Presentation on theme: "Brain warm up A student read four sonnets and five limericks. How many lines of poetry were read?"— Presentation transcript:
1HS Literacy Cohort: Utilizing Literacy Strategies Across the Content Area
2Brain warm upA student read four sonnets and five limericks. How many lines of poetry were read?
3Reflection SheetWhat is your students biggest literacy problem?What are your goals/hope for literacy?What is “reading”What have you done already to aid comprehension in your class?
4Goals for the study group Set up Group NormsDiscuss Literacy Goals & ResponsibilitiesDiscuss Challenging Text & Literacy Strategies4 Keys of Comprehension
5Group Norms Maintain a positive attitude Listen to one another Value one another’s opinionsActive ParticipationTry to get something out of each lesson
6Democracy Matters Summarize the text. What reading challenges did you encounter?What did you do to make sense of the text?
7Literacy Goals & Responsibilities Work on a personal goalTry literacy strategies in the classroomShare literacy strategies/progress with your departmentContribute to the Literacy NewsletterCollaborate with the Lit Coach
8How to Bartle PuzballsThere are tork gooboos of puzballs, including laplies, mushos, and fushos. Even if you bartle the puzballs that tovo inny and onny of the pern, they do not grunto any lipples. In order to geemee a puzball that grunto lipples, you should bartle the fusho who has rackled the parshtootoos after her humply fluflu.How many gooboos of puzballs are there? What are laplies, mushos, and fushos?Even if you bartle the puzballs that tovo inny and onny of the pern, they will not what?How can you geemee a puzball that gruntos lipples?
9Di Tri Berrese Summarize the text. What reading challenges did you encounter?What did you do to make sense of the text?
11Research on Thinking Strategies Used by Proficient Readers Activate background knowledge & make connections between the new and the known informationMonitor Comprehension - Employing fix-up strategies to repair confusionSelf-Questioning the text to clarify ambiguity and deepen understandingPearson et al. 1992Tovani Text - Page 5
12Research on Thinking Strategies Used by Proficient Readers Marking inferences from the text using background knowledge & clues from the textDetermining importance in text to separate details from main ideasUsing sensory images to enhance comprehension & visualize readingSynthesizing and extending thinkingPearson et al. 1992Tovani Text - Page 5
13Literacy StrategiesA strategy is an intentional plan that is flexible and can be adapted to meet the demands of the situation.Strategies give readers options for thinking about text when reading words alone does produce meaning.
15Have you ever experienced A student who appears to understand every sentence and yet cannot answer a single question about the passage as a whole.
16Have you ever experienced Students who appear to have the linguistic proficiency to deal with a text, but are unable to do so because they are approaching it in an inappropriate way
17Have you ever experienced Students - “I didn’t understand the chapter.”Teacher – “What part of it?”Students – “All of it.”
18Academic Genres: Subject Area Reading Math p.45Business p.58Foreign p. 68LanguageEnglish p.72Using T-ChartIdentify why a student might have difficulty comprehending the textList possible strategies to help
20Gradual Release of Responsibility Teacher modeling I DoGuided PracticeCollaborative learning We doIndependent PracticeApplication of the Strategy You doFisher & Frey, 2007
214 Keys to ComprehensionFrame the Text “Activate Background Information”Set a Clear PurposeProvide a method to monitor comprehension or “hold on to thinking”Social discussion
22Background Knowledge“Past experiences always influence new learning. What we know acts as a filter, helping us attend to those things that have meaning and discard those that don’t.When we read something new, we are much more likely to understand it if we see connections that make it relevant. When these connections are murky or unseen, reading comprehension gets cloudy.”(Kelly Gallagher Deeper Reading (2004)
23The Procedure Write down what you think it means Read “The Procedure” silentlyWrite down what you think it means
24Give one – Get one Before/After Great for activating background information OR reviewDirections:Have students fold a piece of paper in half.Starting with the left column, students will list as many ideas as they can about a particular topic (2-3 minutes).Then students will circulate throughout room and exchange ideas. They will “give one” idea and then “take one” from their peers. (2-3 minutes)Discuss ideas as a group.*Optional – Have students write a summary using lists
25Anticipation Guide Before/After An anticipation guide consists of a list of statements that are related to the topic of the text your students will be reading.While some of the statements may be clearly true or false, a good anticipation guide includes statements that provoke disagreement and challenge students’ beliefs about the topic.Before reading the text, students indicate for each statement whether they agree or disagree with it.Serve two primary purposes:Elicit students’ prior knowledge of the topic of the text.Set a purpose for reading.Agree Disagree_____ ______ I would want to know if I carried the cancer gene._____ ______ Genetically predetermining the sex of a baby is immoral.
26Possible Sentences before Purpose: To activate and evaluate student knowledge of a topic.Directions: Generate a list of words related to your lesson. These words should represent concepts that are both familiar and unfamiliar to students.Have students create 5 possible sentences “that might be found in the text” by using two words in each sentence until all words are gone.Share a few sentences on white board or smart boardRead the text.Have students confirm, modify, or extend the sentences.
27Possible Sentence – Example Chapter 2 AP Chem text AtomsAlkalinePeriodic tableNeutronHalogensMassNonmetalsElementsIsotopeRadioactivityMoleculesCompound
28Possible Sentence – Example Chapter 2 AP Chem text The alkaline atoms are in the first group of the periodic table. The halogens are nonmetals. Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have the same atomic number but different atomic masses due to a different number of neutrons. (*reference – Chemistry Addison-Wesley)AtomsAlkalinePeriodic tableNeutronHalogensMassNonmetalsElementsIsotopeRadioactivityMoleculesCompound
29Text StructureA synthesis of research indicated all the following enhance reading comprehension:Well-presented physical text featuresStudent awareness of text structureExplicit instruction in text structure/feature
30How well does your students know your textbook (or classroom text)?
33Active Literacy Classroom Making thinking visiblemodel your own thinking and learning process and demonstrate how to construct meaningThink aloud – verbalizing the thoughts you have as you read, surfacing the inner conversationText-coding – Leave tracks of thinking directly on the text; (questions, confusions, or thoughts, etc)
34Previewing Text Structure Before Preview the Chapter – Headings, subheadings, diagrams/charts, captions, summary boxText Features – bold terms, color codes, italicsPreview Unfamiliar VocabularyIdentify the type of writing structure – informational, cause/effect, problem-solution, directional, etc.
37Missing Headings/Captions before/after *Great for activating background knowledge or assessing meaningStudents generate:captions for illustrationsheadings for text sections*Variation – Students can sketch diagrams or illustration from a caption
38Using Charts Critically What does it say? What does it NOT say?
41Would you rather…..Go to your high school reunion a multimillionaire but 200 pounds overweightORGo poor but in perfect shape?
42Group Norms Maintain a positive attitude Listen to one another Value one another’s opinionsActive ParticipationTry to get something out of each lesson
43Common Questions/Themes Balance of modeling vs independentKnowing student reading levelsGetting students to become active readersMotivation
443 Factors that Increase Readability Background Knowledge – The more background knowledge a reader has about a topic, the more difficult text he can readInterest & Motivation – If a reader has interest in the topic or is motivated to read the text, he will work harder to comprehend meaningPurpose – When a reader knows why he is reading something and knows what task is required for the text, he can better sift and sort information to determine what is important
45Gradual Release of Responsibility Teacher modeling I DoGuided PracticeCollaborative learning We doIndependent PracticeApplication of the Strategy You doFisher & Frey, 2007
46Literacy StrategiesA strategy is an intentional plan that is flexible and can be adapted to meet the demands of the situation.Strategies give readers options for thinking about text when reading words alone does produce meaning.
47Chapter 5 “Why am I reading this?” 3 – Main Ideas2 – Questions1 – Statement that stands out
48Setting a Purpose“The purpose readers set for themselves as they read affects comprehension in several ways. First, it determines the speed of the reading. If readers are scanning the phone book for a name, they can read very quickly. It they are reading a math word problem, they most likely read slowly to catch important information. Purpose also determines what the reader remembers. When readers have purpose, they tend to remember more of the text.”(Cris Tovani, Do I Have to Teach Reading? 2004)
49Why do real writers write? Express & ReflectInquire & ExploreInform & explainAnalyze & InterpretTake a StandEvaluate & JudgePropose a SolutionSeek Common GroundReading RhetoricallyBean, Chappell, and Gilliam
50Why did the author write it? Purpose? Who was the author’s intended audience?
51Holding on to Thinking“Mark Twain once said, ‘No one is smart enough to remember all that he knows.’ When I don’t have a way to hold my thinking while reading challenging texts, I often have trouble remembering or returning to my reading. No matter how hard I try to remember my thinking as I read, I forget it if I don’t have a way to make it permanent. I especially struggle to remember the reading if it is difficult or boring. I find that the same is true for my students.”(Cris Tovani, Do I Have to Teach Reading? 2004)
526 Reading Habits from Harvard When it comes to Marking the Text:“throw away the highlighter in favor of a pen or pencil. Highlighting can actually distract from the business of learning and dilute your comprehension. It only seems like an active reading strategy; in actual fact, it can lull you into a dangerous passivity.”errogatingtexts.html
54Student Generated Graphic Organizers Great way for students to understand and organize textbook material.Useful for prewritingTypes:ClusteringVenn diagramHierarchyCategoricalRefer to strategy packet
55During/AfterDirections: Have the students list the numbers 3, 2, 1 on their paper leaving lines between each number. Assign a specific writing prompt/task for each number. Prompts will vary according to the content.GENERIC example3 – Observations you made while reading2 –Two connections you made while reading1 – Select one important quote from the text.SCIENCE example3 – Identify at least three differences between acids and bases.2 – List two uses of acids and two uses of bases.1 – State one reason knowledge of acids and bases is important to people in our community?
56Sketching Through Text During/After Students visualize the text and create pictorial representations to demonstrate comprehension: Cartoons, diagrams, doodlesEx – Demon in the FreezerRefer to Strategy Packet
58(1 = very low - 10 = extremely well) BilliardsRead the poem, “Billiards”Rate your comprehension of the poem on a scale of 1 to 10(1 = very low = extremely well)
59It says – I say – And so After This strategy helps the reader combine text information with prior knowledge to make inferences about the text. Great for guiding students to higher level thinking.Directions: The teacher models the four column chart. Questions can be generated by teacher, student, and/or class discussion. Students will complete the chart.QuestionIt SaysI SayAnd So(Read the Question)(Find information from the text that will help you answer the question)(Think about what you know about that information.)(combine what the text says with what you know to make an inference & answer the question)
60Most Important Word after This strategy helps students determine importance, summarize, and make inferences & generalizations.PURPOSE - ASSESSMENTDirections: Write a key word on the board.Students are to explain why the key word would best describe the chapter using examples from the text.Chapter Example: Motion & MovementWhy is friction a key word for discussing chapter 3?PURPOSE - STUDENT DISCUSSIONDirections: In small groups or individually, students will pick one word that best describes the text AND will support their answers using evidence from the text.Format:1. The most important word in this selection is ____2. List several reasons for choosing this word. (use the text as evidence)3. Students will share word & defend selectionPossible post discussion activity - ask students if they would change their word after listening to the other groups.
61Reading Minute3-4 times a week, share an interesting piece of reading. The reading selections are from variety of genres from various sources.Sometimes the activity is a springboard into the lesson and sometimes it is a quick 1-2 minute sharing of text.SourcesBenefitsNews headlinesBook blurbs/reviewsCharts/graphsCartoons/graphicsSong lyrics/poetryPostcardsQuotes/biographicalManualsProvides background knowledgeSparks high interestEncourages reading motivationMakes connections to the current worldExposes students to a wide genres of textsIncreases awareness to surrounding textsDevelops critical thinking
63Save the Last Word Read the passage on p.9, “No Easy Answers” silently Your purpose – Select a key sentence, phrase, and/or word from the passage
64Literacy Goals & Responsibilities Work on a personal goalTry literacy strategies in the classroomShare literacy strategies/progress with your departmentContribute to the Literacy NewsletterCollaborate with the Lit Coach
664 Keys to ComprehensionFrame the Text “Activate Background Information”Set a Clear PurposeProvide a method to monitor comprehension or “hold on to thinking”Social discussion
67Instructional Purpose (What is Essential for Students to Know) What two places may cause students difficulty?What will you model that will help students negotiate the difficult parts?What do they need to do with the information they are reading?How will they hold their thinking while they read?
68Written Conversation (Write Around) after Silent DiscussionIn pairs, students are instructed to write a response to a chapter, story, or nonfiction textStudents will exchange their response and write back to one another. This exchange is repeated several times.VARIATION – Write Around – when student groups (4-5) pass around written responses
69Written Conversation (Write Around) after Group TaskEach member select one article to readAnswer the following:Should the limit be changed?After 2-3 minutes, pass your written response to the person next to you.Read their response and write back to them.
70Written Conversation (Write Around) after SKILLSQuestioningParaphrasing/SummarizingCiting evidenceSynthesizingReading Critically