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Historical Foundations of Social Welfare in America Chapter 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Historical Foundations of Social Welfare in America Chapter 2."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Historical Foundations of Social Welfare in America Chapter 2

3 Colonial Period

4 Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective, by Elizabeth Segal Copyright 2007, Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Higher Education Views of Colonial Period zAmerica land of abundant resources zNative people and African slaves were regarded as nonpersons without rights zRoom for growth and personal gain zPoverty seen as a personal misfortune, not a public responsibility

5 Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective, by Elizabeth Segal Copyright 2007, Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Higher Education Elizabethan Poor Laws z The first public social welfare legislation, established in England zEstablished categories of need yWorthy Poor - Widows, orphans, elderly, people with physical disability yUnworthy Poor - Able bodied singles and unmarried women

6 Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective, by Elizabeth Segal Copyright 2007, Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Higher Education Elizabethan Poor Laws zThe laws created structures that still exist yEconomic support must come from family first, then local community yPerson in need has to be a legal resident of the community yBelief that there is work for everyone, if you want to work

7 Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective, by Elizabeth Segal Copyright 2007, Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Higher Education Social Welfare in Colonial America zThe South zPoor Laws did not apply to slaves zResponsibility was with owners zThe North zNative people also had no rights zPoverty was seen as personal misfortune

8 Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective, by Elizabeth Segal Copyright 2007, Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Higher Education Pre-Civil War Period zEconomic shift in country from agrarian to industrial zImmigrants coming to U.S. settled in the urban area zSocial welfare centered around a religious, moralistic perspective of correcting behavior

9 Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective, by Elizabeth Segal Copyright 2007, Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Higher Education Pre-Civil War Period zResidential institutions became solutions for social problems such as mental illness, orphans, and disabled zPoverty was still viewed as individuals fault

10 Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective, by Elizabeth Segal Copyright 2007, Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Higher Education Civil War and Post War Period zFederal government provided benefits for the first time - Freedmans Bureau zRacial discrimination for both African American and Native Americans zStarted consideration that poverty went beyond the individual

11 Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective, by Elizabeth Segal Copyright 2007, Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Higher Education The Progressive Era zIndustrial Expansion zGrowth in urban area with increase in poverty zBeginning of national involvement in social welfare zRoots of social work started in this era

12 Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective, by Elizabeth Segal Copyright 2007, Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Higher Education The Progressive Era zCharity Organization Societies yBelieved urban poverty was rooted in character deficiencies of the poor yPoverty could be abolished by helping people recognize their flaws yAdvocated for coordination services yCreated casework concept

13 Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective, by Elizabeth Segal Copyright 2007, Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Higher Education Charity Organization Societies zGoals and Strategies : yTo ensure that children did not grow up paupers yAid in finding work for all who are able to work yTrain in skill all who were deficient yInspire new hope and self respect

14 Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective, by Elizabeth Segal Copyright 2007, Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Higher Education The Progressive Era zSettlement Movement ySocial Workers should live (settle) amongst the poor yEmpowerment through community involvement yEncouraged organizations to gain political and social power

15 Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective, by Elizabeth Segal Copyright 2007, Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Higher Education The Progressive Era zFostered social workers involvement in: ySocial welfare policy development yGroup Work yCommunity Involvement yHull House classic example

16 Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective, by Elizabeth Segal Copyright 2007, Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Higher Education The Progressive Era: Key Events zEstablishment of the National Womens Suffrage Association zThe Supreme Court legitimized separate facilities for African Americans in Plessy V. Ferguson z19th Amendment to the Constitution granted women right in 1920.

17 THE GREAT DEPRESSION Federal involvement in social welfare of U.S.

18 Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective, by Elizabeth Segal Copyright 2007, Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Higher Education The Great Depression zExisting social welfare systems were unable to meet the need zPublic opinion changed as to cause of poverty zThe New Deal was federal governments response to social conditions zStarted with FERA, CCC, and WPA

19 Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective, by Elizabeth Segal Copyright 2007, Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Higher Education The Social Security Act of 1935 zCompromise piece of legislation zCreated Social Insurance and Public Assistance zStarted state run programs for aged, dependent children, unemployed, vocational rehabilitation, infant and maternal health

20 Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective, by Elizabeth Segal Copyright 2007, Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Higher Education Social Insurance zIntended for workers and their dependents at retirement, disability, or death zSocial – To provide for anyone as long as they have paid into the system zInsurance – Guaranteed for rest of your life

21 Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective, by Elizabeth Segal Copyright 2007, Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Higher Education Public Assistance zIntended as government assistance for those who fall below the poverty line zPublic – Funded through general revenue collected by government zAssistance – Meant to be temporary and for people in distress

22 Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective, by Elizabeth Segal Copyright 2007, Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Higher Education Post War Economy zPeriod of economic recovery zFederal government passed the Servicemans Readjustment Act of 1944 (AKA – GI Bill) zAdded disability coverage to the Social Security Act

23 Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective, by Elizabeth Segal Copyright 2007, Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Higher Education Social Reform – The 60s zWar on Poverty – 1964 yEqual Opportunity Act yHead Start yVISTA yJob Corp yFood Stamp Program

24 Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective, by Elizabeth Segal Copyright 2007, Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Higher Education Social Reform – 1960 zCivil Rights Act – 1964 zOlder Americans Act – 1965 zAmended Social Security Act: yAdded Medicare yAnd Medicaid

25 Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective, by Elizabeth Segal Copyright 2007, Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Higher Education Renewed conservatism zComprehensive Employment and Training Act – CETA – 1973 zGain for women – NOW was formed yRoe vs. Wade passed z Gay rights movement mobilized zRyan White Comprehensive AIDS Emergency Care

26 Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective, by Elizabeth Segal Copyright 2007, Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Higher Education Move towards Liberalism & Neo-liberalism zAmerican Disability Act – 1990 zCivil Rights Restoration Act – 1993 zFamily Medical Leave Act – 1993 zPersonal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act – 1996 yReplaced AFDC with TANF – Temporary Assistance for Needy Families

27 Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective, by Elizabeth Segal Copyright 2007, Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Higher Education Economic Shifts of the 1990s zProposed a universal health insurance program for all Americans zPassed Violence Against Women Act that include hand gun control zProposed measures to prevent discrimination against gays/lesbians.

28 The New Century Medicare prescription drug benefits War: fiscal and social impacts? Next steps?


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