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Gossip Protocols from Epidemic Algorithms for Replicated Database Maintenance, Alan Demers et al Russell Greenspan CS523 Spring, 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "Gossip Protocols from Epidemic Algorithms for Replicated Database Maintenance, Alan Demers et al Russell Greenspan CS523 Spring, 2006."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Gossip Protocols from Epidemic Algorithms for Replicated Database Maintenance, Alan Demers et al Russell Greenspan CS523 Spring, 2006

3 Gossip Protocols Useful for routing information through an unreliable network Great for replicating database updates from one site to many Introduce randomness leading to probabilistic reliability

4 Epidemic Algorithms for Replicated Database Maintenance, Alan Demers et al Gossip protocols in replicated domain name service on Clearinghouse Servers for Xerox Corporate Internet Direct Mail Anti-Entropy Rumor Mongering Demers, A., Greene, D., Hauser, C., Irish, W., Larson, J., Shenker, S., Sturgis, H., Swinehart, D., and Terry, D Epidemic algorithms for replicated database maintenance. In Proceedings of the Sixth Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, August , 1987). F. B. Schneider, Ed. PODC '87. ACM Press, New York, NY, DOI=

5 Direct Mail (What not to do!) Timestamp each operation Notify all sites of every operation when it occurs Sending pseudocode foreach (site s in Sites) send(to:s, item:i); Receiving pseudocode if (localItem.timeStamp < i.timeStamp) localItem.value = i.value; Problems No guarantee of message delivery Unreachable destinations Incorrect destination list Generates n messages (1 per site s in Sites) Each message traverses the entire network between source and destination

6 Anti-Entropy Based on epidemic theory Single infected site eventually infects entire population of susceptible sites In database replication, infected site is the one with the latest update, susceptible sites are those needing the update Total time to update population is proportional to log of population size Periodically sync entire copy of DB with one or more remote copies Pseudocode forsome (site s in Sites) resolveDifferences(localDB, s);

7 Anti-Entropy Resolving Differences Push If local item is more recent, tell remote copy to update Site susceptible at time t remains susceptible at time t + 1 if no infected site contacted it at time t + 1 Good when most sites need the update Pull Ask remote copy if its copy is more recent; if so, update local copy Site susceptible at time t remains susceptible at time t + 1 if it did not contact an infected site at time t + 1 Good when most sites are already update-to-date Push-Pull Do both: if (localItem.timeStamp i.timeStamp) i.value = localItem.value; //push

8 Anti-Entropy Performance Enhancements Compare DB checksums (recomputed after each update) before exchanging full copy of the DB Only exchange DB if checksums differ Need to use time window that allows updates to propagate before checksums are compared Keep inverted index by timestamp and only exchange recent updates

9 Rumor Mongering Like a game of network-telephone, infected site s 1 shares update with susceptible site s 2 s 2 then becomes infected and spreads the update to n other susceptible sites (exponential growth) At a certain point, infected site realizes that rumor has spread sufficiently and stops sharing it via: Feedback-based probability (stop with probability 1/k if site was already infected) Blind probability (always stop with probability 1/k) Fixed count (stop after k sites report they are already infected)

10 Rumor Mongering Connection Limit Consider a limit on the number of rumor requests a server can process at once Effects of Push and Pull methods On mostly-stale database, Push excels since if two sites try to push to the same recipient, one is rejected; as epidemic spreads, this has the effect of canceling unnecessary update network traffic With Pull method, connection limit introduces slight chance that a site might miss an update

11 Replication Strategy Recap Direct mail creates high volume of network traffic Anti-Entropy is only practical as a backup to some other mechanism since it can be so expensive Rumor Mongering introduces nonzero probability of failure So... use Rumor Mongering with infrequent Anti-Entropy backup

12 Deleted Data Need to use Death Certificate to notify sites of deleted data Similar to imagining a Deleted flag on every piece of data, with delete operations updating this flag instead of actually deleting data Compare timestamp of Death Certificate in same way update timestamps are compared Store Death Certificates: For a fixed period of time In dormant state at small number of sites and activate it when site s 1 realizes site s 2 has not seen it; keep activation timestamp to determine dormancy

13 Network Node Distribution Consider extremes Only nearest neighbors Traffic per link per cycle = O(1) Cycles to spread update = O(n) Random Traffic per link per cycle = O(n) Cycles to spread update = O(log n) Distance proportional to d -2 Traffic per link per cycle = O(log n) Cycles to spread update = O(log n) Great... but achieving d -2 in real-world network not immediately obvious; suggests rectilinear meshes of sites

14 Network Node Distribution Achieving Rectilinear Grids Xeroxs topology contains hundreds of nodes in US and tens of nodes in Europe connected by a pair of transatlantic links Each site keeps list of other sites sorted by distance and chooses nearest recipients with greatest probabilities

15 Network Node Distribution Performance by Distribution Factor Method and Distribution Connection Limit Average Convergence Time (after 250 runs) Compare TrafficUpdate Traffic AverageTransatlantic Link AverageTransatlantic Link Anti-Entropy, Uniform None Anti-Entropy, Spatial None Anti-Entropy, Uniform Anti-Entropy, Spatial Push-pull Rumor Mongering, Uniform n/a Push-pull Rumor Mongering, Spatial n/a

16 Network Node Distribution Push and Pull Push alone and Pull alone extremely sensitive to network topology Consider a network with two isolated sites s 1 and s 2 With Push, if the update is introduced at s 1 or s 2 and these two sites continuously select each other as partners, the update will not propagate With Pull, if the update is introduced in the main part of the network, high likelihood that the update is no longer hot when s 1 or s 2 finally go to pull

17 References Demers, A., Greene, D., Hauser, C., Irish, W., Larson, J., Shenker, S., Sturgis, H., Swinehart, D., and Terry, D Epidemic algorithms for replicated database maintenance. In Proceedings of the Sixth Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, August , 1987). F. B. Schneider, Ed. PODC '87. ACM Press, New York, NY, DOI= M. -J. Lin and K. Marzullo. Directional gossip: gossip in a wide area network. To be published in Proceedings of the Third European Dependable Computing Conference (SpringerVerlag LNCS). D. Agrawal, A. El Abbadi, and R.C. Steinke, "Epidemic Algorithms in Replicated Databases," Proc. 16th Symp. Principles of Database Systems, pp , May Chandra, R., Ramasubramanian, V., Birman, K.P. Anonymous Gossip: Improving multicast reliability in mobile ad-hoc networks. International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (2001)


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