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AMA Formatting “Cliffnotes”

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1 AMA Formatting “Cliffnotes”
Patrick Cross, PT, DPT, RHF

2 Reference Citation in Paragraphs
Site frequently vs. infrequently Avoid secondary citations if possible See AMA [10th ed] References are in order of use throughout the paper EndNote is a program that may be a beneficial tool Note that it is not perfect and one needs to edit references before submitting

3 Reference Citation in Paragraphs
If whole paragraph from same source, site first and last sentences When changing citations, site the last sentence by one author.X Then site the first sentence by the next author.Y Citations come after the comma or period.Z Citations come before the colon or semicolonA;

4 Reference Citation in Paragraphs
Don’t use the author’s first name, just use the last name If one author, just state the last name when refer to the study In the study by Karges,# If two authors, state both names In the study by Cross and Berg,# If three or more authors, state the last name of the first author and then et al, and colleagues, etc. Svien et al# It is best to site right after the name rather than the end of the sentence. Osborn and colleaguesB found…

5 Direct Quotes Use as few direct quotes as possible
Use quotation marks to enclose a direct quote of no more than 4 typewritten lines (run-on quote) May be more than 4 lines if enclosing conversational dialogue (see AMA page 359 [10th ed]) Direct quotes need a page number with each citation… “Using a sample of convenience, 14 women were selected in a consecutive manner to participate in the study at a clinic that participates in women’s health.”1(p138)

6 Direct Quotes Follow wording, spelling, and punctuation of the original quote exactly Do not omit citations embedded within original material quoting, but do not include them in the list of references If omit text from a quotation, use ellipsis points Three periods with a single space, before, between, and after each period If between sentences use period to end sentence plus the 3 ellipsis points Not used when opening of a sentence or end of a sentence is being omitted for a run-on quote If block quote and initial words of first sentence are being omitted, begin with a paragraph indention and 3 ellipsis dots

7 Direct Quotes Quotes greater than 4 typewritten lines have to be in a block format: (see AMA page 361 [10th ed]) Reduced type No quotation marks Indented on the left margin (1/2 inch or same distance as paragraph indent) Only add another paragraph indent to the first line of text if it is found in the original Single spaced for research papers, but may be double spaced in manuscripts submitted for publication Set off from the text by additional spacing above and below the block

8 Numbers and Abbreviations
Write out numbers that begin a sentence unless it begins with a year Regarding numbers, see AMA Chapter 18 and [10th ed] Avoid starting sentences with abbreviations/ acronyms like COPD, PT, etc. All state abbreviations are the same as postal abbreviations Use state abbreviation in references State has to be written out in the text See AMA page 451 [10th ed]

9 Numbers and Abbreviations
Write out unless used more than five times in an article or a familiar acronym Expanded the first time with abbreviation following in parentheses Physical therapists (PTs) Write plurals without an apostrophe PTs, not PT’s Rarely periods (DPT, not D.P.T. unless quoted from another source)

10 Numbers and Abbreviations
Abbreviate names of journals in reference list according to PubMed Journals database See AMA [10th ed] and 14.10 Other helpful sites: Journal Abbreviations and List of Serials Indexed for Online Users from the National Library of Medicine

11 Writing Hints Avoid 1 and 2 sentence paragraphs, but don’t have paragraphs that are 2 pages in length either When reporting on studies that others have done, past tense is preferred However, present tense may by used to “express a general truth, a statement of fact, something continually true.”2(p320) See AMA Pages [10th ed]

12 Writing Hints Try not to say “the study found,” the “article suggested,” etc. Instead, state that “results indicated” or the “authors suggested” Try not to make a general comment about “many studies” and then only cite one or two references If refer to “several studies,” then should cite several studies When listing numerous studies, and first time presenting in paper, then place in order they appear next in paper. If do not appear again, then ABC order by last name of primary author

13 Writing Hints Avoid non-parallel lists Avoid the passive voice
…collecting information, data analysis, and a summary of the results  not good …collecting information, analyzing data, summarizing results  better Avoid the passive voice Data were collected from 300 patients by the student researchers.  avoid Student researchers collected data from 300 patients.  better See AMA page 320 [10th ed]

14 Writing Hints Avoid misplaced modifiers
The patient was referred to the physical therapist with an ACL injury.  who has the ACL injury, the patient or the PT? The patient with the ACL injury was referred to the physical therapist. See AMA pages [10th ed] Subject verb agreement is important AMA Section 7.8 [10th ed]

15 Writing Hints Avoid subjects that require the use of singular pronouns if possible What we typically see written is “The student worked on their assignment”  incorrect The student worked on his/her assignment  correct, but harder to read. The students worked on their assignment  better to use plural if one can

16 Headings TYPICAL LEVEL ONE HEADING Typical Level Two Heading
Typical level three heading. Then the paragraph wraps back to the left margin….

17 Reference Page References start on a new page
Reference page comes before tables, figures and appendices Typically single spaced May be double spaced in manuscripts submitted for publication References are numbered in the order they appeared in the text See slide #12 regarding numerous references No commas after the last names of the authors Cross, PS  incorrect Cross PS  correct If >6 authors, list first 3 then “, et al.” See AMA 3.7 [10th ed]

18 Reference Page Period after each section of the reference citation
Author(s). Article title. Journal Name. Year;volume(issue):page numbers. Article title has only the first word capitalized unless there are proper nouns, etc. If there is a colon, the first word after the colon is not capitalized Use the appropriate journal abbreviations Journal title is italicized No space after semi-colon and colon for the year, volume(issue) and page numbers 2005;3(2): Remove hyperlinks from Web site/ page addresses Note “Web” is capitalized, with space between Web and site, but site or page not capitalized

19 Reference Page The citations for books ( and ), Web sites (3.15.3), online journals (3.15.1), etc. is all different than for journal articles Do not reference an entire book unless using “entire book”  reference a chapter in a book Use the AMA Chapter 3 [10th ed]!

20 Basic Reference Examples
Karges JR, Mark BE, Stikeleather SJ, Worrell TW. Concurrent validity of upper-extremity volume estimates: comparison of calculated volume derived from girth measurements and water displacement volume. Phys Ther. 2003;83(2): Journal article <6 authors Cameron MH. Physical Agents in Rehabilitation: From Research to Practice. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders; 2008. Entire book

21 Basic Reference Examples
Cochran TM, Cross PS. American Indian culture. In: Black JD, Purnell LD, eds. Developing Cultural Competence in Physical Therapy Practice. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis; 2005: Chapter in a book with editors

22 Basic Reference Examples
Ekstrum J, Cross P, Sheridan S, Voltz JD. The last buffalo hunt: designing and implementing a culturally and community-driven model for health and wellness in an American Indian community. Paper presented at: The National Rural Health Association 13th Annual Rural and Minority and Multicultural Health Conference: Traditional Health Customs and Practices: In Our Own Words; May 15, 2007; Anchorage, AK. Presentation at a meeting, but not published

23 Basic Reference Examples
American Physical Therapy Association. Physical fitness for special populations. American Physical Therapy Association Web site. Updated September 24, Accessed July 28, 2008. Some my argue that no author given, but I would argue that it came from the organization so APTA is the author.

24 Tables See examples regarding spacing, alignment, etc.

25 Other Resources

Search for the answer to the unknown in the AMA book and/or appropriate Web sites, ask for assistance from writing center and/or instructors What I tell my students: IGNORANCE IS NOT AN ACCEPTABLE EXCUSE

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