Presentation on theme: "To Accompany Comprehensive, Alternate, and Texas Editions American Government: Roots and Reform, 10th edition Karen OConnor and Larry J. Sabato Pearson."— Presentation transcript:
To Accompany Comprehensive, Alternate, and Texas Editions American Government: Roots and Reform, 10th edition Karen OConnor and Larry J. Sabato Pearson Education, 2009 Chapter 17 Domestic Policy
Theories of Public Policy Elite theory. Bureaucratic theory. Interest group theory. Pluralist theory.
The Policy-Making Process Problem recognition, or identifying a need for change. Agenda setting, or determining the issues to discuss. Policy formulation, or the crafting of proposed action. Policy adoption, or the approval of policy. Budgeting, or identifying funding sources. Policy implementation, or carrying out new policies. Policy evaluation, or determining what a policy is doing.
Evolution of Income Security Before the 1890s, government did little. Great Depression created a greater need for assistance. Civil Works and Works Progress Administrations. Social Security Act represents beginning of welfare state. Creates old age insurance program. Establishes unemployment assistance.
Roots of Health Care Policy Governments have long advocated for public health. National health insurance was considered in 1930s. Failed due to lobbying of American Medical Association. Governments role has expanded over time. No universal coverage exists.
Non-Means Based Programs Today Entitlement programs provided regardless of income. Funded by payroll taxes. Social Security-- old age, survivors, and disability.Social Security Solvency of the Social Security program is a concern. Unemployment insurance.Unemployment
Means Tested Programs Today Entitlement programs provided only if individuals qualify.Entitlement programs SSI, to help needy aged or blind. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). TANF largely run by the states through block grants. Earned Income Tax Credits. Food stamps.
Health Care Programs Today Government provides care for veterans and Indians. Sponsors research at National Institutes of Health. Most people use single-payer private healthcare system. Costs are rapidly increasing. Government funds Medicare and Medicaid. Also plays a major role in public health management.
Roots of Energy Policy By 1970s, U.S. had grown dependent on foreign oil. Oil embargoes posed a serious crisis. Government set conservation and efficiency standards. Creation of Department of Energy Energy Tax Act and National Energy Act.
Roots of Environmental Policy First Earth Day in Creation of the Environmental Protection Agency. Clean Air Act of 1970 and 1972 Clean Water Act. Federal policies continue to grow in 1970s.
Policy Hibernation Energy and Environment fade in 1980s. Reagan took steps to reduce governments role. Petroleum supply became more stable. Bush and Clinton continue limited involvement.
Return to Prominence 9/11 attacks make energy security a major issue. Increasing concerns about global warming Energy Independence and Security Act. Growing interest in alternative energy.