationCoal companies work ash haulback costs into price of coalFull measure are taken for the Environmental protection.
63Let us join hands to march ahead!!! Thanking you
64(a) Shivkumar.email@example.com May Like to Contact:Dr. S. K. Dube(a)(b)(2) Phone:(O) +91 (11)(M) +91 (965)