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**Ready to Use Ideas and Activities**

Tactile, Paper, and Tech The Complete GED Math Experience Ready to Use Ideas and Activities Ideas for lesson planning for the ABE, GED and GED Hybrid complete math interactive classroom. Hands on realia, hardcopy interface and computer based interactions create a harmonious balance for instruction. COABE / VAACE National Conference in Norfolk, Virginia Presenter: Michael Matos (Part 1 of 2) Room: James II & III Educational Focus: GED Thursday, April 12, 2012 1:45 pm – 3:00 pm & 3:15 pm – 5:00 pm

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Life Skills Math Math should be taught as a life long learning experience. There are many daily activities in life that involve math concepts. Students should be introduced to problem solving with varied tasks in order to allow them to respond to and experience a variety of learning environments and to meet a variety of learning intelligences. Demonstrate numerical and logical reasoning and apply mathematical concepts in occupational and personal settings. Demonstrate the relevance and value of mathematical concepts to everyday personal and work life.

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**Life Skills Mathematics**

GED Math ready is achieved when the student demonstrates numerical and logical reasoning and applies mathematical concepts in occupational and personal settings. STUDENT ▪ Recognizes the relevance and value of mathematics concepts to everyday personal and work life. ▪ Performs basic mathematical functions. - estimation, calculator use, etc. ▪ Interprets a situation (word problem) and applies the appropriate mathematical concept. ▪ Examines all aspects of a situation for possible mathematical applications. TEACHER ▪ Applies appropriate mathematical concepts to address the needs of a specific solution. ▪ Evaluates the clarity and effectiveness of the mathematical concepts used to solve a problem and adjusts them as needed. ▪ Develop understanding by providing opportunities to explore mathematical ideas with concrete or visual representations and hands-on activities. ▪ Provide problem-solving tasks within a meaningful, realistic context in order to facilitate transfer of learning. ▪ Develop students' skills in interpreting numerical or graphical information appearing within documents and text.

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**Use different strategies to teach and work through math concepts **

Draw a Picture or Diagram Using a picture, or diagram can also help you to determine which other strategy can be used to solve the problem. Guess and Test Take an educated guess at the solution and then try it out to see if it is correct using patterned evaluation. Write an Equation Take sentence or word problem and translate to numeric. Make a List Organize ideas and brainstorm. Word Backwards Starting at the end and working backwards to the beginning might work with some problems. Solve a Simpler Problem Simplify the problem or make up a shorter, similar problem and figure out how to solve it. Make a Model With some problems a 3 dimensional more tactile approach can be used to visualize what we need and what we have. Find a Pattern Many problems can be solved by recognizing that there is a pattern to the solution. Once the pattern is recognized, the solution can be obtained by generalizing from the pattern or any reasoning through. Make a Table Organizing information that is needed from information that is known can help to solve a problem.

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**Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of whole numbers **

The following math skills are needed in various occupations especially in manufacturing, construction and healthcare workplaces. Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of whole numbers Addition and subtraction of decimals Addition and subtraction of shop fractions - (halves, fourths, eighths, sixteenths and thirty-seconds) Addition and subtraction of shop decimals Basic calculation using scale drawings Ranking decimals and fractions Conversion between centimeters and millimeters Conversion between inches and metric measurements Tape measure reading Solution syringes and dispensing cups reading

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ADDITION Add All together And Both Combined Greater Than How many in all In All Increased by Increase More More than Plus Sum Total SUBTRACTION Change (for money) Decrease Decrease by Difference Farther Fewer Than From How many more How many less How much left Larger Left Less than Minus Nearer Reduce Remain/remaining Smaller So on Take Away MULTIPLICATION At Double, Triple, etc. In all Of (Fraction of) Multiply Product of Times (as much) Twice Whole DIVISION Average Cut Divide Each Equal pieces Every Goes Into Half Of One Per Quotient Split Equals Is, Is the same as, Gives, Will be, Was, Is equivalent to

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**Measurement U. S. Customary Units Volume or Capacity**

Distance or Length Distance or Length is the measurement of an object or place, like a pencil, a car, or your bedroom. Distance is the measurement between two places, such as from your house to your school. 12 inches = 1 foot 36 inches = 1 yard 3 feet = 1 yard 5,280 feet = 1 mile 1 mile = 1,760 yards Volume or Capacity Volume or Capacity measures the amount of something in a container, such as milk, laundry soap, or gas. 3 teaspoons = 1 tablespoon = ½ fluid ounces 16 tablespoons = 1 cup = 8 fl. oz. 2 cups = 1 pint = 16 fl. oz. 2 pints = 1 quart = 32 fl. oz. 4 quarts = 1 gallon = 128 fl. oz. Measurement Time 1 minute (min.) = 60 seconds (sec.) 1 hour (hr.) = 60 minutes 1 day = 24 hours 1 week (wk.) = 7 days 1 year (yr.) = 52 weeks 1 year = 12 months (mo.) Temperature Conversion formulas: C = (F - 32) X 5/9 37.7C = 100F F = (C X 9/5) + 32 32F = 0C Weight Weight measures the heaviness of something, such as a car, a feather, or a cow. 16 ounces = 1 pound pounds = 1 ton

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**To change centimeters to inches:**

Measurement Conversions Distance or Length 1 inch = 2.5 centimeters 1 foot = 30 centimeters 1 millimeter = 0.04 inch 1 centimeter = 0.4 inch 1 meter = 3.3 feet Measurement Volume or Capacity 1 milliliter = 1/5 teaspoon 1 milliliter = 0.03 fluid ounce 1 teaspoon = 5 milliliters 1 tablespoon = 15 milliliters 1 fluid ounce = 30 milliliters 1 fluid cup = milliliters 1 quart = milliliters 1 liter (1000 milliliters) = 34 fluid ounces 1 liter (1000 milliliters) = 4.2 cups 1 liter (1000 milliliters) = 2.1 fluid pints 1 liter (1000 milliliters) = 1.06 fluid quarts 1 liter (1000 milliliters) = 0.26 gallon 1 gallon = 3.8 liters Weight 1 ounce = grams 1 pound = grams 1 gram = ounce 100 grams = 3.5 ounces 1000 grams = 2.2 pounds 1 kilogram = 35 ounces 1 kilogram = 2.2 pounds Abbreviations Standard English cup = C fluid cup = fl C fluid ounce = fl oz fluid quart = fl qt foot = ft gallon = gal inch = in ounce = oz pint = pt pound = lb quart = qt tablespoon = T or Tbsp teaspoon = t or tsp yard = yd Abbreviations Metric millimeter = mm centimeter = cm meter = m kilometer = km milliliter = mL liter = L milligram = mg gram = g kilogram = kg Conversion Rule: Use the equivalent measures and multiply or divide. Examples: To change inches to centimeters: 12 x 2.54 = cm To change centimeters to inches: 51 ÷ 2.54 = in Number of inches Number of centimeters in one inch Number of inches Number of centimeters in one inch

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Realia with Math Ideas ● banking accounts – for teaching decimals -addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and place value understanding bank statements bills checkbook balances currency exchange versus banks comparing and contrasting ● coupons - for teaching percent, ratios, subtraction, division advertisements for sales weekly mailers coupon books or ● electric, gas, and phone bills - for teaching decimals and percent - addition, subtraction, multiplication, division account education billing history rates

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**● food - for teaching decimals and percents -addition, subtraction, multiplication, division**

portions - beans, candies colors, types information on packaging ● games – for teaching various mathematical activities bingo cards dice playing cards or or or or or ● geometric shapes – for teaching geometry formulas, ratios, multiplication, division boxes and other cubic objects circles- pizza cardboards or or

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**● home repairs – for teaching geometry, ratios, multiplication, division**

carpeting a room floor tiles, bathroom tiles ● money use - for teaching various mathematical activities, decimals, fractions, percents, place values coins photocopied play money purchasing scenarios ● office supplies - for teaching various mathematical activities, decimals and ratios – addition, subtraction, multiplication and division use index cards, post-it notes different color markers, pens, pencils ● order forms and catalog shopping – for teaching decimals and percents – addition, subtraction, multiplication, division online shopping – don’t transmit small seasonal catalogs free at stores – Staples, Office Depot, Dominick’s, etc. or or

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**● packaging and unit cost – for teaching ratios, subtraction, division**

not only food packaging has units use cost formulas on a variety of items ● reading gauges - for teaching algebra, increment reading, place values, sequencing clocks, watches (telling time) scales thermometers work or school schedules Digital clocks- or Hand clocks- or ● receipts - for teaching various mathematical activities, decimals, fractions, percent, place value, taxes receipts with product descriptions receipts with returns store receipts, online shopping receipts, homemade receipts receipts with missing information

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**● recipes for cooking and baking - for teaching fractions -addition, subtraction,**

multiplication, division; geometry -volume and measurement conversions recipes in metric units utensil restrictions for measurement conversions ● restaurants - for teaching decimals and percent - addition, subtraction, multiplication, division menus dinner checks (the tip) ● riddles - for teaching a variety of math concepts – good lesson starters and icebreakers analytical practice everyday life situations with a twist

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● sports - for teaching decimals and percent - addition, subtraction, multiplication, division; ratios; geometry and basic algebra playing fields newspaper stats sports equipment ● tax return forms - for teaching tables and charts using addition, subtraction, multiplication, division use manuals online practice all forms can be used online or printed out ● weights and measurements (various) – for teaching measurement conversions, increments, place value, sequencing containers – gallon, liter, pint, etc. measuring cups and spoons rulers, meter ruler, measuring tape, yardsticks

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**Number Stumpers Math Riddles**

This activity is bound to get your gray matter moving. Using the clues given for each number, figure out the number answer for each question. Example: 1) Clues 1: It is an even two-digit number 2: The difference between its digits is 1. 3: When the two digits are multiplied, the product is 12. The answer is ________. 2) Clues 1: It is an odd two-digit number. 2: The sum of its digits is 8. 3: The sum of the squares of its digits is 50.

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3) Clues 1: It is an odd two-digit number. 2: The product of its two digits is 24. 3: When the second digit is subtracted from the first, the difference is 5. The answer is ________. 4) Clues 1: It is an even two-digit number. 2: One-half the number is 5 more than the number of days in a fort-night. 3: The sum of the squares of the two digits is 73. 5) Clues 2: The difference of the two digits is 5. 3: The difference in the squares of the two digits is 45.

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Legs and Paws Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division and Measurement Conversion Word Problems Objective: The main objective is to teach students how to use basic addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division skills to first solve a mathematical riddle and then an everyday life calculation using information from the riddle. Students will evaluate how expensive or inexpensive it will be to own a pet or pets through decimal calculations. A secondary objective is to explain how to use measurement conversions with information offered on package labels. Level/Subject: ABE/GED – Basic decimal calculating and solving word problem skills. The use of charts, tables, and graphs to gather information will be covered. Calculator skills will also be used. Procedure: Cut out ads for packaged pet food and either paste it onto a sheet of paper or make an overhead transparency out of it. You can also add charts and tables which show daily food intake for the pet or pets described, easily found on the internet. Come up with as many questions related to many animals, body parts, sacks, ounces, pounds, and dollar amounts you want to investigate. Vary the questions to include a variety of measurement conversions in the answers. Allow the students to look at the information which is printed on the packaging in order to get their answers. Have students look at tables or charts that give recommended daily food and nutrition for a certain animal to setup equation. This activity will help students be aware of the measurement conversions needed on an everyday basis. Variations: Any packaged food and favorite pet will work with this activity. Good examples are finding the dollar amounts for food your dog or your tropical fish will consume per day, week, month, or year. Using a variety of food types and packaging will help with variations in answers. You can also compare types of food (diet, puppy, senior ) and the cost with the average daily nutrient intake for a particular pet size.

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**Legs and Paws There are six men.**

Each man has six sacks. Each sack has 6 cats. Each cat has six kittens. How many paws are there all together? How many human feet are there all together? Calculator Use A typical cat needs to eat twice a day for a total of 2.50 ounces of food. A typical kitten will eat four times a day for a total 4.10 ounces of food. Your neighborhood pet store is selling: Kitten Food = $8.00 for 4 lbs Cat Food = $8.00 for 4 lbs. What would it cost you, if you had to feed all of these cats and kittens for one week? ● 16 ounces = 1 lb.

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Eggs and Gasoline Basic Cost Analysis – Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Division Word Problems Objective: The main objective is to teach students how to use basic addition, subtraction, division, multiplication and division skills to solve basic real life cost decisions. A secondary objective is to explain how to plan and solve everyday cost situations saving money and time by using basic math skills. Level/Subject:: ABE/GED - Basic mathematics and solving word problem skills to complete a cost analysis. Procedure: This question can be put together with any number of variables. The products and obstacles can vary. Ask questions related to how much for an each out of a group. Vary the questions to include as many division and multiplication operations as possible in the answer. Allow the students to compare and contrast answers to come up with the best real life solution. This activity will help students be aware of individual sizes and amounts in familiar products used on an everyday basis. Students will learn how to quickly determine through math operations what is the most economical and time saving decisions to make. Variations: Different types of food items can be used. More math skills can be practiced if the food items are not in single servings. The gas cost, gas tank amount, and the mileage can all be changed to alter the level difficulty. It is also good practice to add extraneous information to the word problem and have students identify them.

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**You recently filled your gas tank and you paid $2.65 per gallon. **

Eggs and Gasoline Eggs are on sale at the grocery store across the street for $.99 cents per dozen. At a grocery store 3 miles away (3 miles there and 3 miles back), a grand opening sale is offering one dozen eggs for free to every visitor with no purchase necessary. You recently filled your gas tank and you paid $2.65 per gallon. Your gas tank holds 15 gallons of gas. Your car averages 18 miles to the gallon. Use the information above to calculate where the dozen eggs will cost less? Will it be a walk across the street or a 6 mile drive to the grocery store? Is there any information above that is not needed to determine which location has the cheapest dozen egg deal?

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**Coca-Cola Percent and Ratio Word Problems**

Objective: The main objective is to teach students how to use ratio and proportion to solve percent problems using realia. A secondary objective is to explain how to read nutritional content information on a package’s nutrition label. Level/Subject:: ABE/GED/Pre-Algebra Procedure: Cut the label off of a 20-ouunce bottle of Coca-Cola and either paste it onto a sheet of paper or make an overhead transparency out of it. Come up with as many questions related to sugar content, calories, carbohydrate intake, etc. as you can come up with. Vary the questions to include percent, ratio, and proportions in the answer. Allow the students to look at the nutritional information which is stated on the label in order to get their answers. This activity will help students be aware that serving size and container size are not necessarily the same thing. Variations: Take a nutrition label from a pre-packaged package of food or bottled beverage. Good examples are candy bars, snack cakes, potato chips, and soda—the types of food that our students generally eat in or before class. Develop as many questions pertaining to the nutritional information listed as possible.

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**High Fructose Corn Syrup**

Coca-Cola Percent and Ratio Word Problems Coca-Cola Classic serving size =8 fl. oz. (240ml) Servings per container = 2.5 Amount % RDA Ingredients: Calories 100 Carbonated Water High Fructose Corn Syrup Caramel Color Phosphoric Acid Natural Flavors Caffeine Fat 0g 0% Sodium 35mg 1% Carbohydrates 27g 9% Sugar Protein

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**The Field of Play – Calculating Distance with Addition and Subtraction**

Objective: The main objective is to teach students how to use ratio and proportion to solve percent problems using realia. A secondary objective is to explain how to read nutritional content information on a package’s nutrition label. Level/Subject: ABE/GED - Basic mathematics and solving word problem skills. Procedure: Cut the label off of a 20-ouunce bottle of Coca-Cola and either paste it onto a sheet of paper or make an overhead transparency out of it. Come up with as many questions related to sugar content, calories, carbohydrate intake, etc. as you can come up with. Vary the questions to include percent, ratio, and proportions in the answer. Allow the students to look at the nutritional information which is stated on the label in order to get their answers. This activity will help students be aware that serving size and container size are not necessarily the same thing. Variations: Take a nutrition label from a pre-packaged package of food or bottled beverage. Good examples are candy bars, snack cakes, potato chips, and soda—the types of food that our students generally eat in or before class. Develop as many questions pertaining to the nutritional information listed as possible.

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**The Field of Play BEARS COLTS**

Calculating in football is part of the game. Distance is a very important tabulation in football and in many other sports. How many yards a kick, pass, or run was determine winners and losers. A football field is 100 yards long, and is marked every 10 yards by a line. The 50-yard line is in the center, and it divides one team's side from the other. To calculate distance across the field, you simply calculate the distance on both sides of the 50-yard line and finally add them. BEARS COLTS For example, if the football was kicked from the Bears' 25-yard line to the Colts' 40-yard line, how long was the kick? First you find the distance from the Bears' 25-yard line to 50-yard line: = 25 Then you find the distance from the 50-yard line to the Colts' 40-yard line: = 10 Then you add these two distances to find the total distance: = 35 yards Based on the example above, answer the following question: How many yards does the football travel if you pass it from the Colts’ 12-yard line to the Bears’ 42-yard line?

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**Recipe for Four / Breaded steak for One Measurement Conversion and Basic Math Skills Word Problems**

Objective: The main objective is to teach students how to perform measurement conversions using realia. A secondary objective is to explain how to read nutritional content information on a package’s nutrition label. Level/Subject: ABE/GED – Measurement conversions, basic mathematics and solving word problem skills. Procedure: Cut the label off of a 20-ouunce bottle of Coca-Cola and either paste it onto a sheet of paper or make an overhead transparency out of it. Come up with as many questions related to sugar content, calories, carbohydrate intake, etc. as you can come up with. Vary the questions to include percent, ratio, and proportions in the answer. Allow the students to look at the nutritional information which is stated on the label in order to get their answers. This activity will help students be aware that serving size and container size are not necessarily the same thing. Variations: Take a nutrition label from a pre-packaged package of food or bottled beverage. Good examples are candy bars, snack cakes, potato chips, and soda—the types of food that our students generally eat in or before class. Develop as many questions pertaining to the nutritional information listed as possible.

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**Breaded Steak recipe (Bistec Empanizado) - serves 4**

Recipe for Four - Steak for One Breaded Steak recipe (Bistec Empanizado) - serves 4 4 steaks (1/4 inch thick) ________________ 1/2 cup onion, chopped ________________ 1 tbsp fresh garlic, minced ______________ 1/4 cup sour orange juice ______________ 1/4 tsp salt _______________ 4 eggs, beaten well ____________ 1 cup finely ground crackers, salt to taste ________________________ 1/2 onion, sliced into rings ____________ Olive oil _____________ Sprinkle steaks with chopped onion, garlic, orange juice and salt. Rub garlic into meat. Marinate for a few hours in the refrigerator. Brush off the onion pieces and dip each steak into the egg to make sure it’s fully coated. Dip the steak into the crackers, making sure that the ground crackers completely cover the steak. Fry the steaks in cooking oil on medium heat until golden brown and well done. Serve with a few onion rings. A bachelor has to convert a recipe his mother gave him for breaded steaks. The recipe that serves four will have to be changed to serve one. A bachelor’s cooking utensils are limited. There are no tablespoons and measuring cups in this house. Teaspoons and shot glasses have to be used as substitutes. Rewrite the recipe so the measured ingredients only make enough breaded steak to serve one? Measurement conversions needed below. 1 US tablespoon = 3 US teaspoons One shot = one ounce One cup = 8 ounces

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**Price per Container Unit**

How much is a Gallon? Most of us are aware of the cost of a gallon of gas or milk. However, it would be interesting to calculate the cost of a gallon of other frequently used items. Complete the chart below. Remember, like in real life situations units of measurement are not always the same. Look at the conversions below the table for help. Item Price per Container Unit Price per Gallon Diet Coke 16 oz. for $1.29 Half & Half 1 pint for $ 1.99 Ice Tea 16 oz. for $1.19 Apple Juice 20 oz. for $1.59 Tomato Juice 1 quart for $1.99 Flavored Water 16 oz. for $1.25 Pint of milk 16 oz. for $1.59 Olive oil 1 pint for $3.99 Use conversions below 1 pint = 16 ounces (oz.) 1 quart = 32 ounces 1 gallon = 128 ounces 1 gallon = 4 quarts

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**Fahrenheit & Celsius in Cooking**

Complete the chart below by finding the missing temperatures using the formulas below. Estimated Cooking Temperature in Celsius and Fahrenheit Fahrenheit & Celsius in Cooking Celsius Fahrenheit Formulas Beef Steak - Medium Rare 65 Beef Steak - Medium 158 Beef Steak - Well Done 75 Ground Beef Chicken 185 Turkey Pizza (oven) 230 Ham (oven) 400 Salmon (oven) 110

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**•What percent of your Smarties package is yellow?**

•How do you express that in a ratio? •What is the probability that you will pull a yellow Smartie out of your package without looking?

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13 original colonies 13 signers of the Declaration of Independence 13 Stripes on our flag 13 steps on the Pyramid 13 letters in ‘Annuit Coeptis’ 13 letters in ‘E Pluribus Unum’ 13 stars above the Eagle 13 bars on the shield 13 leaves on the olive branch 13 fruits and if you look closely, 13 arrows

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**Average Student Height Statistical Analysis Activity**

Objectives: The main objective is to engage students in the major components of statistical analysis: mean, median, mode, and range, through a real-life data set. Students will also have an opportunity for reviewing measurement conversion. Level/Subject: ABE/GED Math Materials: No materials are needed for this activity. A calculator may aid in the computation of numbers, but it is up to the instructor whether or not one should be used. Procedure: Explain the difference between each component of statistical analysis (mean, median, mode, and range) to the class. After explaining the terms above, ask students to tell you their height in feet and inches. Write down the heights of all students in class on the board and ask students to copy down the data set. Using the data provided, have Ss come up with the following: the mean height of the class the median height of the class the mode the range Follow-Up: Have students find data regarding the mean and median height of males and females in the general population. Have them compare their findings with that of other data. How do the heights of students in your class compare to those in the general population?

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**Height (in Feet and Inches)**

Student Name Height (in Feet and Inches) 1. ‘ “ 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Mean Class Height _______________________ Median Class Height ______________________ Class Height Mode _______________________ Height Range of Class ____________________

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**Sale Price & Coupon Activity**

Objectives: In TV and print ads discounts and sales are mentioned in the form of percentages. The main objective is encouraging students to be aware of the use of coupons and special offers in advertising. Ask students to bring sample offers from various stores to class for discussion and practice. Discuss the importance of accurate computation and the ability to use the appropriate operation for computations. Students will practice percent and decimal computing skills will be covered. Level/Subject: ABE/GED Math – percent, decimal, and problem comprehension and problem skills Materials: Coupons will be supplied, but you could have students bring in their own coupons for items they usually purchase. Use newspapers with store advertisements that contain coupons. A calculator may aid in the computation of numbers, but it is up to the instructor whether or not one should be used. Procedure: Explain to students what to look for in coupons: expiration dates, item description, and the discount % off on the exact item description discount coupon. Explain to the students that the same reading comprehension skills that are used for reading is also used in everyday math situations. Students will work with the items selected in a table set-up where they will enter answer after calculations. The coupon offers a % discount. The items are already on sale, but a second discount is taken with the use of a coupon. Compute the amount of discount and savings. Follow-Up: Have students find other coupons, maybe related to car repairs, and work to compute the % of savings and final costs. Compute the amount of money that is saved on the grocery bill using the coupons for a regular shopping trip.

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**Sale Price x Coupon Markdown Rate = Final Sale**

Sale Price & Coupons Some department stores offer markdowns on items that are already on sale. The customer must bring in a coupon to get the markdown. Those coupons are usually distributed by mail or in the newspaper. Look at the coupon below. Notice that most items are 25% off. Items like jewelry are only 15% off. Read all details on the coupon to see which items are on sale and what percent you will save. Formula = two steps: Regular Selling Price x Markdown = Sale Price Sale Price x Coupon Markdown Rate = Final Sale Item Regular Selling Price X Markdown Rate = Markdown Sale Price Coupon Markdown 20% or 10% Price After % off Coupon = Final Sale Price 1. Ralph Lauren Cologne $110.00 40% 2. Skechers Shoes $69.99 30% 3. Nike Socks 6pk $12.99 20% 4. Carry on Luggage $59.00 50% 5. Fossil Watch $90.00 15%

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**How much can you afford to pay? - Activities**

Objectives: Students will learn how to use math skills to plan financial decisions and in the long run for managing household budgets. Financial planning is a skill that is vital to everyday life. This lesson provides an opportunity to improve financial and budgeting planning skills. Everyone must plan for their resources. Discuss why it is important to have these financial skills. Financial planning skills are important for life. Level/Subject: ABE/GED Math – basic math computing skills with formula and word problem situations Materials: Formulas and word problem situation we’ll be supplied for this activity. A calculator may aid in the computation of numbers, but it is up to the instructor whether or not one should be used. Auto advertisements, home mortgage ads, and others can be used to supplement lesson. Procedure: Explain the difference between each financial term discussed in the lessons. Students should become familiar with term like front-end ratio, debt-to-income, back-end ratio, etc. How much house, debt, or car we can afford are all financial planning questions that we all face in life. The buying a car component can be added to the how much for a car lesson, because they work together to save money on that particular item. One example for each lesson or formula will be helpful. Follow-Up: Have students develop a minimum and maximum budget on which they can live. Use a variety of budgeting tools both online and hardcopy to help with plans and goals. Discuss how much per week, month, or year they would have to make in order to stay within their budget.

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**How much house can you afford? Formula: How much debt can you absorb?**

The housing expense, or front-end ratio, shows how much of your gross (pretax) monthly income would go toward the mortgage payment. As a general guideline, your monthly mortgage payment, including principal, interest, real estate taxes and homeowners insurance, should not exceed 28 percent of your gross monthly income. To calculate your housing expense, multiply your annual salary by 0.28, then divide by 12 (months). The answer is your maximum housing expense. Formula: Maximum housing expense = annual salary x 0.28 / 12 (months) Using the information above, what would your housing expense be, if your annual salary is $39,000? Answer: ____________ How much debt can you absorb? The total debt-to-income, or back-end ratio, shows how much of your gross income would go toward all of your debt obligations, including mortgage, car loans, child support and alimony, credit card bills, student loans and condominium fees. In general, your total monthly debt obligation should not exceed 36 percent of your gross income. To calculate your debt-to-income ratio, multiply your annual salary by 0.36, then divide by 12 (months). The answer is your maximum allowable debt-to-income ratio. Formula: Maximum allowable debt-to-income ratio = annual salary x 0.36 / 12 (months) Using the information above, what would your total debt expense be, if your annual salary is $35,000? Answer: ____________

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**How much car can you afford?**

It's generally recommended that your monthly car payment not be more than 20% of your monthly income (though some people recommend it not be more than 10%). Your actual limit depends on your exact monthly expenses. For this activity we will use 15% of your monthly income. According to the recommendation above, if your monthly income is $1,750, how much money can you afford to pay monthly for a car? Use this formula to help: Formula: Monthly Income x 15% answer:__________________

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**answer:__________________**

Buying Your Car Most people can't afford to pay the full price of the car up front. To figure out your monthly payment, you'll need to determine how much more you'll need to pay after the down payment has been made and maybe a discount acquired. This amount is called the capitalized cost, or cap cost. Combined with monthly interest fees, this is what you'll pay for your car. You are going to buy a new car. The sticker price of the car is $22,000. The car salesman gave you a $1,500 discount. You paid $1,200 up front as a down payment. Your interest rates will 7%. You are going to pay off the car in 36 months. How much will you pay every month to pay off your car? What is the approximate sticker price (MSRP) of the car you'd like to buy? ___________ How much of a discount do you think you can negotiate with the dealer? How much money can you pay up front as a down payment? What is the interest rate for your car loan? How much time do you want to pay off your car? Formula: Sticker Price – Discount – Down Payment x rate(%) x Time(years)=Monthly Car Payment answer:__________________

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Pay Check Deductions Calculate what percent each of the following is of the gross (pretax) income and write it on the line: __________1. Federal Income Tax __________ 2. State Income Tax __________ 3. FICA __________ 4. Medicare Tax _________ 5. Total Deductions

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**Simple Interest Formula: Which Car?**

Objectives: The main objective is to teach students how to understand the terms of using credit cards, with particular emphasis on understanding different rate information. This is primarily a reading comprehension activity. Mathematics: ABE/GED/Pre-Algebra; decimals and percents; simple interest formula. Materials: Any car advertisement that shows more than one car and includes price and financing information. A calculator would also be useful. Procedure: Review multiplying and dividing decimals as well as the simple interest formula with your students. Distribute copies of the car advertisement you wish to use in your class (one is included on the back of this lesson). Explain to your students the importance of reading the finance information in such ads, which is often written in fine print at the bottom of the ad. By using the car advertisement, students can figure out exactly how much each car will cost (including cost and financing) over the term of a six year car loan. Expansion: This activity could be expanded into a much larger lesson involving credit and financing. An advertisement from an electronics store or an appliance store could be used to have students figure out the a new refrigerator or a new flat screen television. You can also change the lengths and terms of the loan in which the students are figuring out payments

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**Credit Cards: Rate, Fee, and other Cost Information**

Objectives: The main objective is to teach students how to understand the terms of using credit cards, with particular emphasis on understanding different rate information. This is primarily a reading comprehension activity. Mathematics: ABE/GED/Pre-Algebra; decimals and percents. Materials: Plastic credit cards (the fake ones that are sent to you in the mail a million times a year by banks who want you to use their credit cards); Rate fee information sheet; Question sheet. Procedure: Randomly distribute one credit card to each student in the class. After you have given all students a credit (or while you are still handing them out), solicit information from the Ss about what they know about using credit. Write this information on the board. Handing out the fake credit cards usually automatically leads to a discussion on using credit. Have students either work alone or in pairs while answering the questions related to the fee information and terms of use. Expansion: This activity could be expanded into a much larger lesson involving credit. Follow up activities might include creating a personal budget, reviewing simple interest formula, and reading consumer ads.

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**Credit Cards: Rate, Fee, and other Cost Information**

Please refer to the information in the credit card agreement on the other side in order to complete the questions. If you buy a new bike with this credit card, what interest rate will you be charged? 2. If you go to an ATM and use this credit card to take out cash, will you be charged a fee? If so, what rate will you be charged? Will you be charged any other fees? 3. Is there a fee if you transfer a balance from a different credit card with higher interest to this credit card? 4. You have transferred $2,500 from a different credit card with a higher interest rate to this one. How much interest will you have to pay on the $2,500 during the introductory period (that ends on July 1, 2002)? b. How much will the balance transfer fee be? c. What interest rate will you have to pay if you are late with a payment on your balance transfer during the introductory period? 5. If you make a late payment two times during any six-month period, what interest rate will you be charged?

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**Credit Card Disclosure Activity**

A B Which disclosure above, A or B would you pay the most money for a cash advance? 2. Which disclosure above, A or B would you pay the least for a balance transfer? 3. If you owe $20 dollars to Credit card A and you have defaulted on your agreement. What would be the interest charges billed to you on the $20 you owe? 4. What would your total bill be with Credit card B if you were late with a payment and charged late fees with a balance $1400? 5. You are interested in a balance transfer with Credit card A for $3,200. What will Credit card A charge you for the balance transfer transaction?

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**How much material do I need? - Activities**

Objectives: The main objective is to engage students with math skills needed in various occupations especially in manufacturing, construction and healthcare workplaces. Students will learn to apply formulas and mathematical concepts to real-life situations and understand the useful Algebra can be in everyday home repair. How many of you have ever started and completed a home improvement project? Students will learn the various math skills necessary to complete such home repair projects as painting, wallpapering, tiling, laying flooring, etc. Students will learn how to save money on everyday projects and keep within budgets set for these projects. Level/Subject: ABE/GED Math – algebra, formulas, word problems, measurement Materials: Tactile items that relate to paper activity will help in instruction. For example: tape measure, ruler, medicine cups, etc. A calculator may aid in the computation of numbers, but it is up to the instructor whether or not one should be used. Newspaper Ads for paint, flooring, tiles, carpet, etc. with pricing and measurements. GED Formulas sheet, overheads, pictures and chalk board may also be used. Procedure: Review formulas, shapes, and compare contrast perimeters, areas, and volumes. Allow students to work together on projects. Have students verbalize and work on paper with the problem-solving process first before working the calculations on calculators. Bring in rulers and other measuring tools. Have students estimate and then calculate with formulas on the GED Formula page needed for each example area question using simple shapes. Later, have students calculate how much it would cost for the materials and even labor to complete the work. Develop projects for students in as many home repair real-life situations as it takes to grasp the formula skills. Use painting, wallpapering, tiling, laying flooring, etc. Follow-Up: Have students find and use the correct formulas to use for real-life situations. Work with students to practice all the formulas on the GED Formulas sheet. Work on a number of examples. Work with students to further skills in volume and finance formulas. Develop project that deal with skills from how much fencing, to how much interest. Teach students how important it is to measure accurately and save money on projects.

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**One square yard = 9 square feet**

Floor Area – Square feet and yards Find the floor area in square feet for each of the following floor plans. Omit the closet area in #1 and the bathroom area in #3. Formula for area of a rectangle: A = L x W Floor plan 1. _________ Floor plan 2. __________ Floor plan 3. _______ Find the floor area in square yards for each of the following floor plans. Omit the closet area in #1 and the bathroom area in #3. One square yard = 9 square feet Floor plan 1. _________ Floor plan 2. __________ Floor plan 3. _______ 2. 3. 1.

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**The Wilson’s Need New Flooring **

The Wilson’s living and dining areas need new flooring. The carpeting has been removed and will be replaced with wood flooring. The area of flooring the Wilson’s are replacing does not have any irregular dimensions. However, if your room has irregular dimensions, divide it into squares or rectangles and use the area formula to solve in each area add all the totals. How many square yards of wood flooring will they need to replace the flooring in the living and dining area? The wood flooring is sold in square yards, so you have to convert the measurement from square feet to square yards. (Square Yard =1296 square inches or 9 square feet) Width: _____________ Rectangle Area Formula Length x Width Length: ____________ Width Square yards needed: ___________________ Length Square feet needed: ___________________

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**Formula for area of rectangle: A = L x W and square: A = Side2**

How much carpet? Tammy and Mike want to carpet their living and dining room area. They want to come up with a quick estimate to make sure they could afford the project. They also want to make sure that they have enough carpet to finish the project. Getting a rough idea of how much carpet you will need for a project is pretty simple, but a precise figure is a little more difficult to come by. Calculating the amount of carpet you’ll need and what it costs means coming up with the square footage and multiplying this measurement by the price per square yard. The price of carpet is usually expressed in square yards. A yard is 3 feet so a square yard equals 3 feet by 3 feet or 9 square feet. Find the area in square footage for the Living/Dining room. After converting the square yards, calculate how much the carpeting will cost. One square yard of carpeting is $ Below are some illustrations to help with visualization and calculations. The floor plan has the dimensions needed to calculate the square footage of the area to carpet. Use the spaces below to record measurements and solution. You should round up to the nearest foot. The area formula below will be helpful. Formula for area of rectangle: A = L x W and square: A = Side2 Width: _____________ Rectangle Width Length Length: ____________ Square Square feet needed: ____________________ Side Square yards needed: ____________________ Side

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**Remember to use all information and draw to help evaluate.**

How many tiles? John wants to completely tile all the walls of his master bathroom. He wants to make sure that he has enough tiles to finish the project with only a few extra tiles for mistakes and replacement. Calculating the amount of tiles you’ll need for any project is simply a matter of coming up with the square footage to be covered and the size of the individual tile. Below are some illustrations to help with visualization and calculations. The floor plan has the dimensions needed to calculate the square footage of the walls. Use the spaces below to record measurements and solution. Remember for tiling you want to over estimate so you have a few tiles extra. You should round up to the nearest foot. To make sure you don’t buy too many tiles subtract any square footage for windows and doors. The area formula below will be helpful. Formula: Area = Length x Width Rectangle Width Square Side Length Formula for area of rectangle: A = L x W and square: A = Side2 Estimate the number of tiles you will need to complete your project. Using all the information provided on this page. How many tiles will John have to buy to complete his project? Your results will show both the number of square feet of tile you'll need and also the actual number of tiles in the size you specified. Remember to use all information and draw to help evaluate.

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**Area to be painted: __________**

How much paint? The Perez Family on a budget wants to paint two bedrooms in their home. They want to paint the walls and the ceilings. They want to make sure that they have enough paint to finish the project with not a lot leftover because they are trying to keep cost low. The two rooms are identical in size, so we really only need to calculate the area to be painted in one room and multiply it by two. Calculating the amount of paint you’ll need for any project is simply a matter of coming up with the square footage to be covered. Below are some illustrations to help with visualization and calculations. The floor plan has the dimensions for each numbered wall and ceiling. Use the spaces below to record measurements and solution. Remember for painting you should round to the nearest foot. To make sure you have enough paint do not subtract any square footage for windows and doors unless they significantly reduce the square footage of that wall. One gallon of paint generally covers about 400 square feet. The area formula below will be helpful. Formula: Area = Length x Width Width Length Using all the information provided on this page. How many gallons of paint will the Perez Family have to buy to complete their project? Remember to use all information and draw to help evaluate. Wall 1 width: ___________ Wall 2 width: ___________ Wall 3 width: ___________ Wall 4 width: ___________ Wall height: ___________ Ceiling: Ceiling length: ___________ Ceiling width: ___________ Area to be painted: __________ Number of gallons needed: ___________

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**Rolls needed: ________**

How much wallpaper? To estimate the amount of standard American wallpaper you'll need, first add up the lengths of all walls to get the distance around the room and enter this figure as the perimeter of the room. Round off to the nearest foot. Next, enter the number of single doors (about 20 square feet), the number of double doors (about 40 square feet), small windows (10 square feet) and large windows (25 square feet). Also enter the square footage of any other openings or areas not to be wallpapered – such as a fireplace. Next enter the size of the roll of the paper you're using in square feet, and click on "calculate." The calculator will tell you how many rolls of that size are needed. A standard American roll of wallpaper gives you about 35 square feet. To make sure you have enough paper with the least amount of waste subtract any square footage for windows and doors that significantly reduce the square footage of that wall. Fill in the information below. Use floor plan below for measurements for calculations. Room perimeter: _____ ft. Wall height: _____ ft. Single doors: _____ 20 sq. ft. Double doors: _____ 40 sq. ft. Small windows: _____ 10 sq. ft. Large windows: _____ 25 sq. ft. Other areas: _____ sq. ft. Roll size: 30 sq. ft. per roll 10 sq. ft. 25 sq. ft. Rolls needed: ________ 40 sq. ft. 20 sq. ft.

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**Formula Method D x V = A H Then use the formula method.**

Healthcare professionals use a variety of measurements and formulas to determine the right dose or amount of a product. They work with measurement conversion and the metric system in many circumstances. First determine that the units of measurement are different but in the same system. Always convert to equivalent units. Then use the formula method. D x V = A H Where: D = desired or prescribed dosage of the medication H = dosage of medication available or on hand V = volume that the medication is available in, such as one tablet or milliliters A = amount of medication to administer Example: D the desired dose = 8 mg. H the dose on hand is 10 mg. and V the volume the medication comes in is 1 ml. 8 mg x ml = A 10 mg cancel milligrams x ml = A 10 answer: 0.8 ml = A Practice: Medication Ordered: Diazepam 10 mg IM daily Medication Available: Diazepam 5 mg/ml Calculate: ___________________________________ Practice: Medication Ordered: Dexamethasone 2 mg IV daily Medication Available: Dexamethasone 4 mg/ml Calculate: ___________________________________

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Healthcare professionals work with measurement conversion and the metric system. They need to be familiar with measurements such as milliliters and units, especially when working with medicine cups and syringes for medication dispensing. Below are some measurements and syringes to the right of them. Draw a line on the correct measurement of each syringe. First one has been completed.

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**Mcg = One micro-gram (µg) = 0.001 milli-grams (mg). 300 µg = 0.3 mg**

Locate the appropriate labels for the following drug orders and indicate the number of tablets/capsules or solution that will be required to administer the dosages ordered. Assume that all tablets are scored. Grain (g) = 1 gr = mg Mcg = One micro-gram (µg) = milli-grams (mg). 300 µg = 0.3 mg Dilatrate® -SR 0.04g _____________________ cap Terbutaline sulfate 5000 mcg ____________________ tab Cefpodoxime proxetil 0.2 g __________________________ Augmentin® 0.75 g ___________________________________

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**UNDERSTANDING MAPS AND GLOBES**

Materials: 6-8 maps of various parts of the globe. They could be maps of different regions of the US or of different regions of the world. You will also need rulers (one for each student). Optionally, you will need 6-8 calculators (one for each group—if you allow your Ss to use calculators) Procedure: Ss will use the maps and rulers to find the distance between pairs of map points. To do so, they will first need to locate the scale of the particular map that they are working with. Time: 45 minutes to an hour, depending on how big you make the groups in your class or whether or not you have your Ss work in pairs or by themselves. Variations: Globes could be substituted for maps for this lesson. You could also specify which method of mathematics you would like your Ss to use when figuring out the distances.

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**X-Y Coordinate Grid Battleship**

Objectives: The main objective is to familiarize students with the X-Y coordinate plane grid, which is used on the GED Mathematics test, and to introduce the students to the concept of ordered pairs. Level/Subject: GED Mathematics/Algebra Materials: Grid paper, pen or pencil Procedure: Hand out a sheet of grid paper to each student, and have each of them divide the paper into four quadrants. The quadrants should follow the same standard pattern as is used for plotting ordered pairs and solving linear equations. If possible, demonstrate to the students how to divide up the graph using an overhead projector. Next, tell the students to plot ten ordered pairs on their graph paper and to keep the plots secret from others in class. Pair the students up and have them sit face to face with their graph papers hidden behind a book (or any other non-transparent object so that the other student is not able to see what the points are). Once the ordered pairs have been plotted and the students are facing each other, have them take turns calling out ordered pairs to each other. Each time an ordered pair is called by one person, it should be marked on the grid of the other person. If an order pair is called and is plotted on the opposing person’s grid, this should be marked as a “hit.” The first person to get five hits on the other person’s grid is the winner. Variations: The number of hits needed to win the game can be varied just as the number of initial ordered pair plots can be varied depending on the length of the class.

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Bookmarking website with over 1500 bookmarks

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Math Sites to Explore

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Slide 8 - 1 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Unit 5 The Metric System.

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