Presentation on theme: "The Present Tense Year 12. What are the present tenses? The present tenses are the verb forms that are used to talk about what is true at the moment,"— Presentation transcript:
The Present Tense Year 12
What are the present tenses? The present tenses are the verb forms that are used to talk about what is true at the moment, what happens regularly and what is happening now.
In English, there are two tenses you can use to talk about the present: The present simple tense. –I live here. –They get up early The present continuous tense. –He is eating an apple. –You arent working very hard.
In Spanish, there is also a present simple and a present continuous tense. As in English, the present simple in Spanish is used to talk about: Things that are generally true –En invierno hace frio. Its cold in the winter. Things that are true at the moment. –Carlos no come carne. Carlos doesnt eat meat. Things that happen at intervals. –A menudo vamos al cine. We often go to the cinema.
The present continuous tense in Spanish is used to talk about things that are happening right now or at the time of writing: - Marta esta viendo la television - Marta is watching the television. However, there are times where the use of the present tense in the two languages is not exactly the same.
The Present Simple Tense Regular verbs form their present tense stem by losing either: -ar -er -ir
The present tense endings for regular verbs are: - ar- er- ir yo -o-o-o-o-o-o tú -as-es él/ella -a-a-e-e-e-e nosotros -amos-emos-imos vosotros -áis-éis-ís ellos/ellas -an-en
You usually dont need to give a pronoun in Spanish as the ending of the verb makes it clear who or what is doing the action.
Forming the present simple tense of less regular verbs Many Spanish verbs do not follow the regular patterns. There are lots of verbs that change their stem in the present tense when the stress is on the stem. This means that all forms are affected in the present simple APART FROM the nosotros/vosotros forms. Such verbs are often called radical changing verbs, meaning root changing verbs.
For example, some verbs containing an –o in the stem change it –ue in the present simple for all forms APART FROM the nosotros/vosotros forms. encontrar To find recordar To remember dormir To sleep yoencuentrorecuerdoduermo túencuentrasrecuerdasduermes él/ellaencuentrarecuerdaduerme nosotrosencontramosrecordamosdormimos vosotrosencontráisrecordáisdormis ellos/ellasencuentranrecuerdanduermen
Other verbs containing an –e in the stem change it to –ie for all forms APART FROM the nosotros/vosotros forms cerrar To close pensar To think entender To understand perder To lose yocierropiensoentiendopierdo tútúcierraspiensasentiendespierdes él/ellacierrapiensaentiendepierde nosotroscerramospensamosentendemosperdemos vosotroscerráispensáisentendéisperdéis ellos/ellascierranpiensanentiendenpierden
A few –ir verbs containing –e in the stem change this to –I in the present simple for all forms APART FROM the nosotros/vosotros forms Pedir To ask Servir To serve yopidosirvo tútúpidessirves él/ellapidesirve nosotrospedimosservimos vosotrospedisservís ellos/ellaspidensirven
There are many other verbs that do not follow the usual patterns in Spanish. These include some very common and important verbs such as tener, hacer and ir
How to use the present simple tense in Spanish
The present simple tense is often used in Spanish in the same way as it is in English, although there are some differences. things that are generally true –En verano hace calor Its hot in the summer things that are true now –Viven en Francia They live in france things that happen all the time or at certain intervals or that you do as a habit –Marta lleva gafas Marta wears glasses things that you are planning to do –El domingo jugamos en Jerez On Sunday we play in Jerez
There are some instances when you would use the present simple in Spanish, but you wouldnt use it in English: To talk about current projects and activities that may not actually be going on right at this very minute –Construye una casa Hes building a house. When you use certain time expressions in Spanish, especially desde (meaning since) and desde hace (meaning for) to talk about activities and states that started in the past and are still going on now. –Llevo horas esperando aqui Ive been waiting here for hours
The Present Continuous Tense
In Spanish, the present continuous tense is used to talk about something that is happening at this very moment The Spanish present continuous is formed from the present tense of estar and the gerund of the verb. The gerund is the form of the verb that ends in –ando (for –ar verbs) or –iendo (for –er and –ir verbs) and is the same as the –ing form of the verb in English. –Estoy trabajando Im working –No estamos comiendo We arent eating
To form the gerund of a verb take off the ending of the infinitive and add the appropriate ending infinitivemeaningstemgerundmeaning -ar hablar To speak habl-hablandoSpeaking -er comerTo eatcom-comiendoeating -ir escribir To write escrib-escribiendowriting
Key points Only use the present continuous in Spanish for actions that are happening right now To form the present continuous tense in Spanish, take the present tense of estar and add the gerund of the main verb