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A Disciplined Approach to Emergency Management INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM Stafford Reid EnviroEmerg Consulting Duncan, British Columbia CANADA EnviroEmerg.ca.

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Presentation on theme: "A Disciplined Approach to Emergency Management INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM Stafford Reid EnviroEmerg Consulting Duncan, British Columbia CANADA EnviroEmerg.ca."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Disciplined Approach to Emergency Management INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM Stafford Reid EnviroEmerg Consulting Duncan, British Columbia CANADA EnviroEmerg.ca

2 EnviroEmerg Consulting A Disciplined Approach This presentation focuses on a disciplined approach to emergency management for all threats and for all scales using the application of the Incident Command System (ICS) as an example. There are a variety of emergency management systems that are a disciplinary approach that promotes responder safety and effective response.

3 EnviroEmerg Consulting A Disciplined Approach - the benefits A disciplined approach to emergency management: Protects responder safety; Gets the critical goods and services to the people that need it; Fosters relationships and respect within the Response Community, and Builds both capability and capacity in emergency preparedness.

4 EnviroEmerg Consulting A Disciplined Approach - the last furlong In the hierarchy of emergency management, the greatest level of discipline is required among those people actually managing the incident at the site and those providing the tactical delivery of critical goods and services to affected stakeholders in the field. This distance can be viewed to as the Last Furlong in emergency response. Incident Management (Site) Incident and Tactical Response (Field)

5 EnviroEmerg Consulting A Disciplined Approach - the last furlong In horse racing, the last furlong is the final stretch of the race that is the most challenging to horse and rider. In battle, the last furlong is the dangerous ground soldiers bolt over to overcome the enemy. In emergencies, the last furlong is the final steps to provide critical goods and services to affected people, business and/or environments. The Last Furlong emphasizes these are tough, dangerous, demanding places to work and requires a high degree of discipline to focus on the objectives and getting the job done.

6 EnviroEmerg Consulting A Disciplined Approach – emergency hierarchy POLICY GROUP (Executive) EMERGENCY SUPPORT Emergency Coordination Centre EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT (SITE) Incident Command Post FIELD Tactical Operations The Last Furlong!

7 EnviroEmerg Consulting A Disciplined Approach - integrated response Direct supervision of field personnel (e.g. field crews) occurs Development of incident objectives and response strategies occur Integration with other government jurisdictions and the Responsible Party (Spiller) occurs The site and field are where….. The Last Furlong POLICY GROUP (Executive) EMERGENCY SUPPORT Emergency Coordination Centre EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT (SITE) Incident Command Post FIELD Tactical Operations

8 EnviroEmerg Consulting A Disciplined Approach - performance based Highest level of performance accountability Highest level of response organization The greatest potential for failure The greatest potential for success The Last Furlong As such, the site and field are the….. POLICY GROUP (Executive) EMERGENCY SUPPORT Emergency Coordination Centre EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT (SITE) Incident Command Post FIELD Tactical Operations

9 EnviroEmerg Consulting A Disciplined Approach – defining the problem Routine spills, vehicle accidents, house fires generally initiate resource deployment from multiple dispatch centers such as for: Fire Police Ambulance Towing Public Works Which can result in PROBLEM #1 – Convergence without Incident Management

10 EnviroEmerg Consulting Field A Disciplined Approach LITTLE OR NO INTEGRATED FIELD TACTICS. INCIDENT MANAGEMENT IS OFTEN MISSING OR POORLY DEFINED FIELD – Tactical Delivery Fire Truck & Fire Fighters, Ambulance and Attendants, Police Car and Police, Hazmat Truck and Hazardous Material Specialists, Tow-truck and operator Dispatch Fire Dispatch Ambulance Dispatch Police Dispatch Public Works WHERE IS INCIDENT MANAGEMENT?? PROBLEM #1 – Convergence without Incident Management Cont… Support Site Management

11 EnviroEmerg Consulting FIELD SITE Where is the …. Incident Commander? Staging Area? Safety Officer? Control Zones? PROBLEM #1 – Convergence without Incident Management Cont… A Disciplined Approach Convergence of resources does not equal integration of response activities nor a disciplined approach to emergency management

12 EnviroEmerg Consulting A Disciplined Approach PROBLEM #2 – Delivering Incident Management at a Support-level Emergency Centre Large, complex events such as a flood, train derailment, earthquake can result in each responding agency - and for spills the Responsible Party – managing the incident from their respective Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) located at their headquarters and/or regional office.

13 EnviroEmerg Consulting A Disciplined Approach FIELD OPERATIONS Responding people and equipment providing goods and services to affected stakeholders and the environment Local Government Emergency Operations [Coordination] Centre Regional Government Emergency Operations [Coordination] Centre Federal Government Emergency Operations [Coordination] Centre Responsible Party (Spiller) Emergency Operations [Coordination] Centre PROBLEM #2 – Delivering Incident Management at a Support-level Emergency Coordination Centre Cont… Limited liaison between centers Tactical personnel responding without strategic direction WHERE IS INCIDENT MANAGEMENT?? Support Site Management Field

14 EnviroEmerg Consulting A Disciplined Approach - whether large or small events Local Government Regional Government Federal Government First Nations Responsible Party (Spiller) Policy Group Emergency Operations [Coordination] Centre INCIDENT COMMAND POST FIELD OPERATIONS Responding people and equipment providing goods and services to affected stakeholders and the environment The Last Furlong Support Site Management THIS IS WHERE INCIDENT MANAGEMENT OCCURS

15 EnviroEmerg Consulting A Disciplined Approach – environmental emergencies Managing emergencies has two fundamental challenges: to make the environment or community whole again by striving for a net environmental and social benefit, and to make the affected community whole again by recognizing and respecting local values. These challenges have be achieved by people you have may never have met before, with limited resources, and under political/corporate pressure

16 EnviroEmerg Consulting A Disciplined Approach – key elements for success Discipline and going the last furlong requires responders: To establish an Incident Commander. To work together as a single Incident Management Team. To apply an incident organization and protocols that are fully understood.

17 EnviroEmerg Consulting A Disciplined Approach – incident command post Three fundamental features delineate an Incident Command Post: 1. The first line of communication and supervision to field personnel; 2. Where tactical (operational) planning and decisions are undertaken; and 3. Where command is established among multiple participating agencies and Responsible Party (spiller). Incident Command Post Icon It is important to title and use a facility according to what it does - not its location or pre-designations.

18 EnviroEmerg Consulting A Disciplined Approach – incident command post Some common issues in ensuring a disciplined approach to emergency management are: Understanding that the First Responder is often the Incident Commander; Designating an ICP such as with a green flashing light, green marker cones, green signage, green vest of the Incident Commander, or combinations thereof. Realizing that the first ICP may not be appropriately located or too small, and Understanding that the ICP and the people therein manage the incident, not the consequences. A roving Incident Commander is not a disciplined approach to emergency management.

19 EnviroEmerg Consulting A Disciplined Approach An Incident Command Post can be: A Spot on the Ground A Vehicle A Command Post Trailer A Building Incident Management can be: A single Incident Commander Several Incident Commanders A team of responders Regardless of the size and complexity of the incident, there must always be incident management at the site to guide field operations - hence an Incident Commander is always need. THE APPLICATION OF A DISCIPLINE APPROACH ESSENTIALLY BEGINS WITH THE INCIDENT COMMANDER

20 EnviroEmerg Consulting A Disciplined Approach FIELD–Tactical Operations Incident Command Post Incident Management Team Incident Management System SITE–Incident Management Field Situation Information Tactical Direction INCIDENT ACTION PLAN SITE SUPPORT FROM EMERGENCY OPERATIONS CENTERS Resources: People & Equipment

21 EnviroEmerg Consulting A Disciplined Approach – using the incident command system The definition of the Incident Command System - commonly referred to as the ICS: The ICS is a standardized, on-scene, all-hazard incident management organization deployed at the site of an incident to directly supervise field operations. It is a flexible, scalable response organization providing a common framework within which people can work together effectively. These people may be drawn from multiple agencies, companies, departments that do not necessarily routinely work together - or even met before

22 EnviroEmerg Consulting A Disciplined Approach - the ICS is a tool for response The Incident Command System (ICS) is a tool for the command, control and coordination of resources during an activity or incident. It consists of procedures for organizing personnel, facilities, equipment, and communications. ICS affects all aspects of emergency management

23 EnviroEmerg Consulting A Disciplined Approach – incident command system The Incident Command System is an internationally proven emergency management system that is delivered at the Incident Command Post at the site-level. The ICS: Establishes the organization of an Incident Management Team; Systematically gathers field information, evaluates it, and prepares situation reports; Develops incident action plans and response objectives Tasks and supervises field responders; Fosters integration and cooperation with responding agencies and the Responsible Party.

24 EnviroEmerg Consulting INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM Organization at an Incident Command Post ICS has a standardized functional names, positions, reporting relationships and missions. Only the staffing and functions needed are invoked based on the demands of the incident. ICS has a standardized functional names, positions, reporting relationships and missions. Only the staffing and functions needed are invoked based on the demands of the incident. The organization under the Operations Section is developed in accordance to the tactical needs of the incident and responding agencies. There is always an Incident Commander

25 EnviroEmerg Consulting Main functional areas in ICS to foster convergence and integration Environmental Unit** ** An Environmental Unit is not universally applied to ICS but is becoming more common to foster government/stakeholder integration for establishing response priorities A Disciplined Approach - building capacity With ICS, combining personnel from multiple agencies and with the Responsible Party – and its contractors/consultants – can occur anywhere within the ICS organization to create an integrated Incident Management Team. This attribute of ICS builds capacity. With ICS, combining personnel from multiple agencies and with the Responsible Party – and its contractors/consultants – can occur anywhere within the ICS organization to create an integrated Incident Management Team. This attribute of ICS builds capacity.

26 EnviroEmerg Consulting A Disciplined Approach – ICS responder tasks & deliverables Within the ICS system, is very defined process for each responder according to and by function. For each function, a responder is provided: A primary duty; Who he/she is reports to; Who is supervised; List of tasks and responsibilities; Products required and when (deliverables); What meetings to attend and when; Colour designations for vest; Where to be stationed, and more.

27 EnviroEmerg Consulting A Disciplined Approach – unified command Unified Command is a corner stone of the Incident Command System that addresses the question: How do we work together?** ** Contrary to old school thinking of Whose in Charge?

28 EnviroEmerg Consulting A Disciplined Approach - Foundation of Unified Command The foundation of Unified Command is Respect Choosing or acceptance of a candidate for unified command is not necessarily based on who has the most authority or the biggest toys. It is based on who has the mission to protect people, property and the environment AND/OR who as a governance accountability to ensure their constituent or corporate interests are being met.

29 EnviroEmerg Consulting A Disciplined Approach A team effort which allows all agencies with responsibility for the incident to jointly provide management direction to an incident through a common set of incident objectives and strategies established at the command level. Definition of Unified Command This is accomplished without any participating agency and company abrogating their legislated responsibilities or accountabilities

30 EnviroEmerg Consulting A Disciplined Approach An Integrated Incident Management Team at site INCIDENT COMMAND POST Incident – fire, flood, spill, etc - affects more than one jurisdiction or involves a Responsible Party (spiller) FIELD – Tactical Delivery Tactical Direction and Supervision Field Observations and Information Gathering Support from each agencies respective Emergency Operations Center BCA Responsible Party (Spiller)

31 EnviroEmerg Consulting Under unified command, their is recognition that the representative (agency and/or Responsible Party) with majority role is the spokesperson for unified command and has the major decision-making weight. Major role is based o: 1) tactical resources available, 2) who is paying for the response, 3) or both. The majority role can change over as the incident evolves. Example: Structural Fire involving hazardous materials, the spokesperson majority weight during: fire-fighting phase: local government Fire Chief (has mandate and tactical resources haz-mat mitigation phase: Responsible Party (has responsibility and paying the cost). A Disciplined Approach - unified command protocol

32 EnviroEmerg Consulting A Disciplined Approach Situation Briefing of Incident Commanders Local Government Responsible Party (Spiller) Provincial Government Federal Government First Nations

33 EnviroEmerg Consulting One set of objectives for the entire incident and a collective approach to developing response strategies. Improved information flow and coordination between all jurisdictions and agencies involved in the incident. No agencys or companys authority or legal requirements compromised or neglected. Each agency and company is fully aware of the plans, actions, and constraints of all others. The combined efforts of all agencies and private-sector is optimized as they perform their respective assignments under a single Incident Action Plan. Duplicative efforts are reduced or eliminated reducing cost and chances for frustration and conflict. Advantages of Unified Command A Disciplined Approach - advantages of unified command

34 EnviroEmerg Consulting When arriving on site, it is important to delineate your role as either an: Incident Commander, IMT position (Officer, Chief, Director, Leader) Technical Specialist (Shoreline Assessment, Fire Behavour, Meteorologist), Tactical Operations (Supervisor, Worker) Are you: representing, monitoring, advising, authorizing, spending, directing????? A Disciplined Approach - arriving on site

35 EnviroEmerg Consulting A Disciplined Approach - getting bigger …. faster The Incident Command System facilitates getting bigger faster, but there is a common perception that response management only designed for small geographically confined events. NOT TRUE… Response management can range from a single, confined incident – house fire, vehicle accident, crime scene to a wide-spread, multi-incident event such as a forest fire, flood, or severe storm.

36 EnviroEmerg Consulting A Disciplined Approach - geographically wide-spread events To effectively address wide-spread, multiple incidents there are two fundamental approaches either: 1.Build a robust organization by invoking Functional Operations Branches, Divisions, Groups or 2.Establish multiple Incident Command Posts. MAKING THE STRATEGIC CHOICE AND BUILDING THE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR COMPLEX INCIDENTS IS WELL-DEFINED IN ICS, BUT POORLY UNDERSTOOD AND RARELY IMPLEMENTED. The biggest challenge for a geographically wide-spread event is for fire, police, ambulance and other local responders to establish an Incident Command Post located out of the chaos. It takes discipline to step-away from tactics to ensuring a robust management structure.

37 EnviroEmerg Consulting A Disciplined Approach – summary Deals with the "emotional" and "trust" aspects first, before getting to content; Recognize the first response from dispatch centers does not equate to managing the entire incident - nevertheless, its takes only a few qualified people to make things happen. Understand the differences between managing the incident versus managing the consequences. A lead agency by mandate or Responsible Party does not necessary equate to leadership or capability - but still entitled to respect.

38 EnviroEmerg Consulting A Disciplined Approach – summary A lead government agency or corporate representation in Command means guiding ALL their respective government/companies integration and performance; The degree of government/industry integration doesn't have to last forever, but the respect, rules of engagement do. How well emergency management from a relationship - not tactical - standpoint will largely influence incident follow-up activities and future events. (Dont burn bridges). When arriving on site, clearly delineate your role as either an: Incident Commander, IMT position, technical specialist, tactical operations (look like the position). Look out for "committees" - particularly in the Planning - that look at emergency issues in consecutively rather than concurrently. All members within an Incident Management Team must have both representation and accountability to an Incident Commander. Its the only way to get rid of an AO

39 EnviroEmerg Consulting A Disciplined Approach – summary Established site management regardless of the size or complexity of the incident (Invoke an Incident Commander). Converge at the site (Incident Command Post) first - not in the field – to obtain situation briefing, safety orientation, develop incident objectives and response strategies. Foster a pattern, attitude and philosophy of unified command and an integrating Incident Management Team (Share the Responsibility). Recognize that the spokesperson for a unified command can change as the incident unfolds. Ensure supporting emergency coordination centers do not become tactical in nature. Establish joint government/industry incident objectives and response strategies at the site based on field observations, stakeholder consultations, and technical specialists.

40 EnviroEmerg Consulting A Disciplined Approach Write common incident messages for the public and situation reports for policy groups (One message: One evaluation). Strive for efficiency within the incident management organization (Be hard on process, easy on people). For escalating emergencies, grow bigger faster. For complex incidents – geographically wide-spread and/or multiple events – either build the organization under Operations OR establish more than one Incident Command Post. Dont relinquish a command role just because your tactical function is completed, there may still be a need for jurisdictional representation.

41 EnviroEmerg Consulting An integrated Incident Management Team: Company (RP) Response Contractors Regional Government Local Government Federal Government Stafford Reid EnviroEmerg Consulting A Disciplined Approach - thank you


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