2What are the present tenses? The present tenses are the verb forms that are used to talk about what is true at the moment, what happens regularly and what is happening now.
3The present simple tense. In English, there are two tenses you can use to talk about the present:The present simple tense.I live here.They get up earlyThe present continuous tense.He is eating an apple.You aren’t working very hard.
4Things that are generally true In Spanish, there is also a present simple and a present continuous tense. As in English, the present simple in Spanish is used to talk about:Things that are generally trueEn invierno hace frio.It’s cold in the winter.Things that are true at the moment.Carlos no come carne.Carlos doesn’t eat meat.Things that happen at intervals.A menudo vamos al cine.We often go to the cinema.
5The present continuous tense in Spanish is used to talk about things that are happening right now or at the time of writing: - Marta esta viendo la television - Marta is watching the television.However, there are times where the use of the present tense in the two languages is not exactly the same.
6The Present Simple Tense Regular verbs form their present tense stem by losing either:ar-er-ir
7The present tense endings for regular verbs are: - iryo-otú-as-esél/ella-a-enosotros-amos-emos-imosvosotros-áis-éis-ísellos/ellas-an-en
8You usually don’t need to give a pronoun in Spanish as the ending of the verb makes it clear who or what is doing the action.
9Forming the present simple tense of less regular verbs Many Spanish verbs do not follow the regular patterns. There are lots of verbs that change their stem in the present tense when the stress is on the stem. This means that all forms are affected in the present simple APART FROM the nosotros/vosotros forms. Such verbs are often called radical changing verbs, meaning root changing verbs.
10For example, some verbs containing an –o in the stem change it –ue in the present simple for all forms APART FROM the nosotros/vosotros forms.encontrarTo findrecordarTo rememberdormirTo sleepyoencuentrorecuerdoduermotúencuentrasrecuerdasduermesél/ellaencuentrarecuerdaduermenosotrosencontramosrecordamosdormimosvosotrosencontráisrecordáisdormisellos/ellasencuentranrecuerdanduermen
11Other verbs containing an –e in the stem change it to –ie for all forms APART FROM the nosotros/vosotros formscerrarTo closepensarTo thinkentenderTo understandperderTo loseyocierropiensoentiendopierdotúcierraspiensasentiendespierdesél/ellacierrapiensaentiendepierdenosotroscerramospensamosentendemosperdemosvosotroscerráispensáisentendéisperdéisellos/ellascierranpiensanentiendenpierden
12A few –ir verbs containing –e in the stem change this to –I in the present simple for all forms APART FROM the nosotros/vosotros formsPedirTo askServirTo serveyopidosirvotúpidessirvesél/ellapidesirvenosotrospedimosservimosvosotrospedisservísellos/ellaspidensirven
13There are many other verbs that do not follow the usual patterns in Spanish. These include some very common and important verbs such as tener, hacer and ir
15things that are generally true The present simple tense is often used in Spanish in the same way as it is in English, although there are some differences.things that are generally trueEn verano hace calorIt’s hot in the summerthings that are true nowViven en FranciaThey live in francethings that happen all the time or at certain intervals or that you do as a habitMarta lleva gafasMarta wears glassesthings that you are planning to doEl domingo jugamos en JerezOn Sunday we play in Jerez
16There are some instances when you would use the present simple in Spanish, but you wouldn’t use it in English:To talk about current projects and activities that may not actually be going on right at this very minuteConstruye una casaHe’s building a house.When you use certain time expressions in Spanish, especially desde (meaning since) and desde hace (meaning for) to talk about activities and states that started in the past and are still going on now.Llevo horas esperando aquiI’ve been waiting here for hours
18In Spanish, the present continuous tense is used to talk about something that is happening at this very momentThe Spanish present continuous is formed from the present tense of estar and the gerund of the verb. The gerund is the form of the verb that ends in –ando (for –ar verbs) or –iendo (for –er and –ir verbs) and is the same as the –ing form of the verb in English.Estoy trabajandoI’m workingNo estamos comiendoWe aren’t eating
19To form the gerund of a verb take off the ending of the infinitive and add the appropriate ending meaningstemgerund-arhablarTo speakhabl-hablandoSpeaking-ercomerTo eatcom-comiendoeating-irescribirTo writeescrib-escribiendowriting
20Key pointsOnly use the present continuous in Spanish for actions that are happening right nowTo form the present continuous tense in Spanish, take the present tense of estar and add the gerund of the main verb