Presentation on theme: "SIGN Cambodia Oct. 20021 From Urban to Rural Health Care Waste Management in India Srishti Health Care Without Harm India."— Presentation transcript:
SIGN Cambodia Oct From Urban to Rural Health Care Waste Management in India Srishti Health Care Without Harm India
SIGN Cambodia Oct Srishti Not for profit, non-governmental environmental organisation working of issues of waste, recylcing and toxics since 1992 areas of policy, research, projects, advocacy
SIGN Cambodia Oct Brought attention to the issue in India in Involved in national legislation and standards setting. Coordiante a national multistakeholder network. Implemented 5 model hospitals, training programs, awareness campaigns. Documentation of best practices, field guides. Advocacy for cleaner appropriate technologies. Participated in WHO database, 1999, UNEP Basel Guidelines for bio- medical wastes,2000,SIGN –India partner Work on Medical Waste
SIGN Cambodia Oct Rapid Changes in Urban settings since 1995 Perspective shift from technology to management solns. New national legislation in 1998 with tech. standards. Focus on In hospital program implementation. Training and capacity building. Segregation and sharps management. Offsite treatment and disposal with transport. Understanding of occupational safety issues Installation of off-site centralised facilities in 6 cities. Adoption and local manufacture of non-burn technologies
SIGN Cambodia Oct Lessons learnt in Urban Settings Waste mgmt as part of housekeeping/ infection control. Hosptial staff has a rapid learning curve. Raising awareness about occupational safety issues is key. Simple devices work better such as for sharps mgmt. Rapid incorporation of non-burn technologies where availability is assured. Preference of technologies with lower cost of operation. Training and awareness play a citical role. Industry eager to fill in new markets with products.
SIGN Cambodia Oct Non-Burn Technologies Being Used for Sharps On – site needle cutters and destroyers. On site Designed waste pits. Off site Waste encapsulation. On site and off site Autoclaving. On site and off site Micro waving. Off site Needle smelting. (Srishti study carried out for SEARO – WHO for evaluating above- Yr2002)
SIGN Cambodia Oct Legislation applicable to Rural/peri urban settings in India Mandatory waste management system by 31 st Dec2002. Segregation of waste at source. Secured collection and transportation. Deep burial allowed (in populations < 500,000) Burning plastics/ especially chlorinated plastics not recommended.
SIGN Cambodia Oct Broad Rural Health Structure Community Health Center (CHC) A 30 bedded Hospital/Referral Unit for 4PHCs with specialized services Primary Health Center (PHC) A referral unit for 6 sub centres 4-6 bedded Sub Center (SC) Most peripheral contact point between Primary health care system and community District Hospital Sub-District Hospital
SIGN Cambodia Oct Coverage Rural Population: 72.2% of total population (2001 census) Community Health Centre: Caters to a population of 1.2 lakh. Approx 2600 nos. Primary Health Centre: Caters to a population of around 30,000. Approx nos. Sub Centre: Caters to a population of 5,000. Approx 36,258 nos. Other Health Care Facilities: Missionary health care facilities and Day care clinics
SIGN Cambodia Oct Types of Health Services Routine Services provided in rural areas: Day care/ observatory beds Laboratory investigations Tuberculosis centers Mother and Child Care Campaigns: -Immunization drives
SIGN Cambodia Oct Waste Types (based on survey of 5 centers) Infectious Waste: Body tissues, Blood soaked cotton and gauze pieces and body fluids Infectious Plastic: Disposable syringes, tubings, IV bottles and gloves Sharps: Broken glasses and metal sharps like scalpels and needles Average quantity of bio-medical waste/bed/day: Kg II. General Waste: Packaging material & food waste
SIGN Cambodia Oct Exisiting Practices Waste Segregation: Waste is generally mixed in a single bin/bag. In some districts waste is being segregated into different categories. Waste collection and storage: Open bins and drums. Bins are not bagged. Spills on floor at the time of generation. No regular pattern of waste collection and the waste is collected as and when required.
SIGN Cambodia Oct Segregation at Source
SIGN Cambodia Oct Existing Practices Waste Transportation: Waste is transported manually from point of generation to final treatment/disposal site. No protective gears are provided to the health care workers. No immunization/accident reporting. Waste Treatment: No specific waste treatment pattern is followed except in 2 cases.
SIGN Cambodia Oct Existing Practices Waste Disposal: Open dumping of waste around the health care facilities Open burning of waste Scavenging of waste by waste sorters and animals Furnaces for burning of waste in some PHCs In facilities near urban areas waste is being carried by centralized facility
SIGN Cambodia Oct Needle Destroyer
SIGN Cambodia Oct Final Storage of Waste in a Health Care Institution
SIGN Cambodia Oct Treatment and disposal methods observed: Encapsulation. Pit Disposal. Needle Devices – Destroyers/cutters. Small autoclaves.
SIGN Cambodia Oct Deep Burial Pit
SIGN Cambodia Oct Autoclaves
SIGN Cambodia Oct Training and Awareness Staff are not aware of the concept of waste management. No specific training sessions on waste management. No posters/awareness material provided at the health care settings.
SIGN Cambodia Oct Interventions possible Incorporating waste mgmt. into housekeeping and infection control. Raising occupational safety awareness. Training and capacity building for better segregation. Resolving transport issues (onsite/offsite decisions) Incorporating safe-easy to use, low operating cost technologies
SIGN Cambodia Oct Lessons, understandings and perspectives from the urban experience can be applied to rural and peri-urban areas.