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STRUCTURES AND STRATEGIES

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1 STRUCTURES AND STRATEGIES
INTERMEDIATE 1 PHYSICAL EDUCATION STRUCTURES AND STRATEGIES INFORMATION PACK Name : _____________________________________ Class : _________ Year : ______ -- ______

2 STRUCTURES & STRATEGIES
AIMS To improve your Performance. To improve your Understanding of Structures & Strategies. PROCESS 1.You will develop an understanding of which structures and strategies are fundamental to activities by learning about : Using space in attacking and defending situations. Pressurising opponents in attacking and defending situations. Principles of individual and team play. 2.You will develop an understanding of how to analyse your performance in relation to identifying strengths and weaknesses in performance by learning about : Roles and relationships Formations. Tactical elements 3.You will develop an understanding of how to improve your performance by developing your ability to process information, solve problems and make decisions by learning about : Adapting and refining structures and strategies. How effective current structures and strategies are during performance. OUTCOMES Improved Performance. Improved Understanding of Structures & Strategies.

3 STRUCTURES & STRATEGIES DEVELOPMENT OF INDIVIDUAL, AND TEAM, PLAY
To DEVELOP EFFECTIVELY you, and your team, need to know : The importance of space, pressurising opponents, tempo of play, and principles of individual and team play (DEFENDING AND ATTACKING). How to “set up” and organise your team’s defence and attack (STRUCTURES / FORMATIONS). How to devise an effective “game plan” to use against specific opponents (STRATEGIES / TACTICS) What qualities you / your team mates / your opponents have (STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES). Exactly what your / your team mates’ responsibilities are in defence and attack (ROLES). How each separate role affects your / your team’s performance (RELATIONSHIPS). The effects that improving each player’s role will have on your / your team’s performance (BENEFITS). What you / your team hope to achieve by the end of the training programme (LONG TERM GOAL / TARGET). What you / your team hope to achieve by the end of each training session (SHORT TERM GOALS / TARGETS). That success breeds success (ACHIEVABLE PROGRESSIVE STAGES). How long your / your team’s training programme, and how long each training session, will last (DURATION). How often you / your team will practise (FREQUENCY). How hard you / your team will practise (INTENSITY). How to keep practices challenging and interesting (PROGRESSION / BOREDOM / FATIGUE). What type of training is best suited to you / your team (METHODS OF PRACTICE). If your team’s structures and strategies are working (INFORMATION PROCESSING). How to change your team’s structures and strategies if they are not working (ADAPTING / REFINING / PROBLEM SOLVING / DECISION MAKING) How you / your team are doing (REVIEW AND MONITOR PROGRESS).

4 STRUCTURES & STRATEGIES ANALYSING AND DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE
CYCLE OF ANALYSIS STAGE 1 : INVESTIGATE Where you explain how a specific aspect of performance was investigated through gathering and analysing information. You will do this by observing your performance and then gathering data and collating the results of these observations. STAGE 4 : EVALUATE Where you reflect on your planning, effectiveness and benefits of your programme of work completed and discuss your future development needs. You will do this by re-observing and then evaluating your performance. STAGE 2 : ANALYSE Where you explain how knowledge acquired from the study of relevant concepts has helped you to analyse your performance and plan a development programme. You will do this by comparing your performance with a model performance using agreed criteria and then identifying your strengths and weaknesses. STAGE 3 : DEVELOP Where you explain how both the content and suitability of your programme of work were monitored over the period of your training. You will do this by preparing your plan of action and then completing your training programme.

5 STRUCTURES & STRATEGIES
STRUCTURES & STRATEGIES ARE FUNDAMENTAL TO ACTIVITIES The winner in most competitive individual and team games is decided by the team or player who scores the most points / goals or who reaches a certain amount of points first. For example : Table Tennis Basketball Badminton The winner is decided by : Which team / player reaches 11 points first. Which team scores the most points in the time allowed. Which team / player reaches 21 points first. DEFENDING AND ATTACKING During competitive individual and team games there will be times when you have to defend and other times when you have to attack. In all defending and attacking situations a player’s / team’s success will be more likely if they understand : The IMPORTANCE OF SPACE How to PRESSURISE OPPONENTS How to CONTROL THE TEMPO OF THE GAME The PRINCIPLES OF INDIVIDUAL AND TEAM PLAY For example : TABLE TENNIS DEFENDING ATTACKING SPACE Very important not to be taken too far away from the table by your opponent. Try to position yourself in the middle as often as you can. Try to get good angles on your shots to take your opponent as wide as you can, therefore opening up opportunities to take advantage of the spaces that open up at the opposite side of the table. PRESSURE Recognise when you are being put under pressure and be prepared to play defensive shots until you get the chance to be more attack minded / adventurous Play attacking shots to your opponent as often as possible. Use top spin shots with pace to force your opponent further and further away from the table making him work hard to defend. TEMPO Recognise when you have to play slow, back spin shots, therefore denying your opponent opportunities to play kills. Be prepared to mix your game up. Don’t be predictable. Attack with pace, move your opponent from side to side, push him back from the net and bring him forward to the net. Keep him guessing. PRINCIPLES Concentration, Balance. Width, Mobility, Depth, Improvisation

6 STRUCTURES & STRATEGIES
STRUCTURES & STRATEGIES ARE FUNDAMENTAL TO ACTIVITIES DEFENDING AND ATTACKING (continued) BASKETBALL DEFENDING ATTACKING SPACE Denying opponents space by marking tightly. Denying opponents passing opportunities by staying close together in and around the key. Adopting good stance with arms high and wide. Awareness of space behind or between defenders. Ability to out-manoeuvre opponents to move into space and “lose” a marker. PRESSURE Closing down opponents quickly. Marking tightly. Getting players forward quickly into your opponent’s half. Overloading one side of your opponent’s court to put pressure on certain players. Reacting quickly to rebounds therefore maintaining possession and pressure. TEMPO Tight man-for-man marking forcing opponents to slow down. Returning to defensive set up quickly so that your team is ready and organised. Fast break Being patient by playing lots of passes before making a sudden move to the basket. PRINCIPLES Concentration, Delay, Depth, Balance. Width, Mobility, Depth, Speed, Improvisation BADMINTON DEFENDING ATTACKING SPACE Try to position yourself in the middle of your court as often as you can by recovering quickly after each shot you play. Be aware of space behind you, in front of you and at the side of you when positioning yourself in relation to your opponent. Try to get good angles on your shots to take your opponent as wide as you can, therefore opening up opportunities to take advantage of the spaces that open up at the opposite side of the court. Be aware of space behind, in front of and at the side of your opponent when directing your shots. Try to make your opponent move large distances around the court to play shots. i.e. from back left to front right, etc. PRESSURE Recognise when you are being put under pressure and be prepared to play defensive shots until you get the chance to be more attack minded / adventurous Play fast attacking shots to your opponent as often as possible. Hit the shuttlecock downwards with pace as often as you can to force your opponent to defend and feel under pressure. TEMPO Recognise when you have to play slower, shots i.e. drop shots, long high clears, etc, therefore denying your opponent opportunities to play kills. Be prepared to mix your game up. Don’t be predictable. Attack with pace, move your opponent from side to side, push him back from the net and bring him forward to the net. Keep him guessing. PRINCIPLES Concentration, Balance. Width, Mobility, Depth, Speed, Improvisation.

7 STRUCTURES & STRATEGIES
STRUCTURES & STRATEGIES ARE FUNDAMENTAL TO ACTIVITIES DEFENDING AND ATTACKING (continued) PRINCIPLES OF INDIVIDUAL AND TEAM PLAY DEFENDING ATTACKING Balance : This is where defenders position themselves in relation to the ball / shuttlecock / opponents / each other. Good balance in defence means that the defending team are positioned in such a way that it denies their opponents space and therefore restricts their attacking options. Mobility : This is the quality of movement of players from their basic positions in the team. Good movement is used to free players from their markers and to attack the space in key areas of the playing area. A player with good mobility is harder to defend against than a static one. Concentration : This is the ability of the defence to remain together in an effort to protect the area around their basket / goal etc. by denying their opponents space. Good defensive concentration forces the attacking team to think and work harder to create scoring opportunities. It also forces attacking teams to move into wider areas away from the basket / goal etc which lessens the “threat”. Good concentration forces attacks to try and go around the defence instead of trying to go through the defence. Width : This is where you use the sides (the width) of the playing area to your advantage by taking the play into these wide areas. Defences like to be concentrated in the middle, therefore if play is taken out into the wider areas, defences are forced to move away from their central positions. This then creates spaces between defenders for penetrating passes to be made between them or opens up spaces in other areas that cannot be covered by defending players. Delay : This is the ability of defenders to put pressure on an opponent without actually committing themselves to trying to dispossess their opponent. The object of this is to “buy your team some time” by slowing down (delaying) your opponent’s attack long enough to allow your own team mates to recover, get back into their defensive positions, and feel organised and in control again. Speed : This is where you keep your attack moving swiftly so that the defence don’t get a chance to settle and feel organised. By playing quickly in attack, defences can’t always adjust to new things happening and are often caught out through not concentrating which allows an opening to be taken advantage of. Depth : This is the ability of defenders to organise themselves so that if one defender is beaten by an attacker, the attacker then meets another defender. By organising the defence in “layers” it means players can cover a beaten team mate by providing the next barrier in front of the attacker. If attackers see too many barriers in front of them it often forces them to pass into wider areas which lessens the “threat”. Good depth forces attacks to try and go around the defence instead of trying to go through the defence. Depth : This is where you use the length of the playing area to your advantage. Sometimes it is as useful to take advantage of space in front of opponents as it is to take advantage of the space in behind them. In team games good depth allows you to put players ahead of the ball and behind the ball. Having “layers” of players significantly increases your passing options therefore lessening the risk of possession being lost as passes should not be forced. Improvisation : Although you may go into a game with a specific “game plan” / structure and strategy, it is often useful to take your opponent by surprise and do something unexpected. It is often the case that your opponent might start to “read” your game (predict what you might do in certain situations). It is at these times when the element of surprise is most useful. To defend and attack effectively you have to PLAN how you are going to defend and how you are going to attack. This PLANNING involves deciding on defensive and attacking Structures and Strategies.

8 STRUCTURES & STRATEGIES
STRUCTURES & STRATEGIES ARE FUNDAMENTAL TO ACTIVITIES STRUCTURES The structure of your defence and attack is the FORMATION or the SET UP you use. In team games, the structure (formation) is the way in which the team members are positioned in order to cover the playing area. Structures (formations) can be defensive or attacking. This applies to all activities and there is often a need to switch quickly from one to the other. For example : ACTIVITY STRUCTURES Table Tennis 1 v 1 No structure 2 v 2 (alternate hits) Basketball 1-2-2 1 point guard, 2 shooting guards 2 forwards 1-3-1 1 centre, 1 forward Badminton Defending (Sides) Attacking (1at the front,1 at the back) SG F SG PG PG C SG SG F F

9 STRUCTURES & STRATEGIES
STRUCTURES & STRATEGIES ARE FUNDAMENTAL TO ACTIVITIES STRATEGIES The strategies for defending and attacking are the TACTICS or the GAME PLANS you use. Strategies (tactics) are used to try and get the better of your opponents. Strategies (tactics) are pre-arranged, considered and usually rehearsed. Strategies (tactics) are usually designed to make the most of your team’s strengths and to exploit (take advantage of) your opponent’s weaknesses. For example : ACTIVITY STRATEGIES Table Tennis Playing a specific series of shots to try and get your opponent to return in a certain way to eventually create a chance to play a particular “winning” shot. Deliberately playing shots to your opponents weaknesses. Continually playing a wide variety of shots so that your opponent can’t “read” your game. Basketball Man to Man defence / Zone defence. Full court press when possession is lost. Fast break when gaining live possession near your own basket. Use of switches / cuts / screens to create basket scoring opportunities. Badminton Deliberately playing powerful shots to the weaker of your 2 opponents. Deliberately playing low shots to an opponent who has a strong smash therefore denying him the chance to use it. STRUCTURES (formations) and STRATEGIES (tactics) are usually built around a player’s / team’s PERSONAL, PHYSICAL and TECHNICAL abilities.

10 STRUCTURES & STRATEGIES INVESTIGATING and ANALYSING PERFORMANCE
STRENGTHS and WEAKNESSES Consideration must be given to the strengths and weaknesses of : Your self Your team mates Your opponents When gathering information about performance in order to identify strengths and weaknesses, it is important to know the effect that being good or poor, in a particular area, has on the overall performance in the activity. When describing how you gathered information, it is important that you describe the context (conditions) of the information gathering. E.G. 2 games of first to 11 points Table Tennis singles, 15 min long 4 v 4 games of Basketball, 2 games of first to 21 points Badminton singles. When deciding which structures / strategies to use, you need to know what skills and techniques players can, and can’t, perform. You also need to consider what personal and physical qualities players have, and don’t have. In other words, you need to know what players are good at, and what players are not good at, and what players are capable of, and what players are not capable of, when taking part in an activity. When deciding how to develop your structures / strategies, you must examine all your data and decide which part of your structures / strategies, if it was to be developed and improved, would make the biggest difference to your, or your team’s, performance in the activity. Initial results from information gathered before training can be compared to results gathered after training, provided the context (conditions) of the results gathering process is the same before and after. Comparisons help to measure changes in your performance.

11 STRUCTURES & STRATEGIES INVESTIGATING and ANALYSING PERFORMANCE
STRENGTHS and WEAKNESSES (continued) You can gather information on a performance in several ways : PERSONAL REFLECTION (What you think about a specific performance). This involves you taking part in the activity and judging for yourself how you think each player copes with the personal, physical and technical demands of the activity. This judgement is based solely on your opinion and requires a degree of understanding about what these demands of the activity are. This type of information gathering is very subjective. It’s purpose is to give you an indication of your, your team’s, and your opponent’s, strengths and weaknesses. You can reflect on players’ ability during and / or after a performance. BASIC OBSERVATION SCHEDULE (MOVEMENT ANALYSIS) This involves you observing your opponent’s performance and it also involves you / your team being observed. Observations concentrate on how well each player copes with the personal, physical and technical demands of the activity. Performances are judged against pre-set performance criteria for each of the qualities required and success or failure is recorded accordingly. This type of information gathering is very objective. It is relatively simple to use, it is inexpensive, and it gives you a permanent record to refer back to at any time. It can also contradict or confirm your own Personal Reflections. It’s purpose is to objectively identify your, your team’s, and your opponent’s strengths and weaknesses. Results from a B.O.S. will guide you to the SPECIFIC STRUCTURES / STRATEGIES that might suit you / your team when playing against a particular opponent or opponents. SPECIFIC OBSERVATION SCHEDULE (MOVEMENT ANALYSIS) This involves you / your team being observed actually using your structures / strategies in a game situation. The observation concentrates on how you / your team perform the different PARTS of a pre-planned STRATEGY. Your / your team’s performance is judged against pre-set performance criteria for each of these PARTS and your success or failure is recorded accordingly. This type of information gathering is very objective. It is relatively simple to use, it is inexpensive, and it gives you a permanent record to refer back to at any time. It can also contradict or confirm your own Personal Reflections. It’s purpose is to objectively focus in on which PARTS of your / your team’s STRATEGY needs most attention. Results from a S.O.S. will guide you / your team to areas that require attention (development needs). All these methods of collecting data will help you to understand your current level of ability. This in turn will allow you / your team to plan a suitable training programme specific to your / your team’s needs.

12 STRUCTURES & STRATEGIES ANALYSING and DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE
ROLES and RELATIONSHIPS When planning to play against an opponent 3 things must be considered : What strategy (tactic) are you / your team going to use against this opponent? What jobs need doing if this strategy is to be successful? Who in the team is best suited to do these jobs? You / your team can answer these 3 questions better if you know the strengths and weaknesses of each player in your team AND you also know the strengths and weaknesses of your opponent(s). When ALL PLAYERS’ strengths and weaknesses have been considered then a relevant strategy can be planned. When performing as part of group or team it is important to understand your individual responsibilities (job or ROLE in the team). It is also important to understand what the connection (RELATIONSHIP) is between the ROLE (job) you have to do and all the different ROLES (jobs) your team mates have to do. ROLES The individual role which you adopt in a team activity will be dependent on many factors. These may include your physical qualities, your ability as a skilled performer and also your decision-making qualities. If you hope to improve your ability to carry out your role effectively, you must know what you are aiming for. You must know what your job should look like if you get it exactly right. If you know exactly what your role should look like, then you can continually compare this model performance against your actual performance in the role and gauge your progress accordingly. As an individual you have a responsibility to train and practise in order to perform your role in the team’s strategy as efficiently as possible. RELATIONSHIPS If you hope to improve your / your team’s ability to perform a particular strategy, you must know what you are aiming for. You must know what the strategy should look like if you get it exactly right. If you know what the strategy should look like, you can continually compare this model performance against your / your team’s actual execution of the strategy and gauge your / your team’s progress accordingly. As a team you have a responsibility to train and practise together to make the strategy run as smoothly as possible. This includes every one forming an understanding of the timing / speed of the whole strategy as well as all the individual jobs that have to be carried out. If everybody understands how each ROLE (job) fits together, there is more chance of your STRATEGY (tactic / plan) working. The success of any STRATEGY (tactic / plan) depends on how well the team operates as a UNIT, when each player performs their ROLE to the best of their ability.

13 STRUCTURES & STRATEGIES DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE
Principles of Effective Practice for Designing Training Programmes When designing your / your team’s DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME, you must give careful consideration to the following : HOW FAR CAN I / WE DEVELOP MY / OUR STRATEGY BY THE END OF MY / OUR TRAINING PROGRAMME ? You may not be able to reach total perfection by the end of your training programme, and you may need more time to further develop your strategy or your role within the strategy, but you should set yourself a LONG TERM GOAL / TARGET that you hope to reach by the end of your programme. This goal or target should be challenging, but realistically achievable. It should also help to take you closer to the MODEL PERFORMANCE (getting the strategy exactly right). HOW DO I / WE KNOW THAT PROGRESS IS BEING MADE TOWARDS MY / OUR LONG TERM GOAL ? If you can go from your present level to your target level within the first week of your training then you have not set yourself a very ambitious long term goal. However, if your long term goal is some distance away you need check points along the way to ensure that you are on the right track. These check points are called SHORT TERM GOALS / TARGETS and should be seen as smaller, achievable, but progressive stages in the development of your / your team’s strategy. WHAT WILL BE DIFFERENT ABOUT MY / OUR PERFORMANCES IF I / WE IMPROVE OUR STRATEGY ? You must be very aware of the BENEFITS to be gained by improving your / your team’s ability to carry out the planned strategy. You must be able to describe the positive effects this improvement will bring to your / your team’s OVERALL performance in the activity.

14 STRUCTURES & STRATEGIES DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE
Principles of Effective Practice for Designing Training Programmes DURATION This refers to the length of planned time spent training. You must know HOW LONG your development programme will last. i.e. how many training sessions spread out over how many weeks do you plan to use ? Duration also applies to the length of individual training sessions within a development programme. You must know HOW LONG each training session will last. i.e. how many minutes will you spend warming up, practising on your own / with a partner / with your team, playing games and cooling down ? FREQUENCY This refers to the regularity and routine of your training sessions. You must know HOW OFTEN you are going to train per week. HOW OFTEN you train will vary depending on the time you have available and the demands of your activity. INTENSITY This refers to the relative demands of your training sessions and will vary depending on the demands of your activity. You must know HOW HARD you are going to train during each training session. HOW HARD you train will be determined by : Your level of practical ability. Your stage of learning / previous experience in the activity. The complexity of the skill involved. Time spent working compared to time spent resting (Work : Rest ratio). How many repetitions and sets you complete of a certain drill / practice / routine, etc. The pace you choose to work at during drills / practices / routines / games, etc. PROGRESSION / BOREDOM / FATIGUE You must make sure that your practices are meaningful to your stage of learning and PROGRESS to more challenging practices when you are ready. Don’t take it easy. Make sure you are working at a suitably demanding level at all times. Apply the principle of progression to all your practices. PROGRESSION can be achieved by INCREASING Duration, Frequency and Intensity. HIGH QUALITY PRACTICE for a SHORT TIME is better than repetitive, low quality practice over a long time. This will ensure that your performance does not suffer from the adverse effects of BOREDOM and FATIGUE. If you become bored or tired your levels of motivation and concentration will fall resulting in a drop in performance level.

15 STRUCTURES & STRATEGIES DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE
METHODS of PRACTICE When developing your team’s structures and strategies, and improving your role within these structures and strategies, you will use different METHODS OF PRACTICE. The most common methods are : Solo / Shadow / Partner / Group. Gradual Build-Up. Opposed / Unopposed Repetition / Drills practices. Conditioned games / Small-Sided games / Coached games. Whole / Part / Whole. SOLO Working on your own is useful in helping you understand the pattern and routine of the practice, as well as helping you become familiar with the changes of direction and body position required. You should not be under any pressure when using this type of practice. SHADOW Shadow work is useful when you want to mirror the exact movements of a technique. This can be done at full speed and in slow motion. It often involves mirroring the technique without actually hitting a shuttlecock, serving a volleyball, shooting a basketball, etc. This method allows you to focus on every little part of the technique. PARTNER Working cooperatively with a partner is useful when both of you are working on the same thing. It helps motivate both performers as they try to copy each other’s successes. Partner practice gives each player natural working and resting intervals. One works, one rests, swap over. A partner is also useful for feeding, timing, counting, recording, commenting on performance, supporting, encouraging, etc. GROUP Working cooperatively as a group is useful when you want to include a combination of skills or techniques i.e. someone serving, someone else digging, someone else volleying, etc. It can also help for things like receiving feeds from different areas, directing shots to different areas, supporting, providing pressure / opposition, creating natural work and rest periods, creating motivation through competition between group members, etc. GRADUAL BUILD-UP This is useful for learning skills / techniques that are COMPLEX or have an element of RISK. Using GRADUAL BUILD-UP allows you to gradually make the practice more demanding. It also allows you to develop high levels of confidence. When using this method your practices must be challenging, but achievable, and they must also be meaningful and realistic to your stage of learning and level of performance.

16 STRUCTURES & STRATEGIES DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE
METHODS of PRACTICE (continued) OPPOSED / UNOPPOSED Sometimes you need to practise WITHOUT OPPOSITION especially in the early stages of your development. This allows you to practise the technique without any pressure. It also helps to increase your confidence. Sometimes you need to practise WITH SOME OPPOSITION (PASSIVE OPPOSITION) especially when you start to make progress. This allows you to be put under a little more pressure which means you have to concentrate harder in order to still meet with success when you perform the technique. Sometimes you need to practise WITH FULL OPPOSITION (ACTIVE OPPOSITION) especially when you are performing to a good standard. This allows you to get used to full activity situations and to deal with pressure situations while still maintaining good form. When working with PASSIVE and ACTIVE levels of opposition, it is important that the opposition is clear about the level of opposition they are expected to apply to the practice. REPETITION / DRILLS PRACTICES Setting up training drills that REPEAT particular parts of a technique or the whole technique itself can be very useful. This allows you to practise very small parts of the technique (SUB-ROUTINES) REPEATEDLY. The idea of REPETITION is to GROOVE THE TECHNIQUE so that all the parts of the technique work well together. DRILLS PRACTICES are useful when both REPETITION and different degrees of PRESSURE are involved. Pressure may take the form of a time restriction or through introducing opponent (s). CONDITIONED GAMES These are useful for developing OPEN skills in situations that reflect the demands of the activity. Sometimes a CONDITION is put on an activity to provide a player or a team with an advantage. This makes achieving tasks easier. Sometimes a CONDITION is put on an activity in the form of a RULE CHANGE. This allows the skill / technique that you have been developing to be emphasised through the activity. SMALL-SIDED GAMES Reducing the number of players in a team gives EACH player a chance to practise skills and techniques in a game-like setting. Reducing the number of players in a team normally allows players to INCREASE their level of involvement and time in possession of the ball. COACHED GAMES These are useful if you are focussing on achieving certain things which your teacher thinks are vital for improving your PERFORMANCE IN THE GAME. Your teacher might have “FREEZE MOMENTS” during your games to show situations that highlight the benefits that earlier practice has had on your game performance. WHOLE / PART / WHOLE This is a useful method to use if you already have some experience of the activity and you can already perform a version of the WHOLE skill / technique. It involves performing the WHOLE skill / technique in the full activity, recognising a problem within the skill / technique, practising that PART of the skill / technique in isolation (on its own), then returning to the full activity to use the WHOLE skill / technique again, hopefully with more success than before. Skills / Techniques which allow PARTS of the performance to be separated easily from the WHOLE performance work best.

17 STRUCTURES & STRATEGIES
INFORMATION PROCESSING, PROBLEM SOLVING and DECISION MAKING When preparing to play, and when actually playing, against an opponent, the success or failure of your strategy (game plan) will depend on your ability to work out what needs to be done in order to win the game. To work out what needs to be done you have to be able to take relevant information on-board, solve problems as they arrive and make appropriate decisions even under pressure. Sometimes it’s possible to pre-plan everything BEFORE the game starts. In other words if you have a good understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of both yourself and your opponent, it will allow you to look at possible problems and make decisions about how best to solve them. PROBLEMS How, to the best of our ability, could our team prevent our opponents from scoring? How might it be possible to break down our opponent’s defence so we can score? DECISIONS TO BE MADE BEFORE THE GAME (examples) Table Tennis Basketball Badminton Is my opponent left or right handed? What shots is my opponent good at? How can I stop him getting a chance to use these shots? Is my opponent a cautious, or an aggressive, player? What shots does my opponent struggle to return? What shots am I good at? How can I set my opponent up to play shots that will eventually give me a chance to play my favourite shots? What tempo do I want to play the game at? How well does my opponent move around the table? How well does my opponent recover after being taken away from the table? What is our defensive strategy? Who are our opponent’s best players? Who will mark who? Where / When will we mark our opponents? What are we good at? What are our opponents not good at? What will our attacking structure be? Who will play where in the structure? What will our attacking strategy be? What job is each player expected to do? Do we have an alternative strategy? What signals will we use to distinguish between our different strategies? How well does my opponent move around the court? How well does my opponent recover after being taken away from the centre of the court?

18 STRUCTURES & STRATEGIES
INFORMATION PROCESSING, PROBLEM SOLVING and DECISION MAKING Although you pre-plan everything BEFORE the game starts, there is still no guarantee that your “game plan” will work. In other words, you may have a good understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of both yourself and your opponent, but things will happen during the game that will force you to consider certain situations and make decisions about how best to deal with them. PROBLEMS Are we managing to prevent our opponents from scoring? Are we managing to break down our opponent’s defence so we can score? How can we adapt / change our play to defend / attack more effectively? DECISIONS TO BE MADE DURING THE GAME (examples) Table Tennis Basketball Badminton Am I defending well enough? Are there any patterns in my opponent’s play? Is my opponent using any particular shot more than any other shot? Is my attacking strategy working? Is my opponent dealing with shots the way I expected? Is he “reading” my tactics? Are any particular shots of mine causing my opponent more problems than any other shot? Do I need to be more cautious / aggressive in attack? Do I need to speed up / slow down the tempo of the game? Am I moving my opponent away from the table effectively? Is our defensive strategy working? Is any one struggling to mark their opponent? Where / When are we marking our opponents? Is our attacking structure working? Do we need to change where players are playing in the structure? Is our attacking strategy working? Is any one struggling with the job they were given to do in the strategy? Should we be using our alternative strategy more often? Are our signals for using our strategy being “read” by our opponents? What is the score and how much time is left in the game.? Do we need to speed up / slow down the tempo of the game? Am I moving my opponent around the court effectively?

19 STRUCTURES & STRATEGIES MONITORING, REVIEWING and EVALUATING PROGRESS
When you have identified a strategy (tactic) you want to develop, and have then gone on to design and complete a training programme to help with that development, you hope the result is a positive one in that your performance in the activity has improved. To ensure that your training is meaningful, and that progress is being made, you must MONITOR, REVIEW and EVALUATE your progress. You can do this in 2 ways : During your development programme. After your development programme. DURING YOUR DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME As you plan each training session it is worthwhile keeping a TRAINING DIARY to record your thoughts on how each training session goes. This should help you to plan the next session more easily. This type of PERSONAL REFLECTION would include questions like : What progress did I / my team make today? What things went well today? Did I / my team struggle with anything today? Were my / our practices too difficult / easy? How was my / our motivation and concentration today? What kind of comments did my teacher / my team make about my / our work today? Do I / my team need to change anything for my / our next training session? You should know WHEN, WHY and HOW you / your team made changes to your training.

20 STRUCTURES & STRATEGIES MONITORING, REVIEWING and EVALUATING PROGRESS
AFTER YOUR DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME When your development programme has ended it is important for you to know if you have improved, and by how much. By COMPARING your performance results on a BEFORE (PRE) and AFTER (POST) TRAINING basis, you will be able to judge how successful, and beneficial, your development programme has been. COMPARISONS can be made between the following PERSONAL OPINIONS (SUBJECTIVE): PRE and POST training PERSONAL REFLECTION about your / your team’s overall performance in the activity. COMPARISONS can also be made between the following FACTUAL (OBJECTIVE) data : PRE and POST training SPECIFIC OBSERVATION SCHEDULE results. PRE and POST training MATCH results where using the team’s attacking strategy has resulted in scoring opportunities being CREATED. PRE and POST training MATCH results where using the team’s attacking strategy has resulted in successful scoring opportunities being ACHIEVED. At the end of your Structures and Strategies Development Programme you should be able to answer the following questions : What level were you / your team performing at before you started training? Did you / your team achieve your / their long term goals? What level are you / your team performing at now? How has your / your team performance changed? What are you / your team doing now that you / they were not doing before? What effect have these changes had on your / your team’s overall performance in the activity? What do you / your team plan to do next to further improve your / your team’s overall effectiveness in the activity?

21 STRUCTURES & STRATEGIES

22 STRUCTURES & STRATEGIES


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