Presentation on theme: "Iron Age central and northern Europe: Hallstatt, La Tène and the Celts"— Presentation transcript:
1Iron Age central and northern Europe: Hallstatt, La Tène and the Celts
2Sites Some sites are: La Tène, Marin-Epagnier Bern, Engehalbinsel: oppidumJolimontManching: oppidumMormontMünsingen, burial fieldPetinescaBasel oppidumBibracte, oppidum of the Aedui at Mont Beuvray in BurgundyErstfeld hoardHochdorf Chieftain's GraveBopfingen: Viereckschanze, a characteristic rectangular enclosureFellbach-Schmiden, near Stuttgart: Viereckschanze; ritual objects recovered from a wellKleinaspergle: elite graves of La Tène IWaldalgesheim: an elite chariot burial, 4th centuryGlauberg, oppidum and elite gravesDürrnberg near Hallein: Burial field and earthworks of late Hallstatt–early La TèneDonnersberg: oppidumVill near Innsbruck: remains of dwellingsSandberg Celtic city near Platt and Roseldorf in Lower AustriaVix/Mont Lassois: oppidum and elaborate gravesTitelberg: oppidum in LuxembourgReinheim: Tomb of a princess/priestess with burial gifts
3ArtifactsVix kraterSome outstanding La Tène artifacts are:"Strettweg Cart" (7th century BCE), found in southeast Austria, a four-wheeled cart with a goddess, riders with axes and shields, attendants and stags. (Landesmuseum Johanneum, Graz, Austria)A woman in Vix (Châtillon-sur-Seine, Burgundy) buried with a 1100 litre (290 gallon) bronze Greek vase, the largest ever found.The silver "Gundestrup cauldron" (3rd or 2nd century BCE), found ritually broken in a peat bog near Gundestrup, Denmark, but probably made near the Black Sea, perhaps in Thrace. (National Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen)"Battersea Shield" ( BCE), found in the Thames, made of bronze with red enamel. (British Museum, London)"Witham Shield" (4th century BCE). (British Museum, London)  "Chertsey Shield ( BCE). (British Museum, London) "Turoe stone" in Galway, IrelandChariot burial found at Waldalgesheim, Bad Kreuznach, Germany, late 4th century BCE. (Bonn: Rheinisches Landesmuseum)Chariot burial found at La Gorge Meillet (St-Germain-en-Laye: Musée des Antiquités Nationales).A life-sized sculpture of a warrior that accompanied the Glauberg burials.A gold-and-bronze model of an oak tree (3rd century BCE) found at the Oppidum of Manching.Noric steelNotes
4Halstatt CultureIn central Europe the most important Early Iron Age culture was the Hallstatt, which follows the Urnfield and precedes the La Tene.
5Lake HallstattAlthough the Hallstatt culture dates from the early Iron Age the area around the lake was inhabited from a very early period, possibly from the 6th millennium. People were attracted to the supply of natural salt.Excavations began in 1846 and in 20 years about 1000 graves had been excavated.
6Drawing of Hallstatt grave goods Unusually for the time the excavator had the graves and their goods recorded in coloured drawings.Drawing of Hallstatt grave goods
7Hallstatt bronze ‘tool’ Among the finds were bronze implements
9Hallstatt and La Tene cultures The core of Hallstatt culture was relatively small but its sphere of influence seems to have been large,Hallstatt and La Tene cultures
10Hallstatt (yellow) and later La Tène (green) cultures and the later La Tene encompassed much of central, eastern and northern Europe.
11Archaeological site of Glauberg Richly furnished burials from the late Hallstatt period have been found in central Europe.One of the earliest may be at Glauberg where the terrain seems to have attracted human life from the 5th millennium.On this strategic plateau site a fortified settlement was found with ‘elite’ burials covered by mounds.Archaeological site of Glauberg
12Reconstructed mound 1 at Glauberg Originally the mounds would have looked like this, but millennia of use reduced most to little more than a metre in height.Reconstructed mound 1 at Glauberg
13The site and associated burials The settlement grew around the Glauberg plateau. The two mounds covered burials that have been dated to around 500BC.The first, originally 6m high and nearly 50 in diameter, covered an inhumation of a middle-aged man.The site and associated burials
14Approach to the mound The mound was surrounded by a ditch
15Processional route (10m wide) and a processional route 10 metres wide.Processional route (10m wide)
16Reconstruction of the mound and route The mound and the approaches are shown in this plan,Reconstruction of the mound and route
17the offerings in inhumation grave 1 in this drawing, Offerings in grave 1
18Cremation in grave 2 and those in the cremation burial in grave 2.
19‘Celtic prince of Glauberg’ Associated with one mound was a life-size stone statue of a man,‘Celtic prince of Glauberg’
20‘Glauberg Prince’ (186cm) seen here in two views.‘Glauberg Prince’ (186cm)
21Sites with rich burials HochdorfAt Hochdorf, a short distance north of the Glauberg, another moundSites with rich burials
22Hochdorf mound was investigated in 1977. was investigated in 1977.Today it has been restored to its original size - 6 metres high and nearly 60 in diameter.Inside was a rich grave of about 530BC.
23The burial mound This aerial view can be compared with
24How it looked before the burial with workshops this drawing of how the site looked before the burial of an important man, probably a Celtic ‘prince’.How it looked before the burial with workshops
25The timber and log chamber He was placed in a timber and log chamberThe timber and log chamber
26Reconstruction of the grave and its contents on a bronze bed. At his feet was a large bronze cauldron which could have held 100 gallons of mead, and on the other side of the chamber a wagon held offerings.Reconstruction of the grave and its contents
28Reconstruction of grave of Hochdorf chieftan drinking horns hang on the wallThe grave has been reconstructed in the Hochdorf Museum.The man was about 40 years old and 187 cms tall. He wore shoes with gold plate, amber jewellery, a hat of birch bark, and had a gold-platted dagger.Reconstruction of grave of Hochdorf chieftan
29Gold decoration of his shoes His shoes decorated with gold.Gold decoration of his shoes
30His dagger with gold foil sheath His sword with a gold sheathHis dagger with gold foil sheathFile:Hochdorf dagger with gold foil.jpg
31Drinking horn with gold decoration and a fine drinking horn with gold decoration.Drinking horn with gold decoration
32www2.iath.virginia.edu/.../ Vix/Vix_main.html At Hirschlanden, near Hochdorf, another stone statue was found.Sites of rich burialswww2.iath.virginia.edu/.../ Vix/Vix_main.html
33Copy of Hirschlanden warrior A copy stands at the archaeological site. He wears the same type of hat as the Hochdorf chieftan and holds his dagger.Copy of Hirschlanden warrior
34Archaeological sites around Stuttgart GlaubergStuttgartOther types of grave monuments from this time have been found around Stuttgart.Archaeological sites around Stuttgart
35This flat stele was found at Lindele over a cremation burial This flat stele was found at Lindele over a cremation burial. Apart from schematic rendering of the head no attempt has been made to render a human figure from the stone.‘Lindele stele’ (123cm)
36Statue (162cm) from Stammheim This one, from Stammheim, has elements of the stele or pillar and a more sculptural head with a head-dress like the Hochdorf ‘prince’.Statue (162cm) from Stammheim
37Hoards of metal objects have also been found in the area.
38While the date of the stone sculpture associated with these burials is debated most scholars associate it with the earlier Hallstatt culture rather than the later La Tene.La Tene lies on the northwest side of Lake Neuchatel. The archaeological site was discovered in 1857.Most of the 2500 objects that were discovered were metal, and most were weapons, including swords that had apparently not been used.Lake Neuchatel
39The archaeological site This map shows the archaeological site in relation to the modern city.The archaeological site
40Hallstatt (yellow) and Celtic (green) There seems to be considerable overlap between Hallsatt and Celtic Europe, with the former often considered ‘proto-celtic’, covering the period from around 800BC to 450BC, and the La Tene covering the period from 450 to the Roman conquest.During both trade routes developed with Greece and the east.Hallstatt (yellow) and Celtic (green)
41Sites with rich burials A famous European site for Greek luxury goods is at Mont LassoisSites with rich burials
42Mont Lassois where Vix Crater was found where a large and now famous metal was found.Mont Lassois where Vix Crater was found
43Trade routes by land, sea and river This diagram shows how it might have been transported from Greece.Trade routes by land, sea and river
44Sites near Vix with rich burials The grave at Vix that revealed the crater was one of several in this area where there had been settlements for some time. Excavations have revealed other rich graves in what is northern Burgundy of present-day France.Sites near Vix with rich burials
45Plan of the site with a large building ‘palace’ The settlement around Mont Lassois had a large building which some would see as a ‘palace’.
46The woman buried with the Vix crater around 500 was clearly rich and powerful. Unlike most graves her’s had not been disturbed.The bronze crater was made in Greece and measured 1.63 metres high. It was elaborately decorated with patterns and figures.Vix crater
47Reconstruction of the ‘princess’ tomb’ Considered a ‘princess’ her grave has been reconstructed in the local museum.Reconstruction of the ‘princess’ tomb’
48Vix chariot Her body was placed on a chariot. Her body was placed on a chariot.