Presentation on theme: "AMA Formatting “Cliffnotes”"— Presentation transcript:
1AMA Formatting “Cliffnotes” Patrick Cross, PT, DPT, RHF
2Reference Citation in Paragraphs Site frequently vs. infrequentlyAvoid secondary citations if possibleSee AMA [10th ed]References are in order of use throughout the paperEndNote is a program that may be a beneficial toolNote that it is not perfect and one needs to edit references before submitting
3Reference Citation in Paragraphs If whole paragraph from same source, site first and last sentencesWhen changing citations, site the last sentence by one author.XThen site the first sentence by the next author.YCitations come after the comma or period.ZCitations come before the colon or semicolonA;
4Reference Citation in Paragraphs Don’t use the author’s first name, just use the last nameIf one author, just state the last name when refer to the studyIn the study by Karges,#If two authors, state both namesIn the study by Cross and Berg,#If three or more authors, state the last name of the first author and then et al, and colleagues, etc.Svien et al#It is best to site right after the name rather than the end of the sentence.Osborn and colleaguesB found…
5Direct Quotes Use as few direct quotes as possible Use quotation marks to enclose a direct quote of no more than 4 typewritten lines (run-on quote)May be more than 4 lines if enclosing conversational dialogue (see AMA page 359 [10th ed])Direct quotes need a page number with each citation…“Using a sample of convenience, 14 women were selected in a consecutive manner to participate in the study at a clinic that participates in women’s health.”1(p138)
6Direct QuotesFollow wording, spelling, and punctuation of the original quote exactlyDo not omit citations embedded within original material quoting, but do not include them in the list of referencesIf omit text from a quotation, use ellipsis pointsThree periods with a single space, before, between, and after each periodIf between sentences use period to end sentence plus the 3 ellipsis pointsNot used when opening of a sentence or end of a sentence is being omitted for a run-on quoteIf block quote and initial words of first sentence are being omitted, begin with a paragraph indention and 3 ellipsis dots
7Direct QuotesQuotes greater than 4 typewritten lines have to be in a block format: (see AMA page 361 [10th ed])Reduced typeNo quotation marksIndented on the left margin (1/2 inch or same distance as paragraph indent)Only add another paragraph indent to the first line of text if it is found in the originalSingle spaced for research papers, but may be double spaced in manuscripts submitted for publicationSet off from the text by additional spacing above and below the block
8Numbers and Abbreviations Write out numbers that begin a sentence unless it begins with a yearRegarding numbers, see AMA Chapter 18 and [10th ed]Avoid starting sentences with abbreviations/ acronyms like COPD, PT, etc.All state abbreviations are the same as postal abbreviationsUse state abbreviation in referencesState has to be written out in the textSee AMA page 451 [10th ed]
9Numbers and Abbreviations Write out unless used more than five times in an article or a familiar acronymExpanded the first time with abbreviation following in parenthesesPhysical therapists (PTs)Write plurals without an apostrophePTs, not PT’sRarely periods (DPT, not D.P.T. unless quoted from another source)
10Numbers and Abbreviations Abbreviate names of journals in reference list according to PubMed Journals databaseSee AMA [10th ed] and 14.10Other helpful sites:Journal Abbreviations and List of Serials Indexed for Online Users from the National Library of Medicine
11Writing HintsAvoid 1 and 2 sentence paragraphs, but don’t have paragraphs that are 2 pages in length eitherWhen reporting on studies that others have done, past tense is preferredHowever, present tense may by used to “express a general truth, a statement of fact, something continually true.”2(p320)See AMA Pages [10th ed]
12Writing HintsTry not to say “the study found,” the “article suggested,” etc.Instead, state that “results indicated” or the “authors suggested”Try not to make a general comment about “many studies” and then only cite one or two referencesIf refer to “several studies,” then should cite several studiesWhen listing numerous studies, and first time presenting in paper, then place in order they appear next in paper.If do not appear again, then ABC order by last name of primary author
13Writing Hints Avoid non-parallel lists Avoid the passive voice …collecting information, data analysis, and a summary of the results not good…collecting information, analyzing data, summarizing results betterAvoid the passive voiceData were collected from 300 patients by the student researchers. avoidStudent researchers collected data from 300 patients. betterSee AMA page 320 [10th ed]
14Writing Hints Avoid misplaced modifiers The patient was referred to the physical therapist with an ACL injury. who has the ACL injury, the patient or the PT?The patient with the ACL injury was referred to the physical therapist.See AMA pages [10th ed]Subject verb agreement is importantAMA Section 7.8 [10th ed]
15Writing HintsAvoid subjects that require the use of singular pronouns if possibleWhat we typically see written is “The student worked on their assignment” incorrectThe student worked on his/her assignment correct, but harder to read.The students worked on their assignment better to use plural if one can
16Headings TYPICAL LEVEL ONE HEADING Typical Level Two Heading Typical level three heading. Then the paragraph wraps back to the left margin….
17Reference Page References start on a new page Reference page comes before tables, figures and appendicesTypically single spacedMay be double spaced in manuscripts submitted for publicationReferences are numbered in the order they appeared in the textSee slide #12 regarding numerous referencesNo commas after the last names of the authorsCross, PS incorrectCross PS correctIf >6 authors, list first 3 then “, et al.”See AMA 3.7 [10th ed]
18Reference Page Period after each section of the reference citation Author(s). Article title. Journal Name. Year;volume(issue):page numbers.Article title has only the first word capitalized unless there are proper nouns, etc.If there is a colon, the first word after the colon is not capitalizedUse the appropriate journal abbreviationsJournal title is italicizedNo space after semi-colon and colon for the year, volume(issue) and page numbers2005;3(2):Remove hyperlinks from Web site/ page addressesNote “Web” is capitalized, with space between Web and site, but site or page not capitalized
19Reference PageThe citations for books ( and ), Web sites (3.15.3), online journals (3.15.1), etc. is all different than for journal articlesDo not reference an entire book unless using “entire book” reference a chapter in a bookUse the AMA Chapter 3 [10th ed]!
20Basic Reference Examples Karges JR, Mark BE, Stikeleather SJ, Worrell TW. Concurrent validity of upper-extremity volume estimates: comparison of calculated volume derived from girth measurements and water displacement volume. Phys Ther. 2003;83(2):Journal article <6 authorsCameron MH. Physical Agents in Rehabilitation: From Research to Practice. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders; 2008.Entire book
21Basic Reference Examples Cochran TM, Cross PS. American Indian culture. In: Black JD, Purnell LD, eds. Developing Cultural Competence in Physical Therapy Practice. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis; 2005:Chapter in a book with editors
22Basic Reference Examples Ekstrum J, Cross P, Sheridan S, Voltz JD. The last buffalo hunt: designing and implementing a culturally and community-driven model for health and wellness in an American Indian community. Paper presented at: The National Rural Health Association 13th Annual Rural and Minority and Multicultural Health Conference: Traditional Health Customs and Practices: In Our Own Words; May 15, 2007; Anchorage, AK.Presentation at a meeting, but not published
23Basic Reference Examples American Physical Therapy Association. Physical fitness for special populations. American Physical Therapy Association Web site. Updated September 24, Accessed July 28, 2008.Some my argue that no author given, but I would argue that it came from the organization so APTA is the author.
24TablesSee examples regarding spacing, alignment, etc.
26What I tell my students: IGNORANCE IS NOT AN ACCEPTABLE EXCUSE Search for the answer to the unknown in the AMA book and/or appropriate Web sites, ask for assistance from writing center and/or instructorsWhat I tell my students: IGNORANCE IS NOT AN ACCEPTABLE EXCUSE