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Emerald Ash Borer Detection Efforts: From Girdled Trees to Purple Traps.

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Presentation on theme: "Emerald Ash Borer Detection Efforts: From Girdled Trees to Purple Traps."— Presentation transcript:

1 Emerald Ash Borer Detection Efforts: From Girdled Trees to Purple Traps

2 Therese M. Poland, Deborah G. McCullough, Deepa Pureswaran, Cesar Rodriguez, Andrea Anulewicz, and David Cappaert

3 The Problem Early detection & delimitation are virtually impossible Signs and symptoms do not appear for 1+ years after attack By then adults may have spread New tools for detection are desperately needed!

4 Trap Tree Studies

5 Year# Field Sites # RepsTreatments 2003318Healthy, Girdled, Herbicide, Trap logs 2004324Healthy, Girdled, Herbicide, Wounded, 2005420Healthy, Girdled, Herbicide, Methyl jasmonate (MJ) 2006440Healthy, Girdled, MJ, Manuka oil, 2007420Healthy, Girdled, Wounded, 2-year Girdled

6 3 Sites (6 reps/trt/site) Healthy ash Girdled ash Hypo-hatchet + herbicide ash 6 ft trap logs: green, white, black ash 2003 Trap Tree Study

7 2003 Results

8 Is it the wound itself or stress caused by girdling that increases attraction? TreatmentWoundStress Control X X Herbicide X Vertical wound X Horizontal girdle 2004 Trap Tree Study


10 2004 Results b b b a

11 2005 Trap Tree Study Stress Agents and Trap Height 1.Girdled 2.Healthy 3.Herbicide 4.Methyl Jasmonate (stress hormone) 4 sites, 18 replicates total Half in open sites Half in closed canopy

12 Girdled – open Girdled - closed 2005 Trap Tree Study

13 Herbicide – open Herbicide - closed 2005 Trap Tree Study

14 MeJA dispenser Low band Girdle High band Purple panel 2005 Trap Tree Study

15 Methyl- Jasmonate bubble caps strung in canopy 10 per tree 2005 Trap Tree Study

16 ab bc b b b a Mean number of EAB, 4 sites (N=20) 2005 Results

17 2005 Results Mean Number of EAB per Tree by Trap Type

18 2005 Open-grown trees are more attractive to EAB 2005 Results

19 40 Replicates of 4 treatments at 4 sites: Control untreated ash trees Girdled ash trees Ash trees with 6 Manuka oil clusters on trunk Ash trees exposed to 20 MeJA bubble caps in canopy 2006 Trap Tree Study

20 b a bb b a b b Mean Number of EAB, 4 Sites (N=40) 2006 Results

21 2006 2006 Results Open-grown trees are more attractive to EAB

22 Trap Tree Studies Conclusions 5 years, 122 replicates 14 field sites (variable EAB populations & tree shading) Girdled trees consistently the best treatment Girdled trees captured significantly more EAB than healthy trees (approx. 10x) at low density sites Larval densities were significantly higher in girdled than healthy trees Low sticky bands caught as many or more EAB as high bands or traps in the canopy Open-grown trees catch more EAB

23 Analysis of Ash Volatiles to Identify Attractants for EAB

24 Volatile Collection Insect feeding damage 10 EAB in screen cages for 5 days Methyl Jasmonate (MeJA) stress hormone spray 50ml of 0.03% solution Mechanical damage 20% of leaf area removed with scissors Healthy control

25 Insect Damage Methyl Jasmonate Control Retention Time (min) Z-3hexenylacetate E-B-ocimene linalool nonatriene indolizine E,E-a-farnesene

26 Quantity of volatile (ng/g/h + SE) Control Insect Damage MeJA 0 200 400 Compound Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Z3-hexenyl acetate Eb-ocimene linalool nonatriene E2-hexenal Z3-hexenol 3-Methylbutyl- aldoxime 2-methylbutyl- aldoxime indole E,E-a-farnesene Z-jasmone

27 FID GC-EAD hexenal hexenol Z3-hexenol Z3methylbutylaldoxime E2methylbutyl- aldoxime Z3-hexenyl- acetate Eb-ocimene linalool nonatriene E,E-a-farnesene EAB Antennal Responses

28 EAG Amplitude (mV ± SEM) (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate 3-Methyl- butylaldoxime Hexenal (E)-2-hexenal (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol Males Females * * * * * * * * * * * * ** * 2-Methyl- butylaldoxime ** * Cartridge Dosage EAB Antennal Dose Response Profiles

29 Cartridge Dosage E,E- -farnesene (E)- -ocimene Linalool Indole (Z)-jasmone Hexyl acetate * * * * * EAG Amplitude (mV ± SEM) Males Females EAB Antennal Dose Response Profiles (Z)-jasmone

30 100 75 50 250 50 75 100 Clean Air Treatment Insect Damage MeJA Healthy N % No Choice 52 38 32 41 57 30 77 55.7 23.6 21.8 29.3 44.0 26.7 36.4 * * n.s. Percent Response Attraction of EAB to Stressed or Healthy Ash Seedlings in Olfactometer Bioassay

31 Field Trapping Studies

32 a ab b b


34 A Multi-Component Trap for EAB Top panel baited with Leaf Blend Bottom panel baited with Bark Blend Overall Visual Silhouette 10 tall pole simulates tree bole Panels simulate tree crown Purple color is attractive to EAB Traps in sunny open locations

35 Highly apparent placement may reduce competition between trap & nearby ash trees Can install traps along roadsides, in open areas or just outside forested area Logistically simple & efficient to monitor

36 Experimental Design - 2006 6 Field Sites 40 Replicates (5-10 per site) 4 Treatments: Leaf Blend + Bark Blend + Texture Leaf Blend + Texture Bark Blend + Texture Leaf Blend + Bark Blend

37 Trapping Results - 2006 Captured 4,060 EAB Leaving off Leaf Blend reduced attraction Leaving off Bark Blend or Texture did not reduce attraction

38 Experimental Design - 2007 8 sites: moderate to very low EAB densities: forest edge, roadside, open field 2 - 7 blocks per site, 31 traps per treatment 5 Treatments: DD: no lures DD: Leaf + Manuka DD: Leaf + Manuka + Extracts Tower: Leaf + Bark + Extracts Single: Leaf + Bark + Extracts

39 Kellogg Forest – EAB Detection Site x x Girdled trees Ash plantation Conifers EAB not known to be present 4 EAB caught on DD-L+M trap 28 Jun, 11 July, 17 July No EAB adults or larvae on 2 girdled trees 150 m away

40 Conclusions Girdled trees are consistently the most attractive trap trees Girdled trap trees and purple traps can catch EAB at low-density sites and can detect new infestations Purple traps are more attractive than green traps Baited traps are more attractive than unbaited traps Large silhouette traps at the ground are at least as attractive or more attractive than canopy traps Double decker traps are more attractive than single panel or tower traps

41 Using traps operationally - Issues to consider… Pestick was re-applied after heavy rain(s). Traps need to be checked fairly often (e.g. 2 wk intervals?) or beetles may fall off. Accumulation of flies (esp. green traps) or other insects may require panel to be scraped & Pestick re-applied.

42 Acknowledgements MSU: Kaeli Chambers, Tara Dell, Erin Burkett, Chenin Limbach, Bob McDonald, Ben Schmidt, James Wieferich US Forest Service: Stephen Burr, Alison Wroblewski, Tina Kuhn, Toby Petrice Funding: USDA Forest Service MSUs Project GREEEN

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