2BAROQUEBaroque art is a blanket term that encompasses a broad range of developments, both historic and artisticDuring the 17th century, dramatic theatricality, grandiose scale, and elaborate ornateness, all used to spectacular effect, characterized Italian Baroque art and architectureItalian 17th century art and architecture visualized the renewed energy of the Catholic Counter-Reformation & communicated it to the populaceGianlorenzo Bernini, an architect, a painter, and a sculptor, was the most important & imaginative artist of the Italian Baroque era
3SANTA SUSANNACARLO MADERNO, Santa Susanna, Rome, Italy, 1597–1603
4MADERNO AND SAINT PETER’S CARLO MADERNO, facade of Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1606– 1612Façade and nave added to Michelangelo’s designWide and low façadeEmphasis on center of façade -> pediment highlighting main doorPilasters on each end; rounded engaged columns around the central doorMADERNO AND SAINT PETER’S
6BERNINI –> COLONNADE OF SAINT PETERS 1656-1657 CARLO MADERNO, plan of Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, with adjoining piazza designed by GIANLORENZO BERNINIHuge plaza that can hold half a million peopleBernini wanted a surprising transition between the crowded streets of Rome and giant vista of Saint PetersColonnade -> embracing arms/skeleton keyhole -> Saint Peter holds the keys to the kingdomBERNINI –> COLONNADE OF SAINT PETERS
7Aerial view of Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1506– 1666 Aerial view of Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1506– Bernini designed this huge oval piazza around existing buildings as well as an obelisk from Egypt and Maderno's fountain. The oval is formed by colonnades which connect with straight colonnades joined to the ends of the facade. Bernini compared the design to the maternal embracing arms of the church
8BALDACCHINO, SAINT PETER’S GIANLORENZO BERNINI, baldacchino, Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1624– Gilded bronze, approx. 100’ highOver the main altar of Saint Peter’s -> four twisting corkscrew columns that spiral upwardActs as a shrine and canopy over the grave of Saint Peter -> buried under the basilicaBees and suns appear prominently on top corners -> symbols of the patrons -> the Barberini familySymbol of Counter-Reformation spirit in RomeFeat of bronze casting
9SCALA REGIAGIANLORENZO BERNINI, Scala Regia, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1663–1666The monumental Scala Regia built by Bernini connects the papal apartments to the portico and narthex of Saint Peter's. The design illusionistically conceals the increasing narrowness of the passageway as the stairway ascends
10BERNINI - DAVIDGIANLORENZO BERNINI, David, Marble, approx. 5’ 7” highIn mid-action -> swing the slingshotHarp at his feet symbolizes his role as a psalmist
11Bernini’s idealized self- portrait in the face of David Intensive gazeMeant to be seen from multiple anglesUse of negative space animates sculpture and surroundings
13ECSTASY OF SAINT TERESA GIANLORENZO BERNINI, Ecstasy of Saint Teresa, Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome, Italy, 1645–1652. Marble, height of group 11’ 6”Sculptural interpretation of Saint Teresa’s diary in which she tells of her visions of God -> many involving and angel descending with an arrow and plunging it into herStagelike setting with the patrons, the Cornaro family, sitting in theatre box looking on
15Figures seem to float in space -> the rays of God’s light symbolically illuminating the scene from behindMysticismWhat is she experiencing?
16The white marble group of swooning saint and smiling angel appears to float as a vision might in the cleverly illuminated central niche
17SAN CARLO ALLE QUATRO FONTANE FRANCESCO BORROMINI, facade of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome, Italy, 1665–1676Unusually small siteAlternating convex and concave patterns and undulating façadeFaçade higher than rest of building
18Interior dome oval shaped and coffered Borromini worked in in shades of white
19CHAPEL OF SAINT IVOFRANCESCO BORROMINI, Chapel of Saint Ivo, College of the Sapienza, Rome, Italy, begun 1642Borromini employed concave and convex forms in the design of the façade of the Chapel of Saint Ivo. The dome, which is supported by a convex, drumlike structure, is topped by an ornate, spiralling lantern. The star shape of the centralized plan rises through the interior elevation from the floor into the dome to create a single, dynamic, unified, and cohesive space
20Chapel of Saint Ivo (view into dome), College of the Sapienza, Rome, Italy, begun 1642.