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Problems in Geriatric Pharmacotherapy Prof M Aris Widodo MS SpFK PhD PPD Unisma Malang.

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Presentation on theme: "Problems in Geriatric Pharmacotherapy Prof M Aris Widodo MS SpFK PhD PPD Unisma Malang."— Presentation transcript:

1 Problems in Geriatric Pharmacotherapy Prof M Aris Widodo MS SpFK PhD PPD Unisma Malang

2 Problems in Geriatric Pharmacotherapy Prof M Aris Widodo MS SpFK PhD PPD Unisma Malang

3 Persons aged 65y and older constitute 13% of the population and purchase 33% of all prescription medications Persons aged 65y and older constitute 13% of the population and purchase 33% of all prescription medications By 2040, 25% of the population will purchase 50% of all prescription drugs Decline in organ function, in system immune make older people easily get infections easily get side effect of drugs

4 Challenges of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy New drugs available each year New drugs available each year FDA approved and off-label indications are expanding FDA approved and off-label indications are expanding Changing managed-care formularies Changing managed-care formularies Advanced understanding of drug-drug,drug food, drug herbal interactions Advanced understanding of drug-drug,drug food, drug herbal interactions Increasing popularity of nutriceuticals/herbal product Increasing popularity of nutriceuticals/herbal product Multiple co-morbid states Multiple co-morbid states Polypharmacy Polypharmacy Medication compliance Medication compliance Effects of aging physiology on drug therapy Effects of aging physiology on drug therapy Medication cost/no insurance Medication cost/no insurance

5 Pharmacokinetics (PK) Absorption Absorption –bioavailability: the fraction of a drug dose reaching the systemic circulation Distribution Distribution –locations in the body a drug penetrates expressed as volume per weight (e.g. L/kg) Metabolism Metabolism –drug conversion to alternate compounds which may be pharmacologically active or inactive Elimination Elimination –a drugs final route(s) of exit from the body expressed in terms of half-life or clearance

6 Effects of Aging on Absorption Rate of absorption may be delayed Rate of absorption may be delayed –Lower peak concentration –Delayed time to peak concentration Overall amount absorbed (bioavailability) is unchanged Overall amount absorbed (bioavailability) is unchanged

7 Effects of Aging on Absorption Rate of absorption may be delayed Rate of absorption may be delayed –Lower peak concentration –Delayed time to peak concentration Overall amount absorbed (bioavailability) is unchanged Overall amount absorbed (bioavailability) is unchanged

8 Factors Affecting Absorption Route of administration Route of administration What it taken with the drug What it taken with the drug –Divalent cations (Ca, Mg, Fe) –Food, enteral feedings –Drugs that influence gastric pH –Drugs that promote or delay GI motility Comorbid conditions Comorbid conditions Increased GI pH Increased GI pH Decreased gastric emptying Decreased gastric emptying Dysphagia Dysphagia

9 Hepatic First-Pass Metabolism For drugs with extensive first-pass metabolism, bioavailability may increase because less drug is extracted by the liver For drugs with extensive first-pass metabolism, bioavailability may increase because less drug is extracted by the liver –Decreased liver mass –Decreased liver blood flow

10 Aging Effects on Hepatic Metabolism Metabolic clearance of drugs by the liver may be reduced due to: Metabolic clearance of drugs by the liver may be reduced due to: –decreased hepatic blood flow –decreased liver size and mass Examples: morphine, meperidine, metoprolol, propranolol, verapamil, amitryptyline, nortriptyline Examples: morphine, meperidine, metoprolol, propranolol, verapamil, amitryptyline, nortriptyline

11 Effects of Aging on Volume of Distribution (Vd) Aging Effect Vd Effect Examples body water body water Vd for hydrophilic drugs Vd for hydrophilic drugs ethanol, lithium lean body mass lean body mass Vd for for drugs that bind to muscle Vd for for drugs that bind to muscledigoxin fat stores fat stores Vd for lipophilic drugs Vd for lipophilic drugs diazepam, trazodone plasma protein (albumin) plasma protein (albumin) % of unbound or free drug (active) % of unbound or free drug (active) diazepam, valproic acid, phenytoin, warfarin plasma protein plasma protein ( 1 -acid glycoprotein) % of unbound or free drug (active) % of unbound or free drug (active) quinidine, propranolol, erythromycin, amitriptyline

12 Concepts in Drug Elimination Half-life Half-life –time for serum concentration of drug to decline by 50% (expressed in hours) Clearance Clearance –volume of serum from which the drug is removed per unit of time (mL/min or L/hr) Reduced elimination drug accumulation and toxicity Reduced elimination drug accumulation and toxicity

13 Effects of Aging on the Kidney Decreased kidney size Decreased kidney size Decreased renal blood flow Decreased renal blood flow Decreased number of functional nephrons Decreased number of functional nephrons Decreased tubular secretion Decreased tubular secretion Result: glomerular filtration rate (GFR) Result: glomerular filtration rate (GFR) Decreased drug clearance: atenolol, gabapentin, H2 blockers, digoxin, allopurinol, quinolones Decreased drug clearance: atenolol, gabapentin, H2 blockers, digoxin, allopurinol, quinolones

14 Estimating GFR in the Elderly Creatinine clearance (CrCl) is used to estimate glomerular rate Creatinine clearance (CrCl) is used to estimate glomerular rate Serum creatinine alone not accurate in the elderly Serum creatinine alone not accurate in the elderly lean body mass lower creatinine production lean body mass lower creatinine production glomerular filtration rate glomerular filtration rate Serum creatinine stays in normal range, masking change in creatinine clearance Serum creatinine stays in normal range, masking change in creatinine clearance

15 Determining Creatinine Clearance Measure Measure –Time consuming –Requires 24 hr urine collection Estimate Estimate –Cockroft Gault equation (IBW in kg) x (140-age) x (0.85 for females) 72 x (Scr in mg/dL) 72 x (Scr in mg/dL)

16 Pharmacodynamics (PD) Definition: the time course and intensity of pharmacologic effect of a drug Definition: the time course and intensity of pharmacologic effect of a drug Age-related changes: Age-related changes: sensitivity to sedation and psychomotor impairment with benzodiazepines sensitivity to sedation and psychomotor impairment with benzodiazepines level and duration of pain relief with narcotic agents level and duration of pain relief with narcotic agents drowsiness and lateral sway with alcohol drowsiness and lateral sway with alcohol HR response to beta-blockers HR response to beta-blockers sensitivity to anti-cholinergic agents sensitivity to anti-cholinergic agents cardiac sensitivity to digoxin cardiac sensitivity to digoxin

17 Mayor drugs group for te elderly CNS sedative – hypnotics increase volume didtribution haslf life of the drug are increase by 50m -150% Analgesic respiratory effect of narcotic analgesic increase antipshycotic anti depresant phenothiazin and haloperidol are misused, no effects side effects orthostatic hypotension,extrapyramidal Drugs for alzheimer disease sensitive to CNS drugs cardiovascular drugs antihypertensive change in pharmacikinetic and blunt the respond to drug inotropic drug over use cardiac glycosides, clearanace digoxin decrease, half life increase toxic arrythmia Antiinflamatory drug; gastrointestinal bleeding, reduce renal function

18 PK and PD Summary PK and PD changes generally result in decreased clearance and increased sensitivity to medications in older adults PK and PD changes generally result in decreased clearance and increased sensitivity to medications in older adults Use of lower doses, longer intervals, slower titration are helpful in decreasing the risk of drug intolerance and toxicity Use of lower doses, longer intervals, slower titration are helpful in decreasing the risk of drug intolerance and toxicity Careful monitoring is necessary to ensure successful outcomes Careful monitoring is necessary to ensure successful outcomes

19 Optimal Pharmacotherapy Balance between overprescribing and underprescribing Balance between overprescribing and underprescribing –Correct drug –Correct dose –Targets appropriate condition –Is appropriate for the patient Avoid a pill for every ill Always consider non-pharmacologic therapy

20 Pharmacotherapy in elderely people POLY PHARMACY OVER UNDER PRESCRIPTION CASCADE THERAPY FOOD / HERBAL INTERACTION ADVERSE DRUG EFFECTS NON COMPLIANCE MISSED THERAPEUTIC GOAL

21 Consequences of Overprescribing Adverse drug events (ADEs) Adverse drug events (ADEs) Drug interactions Drug interactions Duplication of drug therapy Duplication of drug therapy Decreased quality of life Decreased quality of life Unnecessary cost Unnecessary cost Medication non-adherence Medication non-adherence

22 Adverse Drug Events (ADEs) Responsible for 5-28% of acute geriatric hospital admissions Responsible for 5-28% of acute geriatric hospital admissions Greater than 95% of ADEs in the elderly are considered predictable and approximately 50% are considered preventable Greater than 95% of ADEs in the elderly are considered predictable and approximately 50% are considered preventable Most errors occur at the ordering and monitoring stages Most errors occur at the ordering and monitoring stages

23 Most Common Medications Associated with ADEs in the Elderly Opioid analgesics Opioid analgesics NSAIDs NSAIDs Anticholinergics Anticholinergics Benzodiazepines Benzodiazepines Also: cardiovascular agents, CNS agents, and musculoskeletal agents Also: cardiovascular agents, CNS agents, and musculoskeletal agents Adverse Drug Reaction Risk Factors in Older Outpatients. Am J Ger Pharmacotherapy 2003;1(2):82-89.

24 Patient Risk Factors for ADEs Polypharmacy Polypharmacy Multiple co-morbid conditions Multiple co-morbid conditions Prior adverse drug event Prior adverse drug event Low body weight or body mass index Low body weight or body mass index Age > 85 years Age > 85 years Estimated CrCl <50 mL/min Estimated CrCl <50 mL/min

25 Prescribing Cascade Drug 1 ADE interpreted as new medical condition Drug 2 ADE interpreted as new medical condition Drug 3 Rochon PA, Gurwitz JH. Optimizing drug treatment in elderly people: the prescribing cascase. BMJ 1997;315:1097.

26 DRUG INTERACTION drug and drug drug and food drug and herbal INTERACTION PHARMACODYNAMIC PHARMACOKINETIC PHYSICO CHEMICAL

27 Drug-Drug Interactions (DDIs) May lead to adverse drug events May lead to adverse drug events Likelihood as number of medications Likelihood as number of medications Most common DDIs: Most common DDIs: –cardiovascular drugs –psychotropic drugs Most common drug interaction effects: Most common drug interaction effects: –confusion –cognitive impairment –hypotension –acute renal failure

28 Concepts in Drug Interactions Pharmacokinetic interaction Absorption may be or Absorption may be or Drug metabolism may be inhibited or induced Drug metabolism may be inhibited or induced Drug excretion may be increase / decrease Drug excretion may be increase / decrease

29 Concepts in Drug Interactions Pharmacokinetic interaction Absorption may be or Absorption may be or Drug metabolism may be inhibited or induced Drug metabolism may be inhibited or induced Drug excretion may be increase / decrease Drug excretion may be increase / decrease

30 Concepts in Drug Interactions Pharmadynamic interaction Drugs with similar effects can result additive effects Drugs with similar effects can result additive effects Drugs with opposite effects can antagonize each other Drugs with opposite effects can antagonize each other MAO Inhibitor and food containing pyramid MAO Inhibitor and food containing pyramid Aminophylin with beverage containing xanthin Aminophylin with beverage containing xanthin

31 Common Drug-Drug Interactions CombinationRisk ACE inhibitor + potassium Hyperkalemia ACE inhibitor + K sparing diuretic Hyperkalemia, hypotension Digoxin + antiarrhythmic Bradycardia, arrhythmia Digoxin + diuretic Antiarrhythmic + diuretic Electrolyte imbalance; arrhythmia Diuretic + diuretic Electrolyte imbalance; dehydration Benzodiazepine + antidepressant Benzodiazepine + antipsychotic Sedation; confusion; falls CCB/nitrate/vasodilator/diureticHypotension Doucet J, Chassagne P, Trivalle C, et al. Drug-drug interactions related to hospital admissions in older adults: a prospective study of 1000 patients. J Am Geriatr Soc 1996;44(9):

32 Common Drug-Drug Interactions CombinationRisk ACE inhibitor + potassium Hyperkalemia ACE inhibitor + K sparing diuretic Hyperkalemia, hypotension Digoxin + antiarrhythmic Bradycardia, arrhythmia Digoxin + diuretic Antiarrhythmic + diuretic Electrolyte imbalance; arrhythmia Diuretic + diuretic Electrolyte imbalance; dehydration Benzodiazepine + antidepressant Benzodiazepine + antipsychotic Sedation; confusion; falls CCB/nitrate/vasodilator/diureticHypotension Doucet J, Chassagne P, Trivalle C, et al. Drug-drug interactions related to hospital admissions in older adults: a prospective study of 1000 patients. J Am Geriatr Soc 1996;44(9):

33 Drug-Disease Interactions Obesity alters Vd of lipophilic drugs Obesity alters Vd of lipophilic drugs Ascites alters Vd of hydrophilic drugs Ascites alters Vd of hydrophilic drugs Dementia may sensitivity, induce paradoxical reactions to drugs with CNS or anticholinergic activity Dementia may sensitivity, induce paradoxical reactions to drugs with CNS or anticholinergic activity Renal or hepatic impairment may impair metabolism and excretions of drugs Renal or hepatic impairment may impair metabolism and excretions of drugs Drugs may exacerbate a medical condition Drugs may exacerbate a medical condition

34 Common Drug-Disease Interactions CombinationRisk NSAIDs + CHF Thiazolidinediones + CHF Fluid retention; CHF exacerbation BPH + anticholinergics Urinary retention CCB + constipation Narcotics + constipation Anticholinergics + constipation Exacerbation of constipation Metformin + CHF Hypoxia; increased risk of lactic acidosis NSAIDs + gastropathy Increased ulcer and bleeding risk NSAIDs + HTN Fluid retention; decreased effectiveness of diuretics

35 Principles of Prescribing in the Elderly Avoid prescribing prior to diagnosis Avoid prescribing prior to diagnosis Start with a low dose and titrate slowly Start with a low dose and titrate slowly Avoid starting 2 agents at the same time Avoid starting 2 agents at the same time Reach therapeutic dose before switching or adding agents Reach therapeutic dose before switching or adding agents Consider non-pharmacologic agents Consider non-pharmacologic agents

36 Take careful drug history prescribe only for a spesific and rational indication Define the goal of drug therapy maintain a high index of suspicion regarding drug interaction and drug interaction Simplify the regimen as much as possible

37 Prescribing Appropriately Determine therapeutic endpoints and plan for assessment Determine therapeutic endpoints and plan for assessment Consider risk vs. benefit Consider risk vs. benefit Avoid prescribing to treat side effect of another drug Avoid prescribing to treat side effect of another drug Use 1 medication to treat 2 conditions Use 1 medication to treat 2 conditions Consider drug-drug and drug-disease interactions Consider drug-drug and drug-disease interactions Use simplest regimen possible Use simplest regimen possible Adjust doses for renal and hepatic impairment Adjust doses for renal and hepatic impairment Avoid therapeutic duplication Avoid therapeutic duplication Use least expensive alternative Use least expensive alternative

38 Preventing Polypharmacy Review medications regularly and each time a new medication started or dose is changed Review medications regularly and each time a new medication started or dose is changed Maintain accurate medication records (include vitamins, OTCs, and herbals) Maintain accurate medication records (include vitamins, OTCs, and herbals) Brown-bag Brown-bag

39 Thank you very much FOR YOUR ATTENTION WASSALAMUALAYKUM WARROHMATULLOGI WABAROKATUH


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