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Unemployment Insurance

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Presentation on theme: "Unemployment Insurance"— Presentation transcript:

1 Unemployment Insurance
an overview

2 Unemployment Insurance
Claims Process Filing Claim Appealing Adverse Decisions Post Benefit/ Miscellaneous Issues

3 Unemployment Claims Process
Claims Adjudicator Reconsideration Referee Hearing Board of Review Circuit Court Appellate and Supreme Court

4 Claims Adjudicator Local office application- in person or online
Telephone interview (typically) to determine eligibility Employer protest- must be filed within 10 days Determination mailed out to parties- appeal must be received within 30 days

5 Claims Adjudicator(cont.)
Determining Eligibility Earnings: Must have earned $1600 in base period Must have earned $440 in calendar quarter other than highest earning quarter 820 ILCS 405/500.E. 

6 Earnings Jan.-March April-June July-Sept. Oct.-Dec. Jan-March
Q1- $>440 or Q2- $>440 or Q3- $>440 or Q4- $>440 Q5-only for alternate base period calculation Termination/application for benefits BASE PERIOD- $>1600 Alternate Base Period- $> 1600

7 Examples Jan.-March April-June July-Sept. Oct.-Dec. Jan-March Q1- $400
April 1 apply for benefits Ineligible based on earnings Q1-$1000 Q2- $1000 Q3- $400 Q4- $400 Q5- $500 Regular Base period Q4-$500 Q5-$500 Alternate Base period Q1-$500 Q2-$0 Q6-$1000 Reapply in next Q

8 Claims Adjudicator (cont.)
Determining Eligibility (cont.) Covered Employment List of exemptions at 820 ILCS 405/ Must be Able to Work Physically able Have legal authorization Must be Available and Actively Seeking Work Reasonable efforts are sufficient Galarza v. IDOL, 167 Ill. App. 3d 163, 520 N.E.2d 672 (2nd Dist. 1988) Full-time students are presumed to be unavailable Moss v. Department of Employment Sec., 357 Ill. App. 3d 980, 830 N.E.2d 663 (1st Dist. 2005) No Disqualifying Reason for Separation Misconduct Voluntary Leave

9 Certification Even if Claimant is Denied UI benefits, they must certify with IDES every 2 weeks. Certification is telephonic or on-line Claimants may retroactively certify at local office Best Practice is to keep certifying throughout appeal process

10 Reconsideration Local office review Notice of decision
Referral and Notice of Hearing

11 Referee Hearing Most important stage- only evidentiary hearing in the process Typically telephonic- unless good cause for in person Technical evidence rules do not apply Documents must be provided 24 hours in advance to both referee and opposing party- unless they are already part of the record Decisions mailed within 2-3 days

12 Referee Hearing(cont.)
Misconduct Employer goes first Claimant can cross examine Claimant testimony Closing statements Voluntary Leave Claimant goes first

13 Misconduct Definition: Deliberate and willful violation of a reasonable rule or policy, governing behavior or work performance, which harmed the employer/other employees or is repeated despite a warning. 820 ILCS 405/602.A.

14 Misconduct(cont.) Reasonable Policy:
Need not be written, can be “common sense” Deliberate and Willful Most success with this issue Rule must be KNOWN by the claimant to be Deliberate and Willful Repeated or Harmful Harm virtually removed via case law

15 Misconduct (cont.) Deliberate/Willful
Focus on conduct that caused discharge Does not have to be one “last act” Katten, Muchin & Zavis v. IDES, 279 Ill. App. 3d 794, 665 N.E.2d 503 (1st Dist. 1996) Burden of Proof in on Employer Negligence does NOT count

16 Misconduct (cont.) Types of Conduct Alcohol or Drug Use – at work
Insubordination- single flurry v. “kiss my grits” Poor Work Performance Negligence Absence or Tardiness –depends Self Defense Falling Asleep at Work- depends

17 Voluntary Leave Generally: Claimant is disqualified for leaving work voluntarily without good cause attributable to the employer Burden of proof is generally on the claimant Threshold Question: Did Claimant Quit? Look at Claimant’s intent Resignation in lieu of termination – return to misconduct analysis Lost license needed for job- considered quitting Horton v. Department of Employment Sec., 335 Ill. App. 3d 537, 781 N.E.2d 545 (1st Dist. 2002)

18 Voluntary Leave (cont.)
Good Cause: circumstances that produce pressure to terminate employment that is both real and substantial, and which would compel a reasonable person under the circumstances to act in the same manner. Burke v. Bd. of Review, 132 Ill. App. 3d 1094, 477 N.E.2d 1351

19 Voluntary Leave (cont.)
Claimant Quit Part 1: Attributable to Employer? Unilateral and substantial chance in duties/hours Reasonable fear of injury Unreasonable Mistreatment on the job Substantial Reduction in Wages Loss of Child Care Loss of Transportation Family Emergency

20 Voluntary Leave (cont.)
Claimant Quit Part 2: Reasonable Attempt to Resolve Claimant must make a reasonable effort to resolve problem before quitting WATCH OUT! If Claimant tolerates problem too long , it has been “accepted” by the Claimant and she is Disqualified

21 Voluntary Leave (cont.)
Good Cause Exceptions Unable to work for medical reasons (on advise of a licensed medical doctor) Take another job (must work for at least 2 weeks) Move to a new home because spouse takes a new job Avoid bumping another employee Sexual Harassment on the job Accepting an “unsuitable” job after losing previous job Domestic Violence (requires notification to the employer)

22 Preparing for the Hearing
Key Pieces of Advise to Clients Make sure all documents are sent to Referee and Employer Focus on Hard Facts and Specifics of Final Incident Listen to the Question Asked and Answer the Question Asked –probably the most important piece of advise for claimants! Speak Loudly and Distinctly Do not interrupt Do not Bad Mouth Employer Listen to the Employer’s witness, and make objections to hearsay

23 Board of Review Last Stage of Administrative Process
Appeal must be filed within 30 days Must request the transcript of the hearing within 15 days of appeal Must pay the copy cost (.25 per page) Must file a written brief within 10 days of mailing the transcript Must certify the brief was served on the other party

24 Board of Review (cont.) Standard of Review is de novo
Board can affirm, reverse, remand with or without instructions Board will not accept additional evidence unless the party submitting can show it was not able to present the evidence to the referee through no fault of its own, and for reasons out of its control Board has 120 days to decide Decision mailed 2-3 months after appeal

25 Circuit Court- Administrative Review Action
ARA Must be filed within 35 days of the Board of Review decision- jurisdictional requirement Cook County cases are filed in Law Division Daley Center 8th floor Pro Se assistance is available on the 6th floor No filing fee Necessary Named Defendants: Director of IDES Board of Review Employer

26 Circuit Court- Administrative Review Action (cont.)
Standard of Review: Issues of Fact- Against the Manifest Weight of the Evidence 735 ILCS 5/3-110; Henderson v. IDES, 230 Ill. App. 3d 536, 595 N.E.2d 96 (1st Dist. 1992 Issues of Law- de novo Barron v. Ward, 165 Ill. App. 3d 653, 517 N.E.2d 591, 596 (1st Dist. 1987) Mixed issues of Fact and Law- Clearly Erroneous Abbott Industries, Inc. v. Department of Employment Sec., --- N.E.2d ---, 2011 WL (2d Dist. June 20, 2011)

27 Appellate and Supreme Court
Notice of Appeal from Circuit Court must be filed within 30 days of the final decision Appeals are rarely heard Opinions are rarely published Claimants rarely win Petition for Leave to Appeal from Appellate Court must be filed within 35 days of the final decision

28 Post Benefits Issues Disqualifying Income Overpayments Retaliation
Collateral Estoppel Privilege Waiver

29 Disqualifying Income Disqualifying income must be reported during Certification Examples: Wages Back Pay Award Retirement Income Social Security

30 Overpayments Overpayments
IDES can Recoup regardless of fault- i.e. BOR reverses Referee results in Overpayment IDES can Recoup from current UI benefits and/or IL state income tax refund IDES can recoup federal income tax refund for Fraud overpayments IDES waives all non-fraud overpayments after 5 years

31 Overpayments Fraud Overpayment
IDES may sue or recoup anytime without the bar of any statute of limitations penalizes the claimant by denying him/her six weeks of benefits for the first offense and two additional weeks for each subsequent offense limited to a total of 26 weeks After the penalty weeks, Claimant "receives" the benefits as 100% benefit recoupment until balance of overpayment is repaid

32 Overpayments Non-Fraud Claimant not penalized prior to recoupment
Recoupment rate limited to 25% of the claimant's weekly benefit amount IDES can waive recoupment if it "would be against equity and good conscience" to recoup – claimant must request a wavier of recoupment Cerveny v. State, 123 Ill. App. 3d 836, 463 N.E.2d 452 (2nd Dist. 1984)

33 Other Issues Retaliation- prohibited by the Act; private rights of action 820 ILCS 405/2800(A)(7) Collateral Estoppel/Res Judicata – none 820 ILCS 405/1900(B) Privilege- information obtained is confidential and inadmissible in court or proceeding other than under the Act 820 ILCS 405/1900(A) Waiver- Employees cannot waive the right to seek UI benefits 820 ILCS 405/1300

34 Take Away Thoughts The Referee Hearing is KEY- representation at this stage is the most beneficial Micah Legal Clinic can refer clients directly to IWR at Advise Clients to keep recertifying throughout the process Deadlines are STRICT! Remind clients to appeal on time.

35 Resources The Illinois Unemployment Insurance Act (820 ILCS 405/)
The IDES Unemployment Insurance Handbook Online Application: Office Locator:

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