Presentation on theme: "Afghanistan Rural Fuel Project. With the Multi Functional Rural Fuel Platform M.F.R.F.P. Clean Water Renewable Diesel Fuel Rural Electricity Energizing."— Presentation transcript:
Afghanistan Rural Fuel Project
With the Multi Functional Rural Fuel Platform M.F.R.F.P. Clean Water Renewable Diesel Fuel Rural Electricity Energizing Afghan Rural Communities Displace Opium cultivation with rural fuel feedstocks
This is a proposal how Afghanistan's rural poor might make money… The world donates $300 billion every year… …yet there are 1 billion people living on a $1 dollar per day… It would be more efficient to mail $300 to each person every year to double their income to $2 per day than use the worlds existing aid system to lift Afghanistan's rural poor out of poverty. A poor persons greatest need is a way to make money…
Household Electrification Clean Water Rural Development Aid can supply… but a rurally produced diesel fuel replacement is the missing piece in the aid puzzle that can energize rural communities and provide income generation opportunities for the rural poor trapped in the poverty cycle…
The Rural Poverty Trap? This dependence on biomass energy in rural areas has led to women dedicating long hours to wood and water gathering activities, ensnaring them and their families in the rural poverty trap... Biomass energy like wood, dung etc. accounts for on average 75% of the total energy consumption in developing regions...
Rural communities grow soy beans instead of opium… …process soy beans into vegetable oil, rural fuel and meal cake… …process meal cake for human and animal diet supplement… …use vegetable oil to power a diesel engine and sell rural fuel for cash… …use diesel power for electricity generation to charge LED lanterns and run the water maker. Vegetable Oil can break the Trap?
Vegetable Oil is a clean burning, renewable substitute for petroleum based Diesel Fuel…
…2. or you can modify the vegetable oil to reduce its viscosity through a chemical conversion process called Transestrification and produce Biodiesel… 1. You can use a conversion kit to modify a vehicle and reduce a vegetable oils viscosity on-board using engine heat…these are commonly known as SVO kits. How can vegetable oil replace diesel fuel?
Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) SVO is an acronym for Straight Vegetable Oil when used as a diesel fuel substitute. Suitable oils are commonly found vegetable oils like soy, sunflower & canola…
Current Biodiesel Technology Home Brew RefineryContainerized RefineryIndustrial Scale Refinery A single tracer round shot into methanol tank destroys facility. A correctly place lighted cigarette in the on-site methanol tank in a suicide mission destroys facility. A methanol delivery tanker truck could be used as a suicide mission, a single tanker is capable of destroying refinery. Small Large The Challenges of using Methanol in a Biodiesel refinery in war torn regions are: You have to get the Methanol to the refinery. Biodiesel is a different product from diesel fuel. The Challenges of a Biodiesel refinery in a remote location:
The Rural Fuel Reactor The reactor does not need Methanol and is capable of refining vegetable oil into diesel fuel … …this is not Biodiesel but Renewable Diesel. This renewable diesel fuel meets all the existing specification for petroleum derived diesel fuel – D975.
Rural Fuel Production Process Heat Feedstock Oil Finished Fuel Propane Water
Vegetable Oil Feedstock Reactions and Products Liquids and Gasses Carboxylic Acid Carboxylic Acids, Hydrocarbons and Esters Triglyceride Under heat, exist in vapor phase as dimers of two monomers Unsaturated Ketone Paraffin Cracking Chemical Reaction
No Hydrogen or Methanol Needed C3 backbone converted into Propane Triglyceride Hydrocarbons Carbon DioxideWater Propane Triglyceride cracked into Hydrocarbons Oxygen converted into CO2 and water Heat Gasoline Diesel Kerosene Heavy Fractions Light Fractions
High quality fuel produced The fuel produced has a high Cetane number of 63… …and has an excellent cold flow properties of: Cold filter plug -10 Deg C 14 Deg F Cloud Point: 10 Deg C 14 Deg F … when made from a soy oil feedstock which is necessary for the cold Afghan winters.
Processing Complexity Comparison Strip FFAs Renewable Diesel from a refinery Renewable Fuel Products Reactor Add Methanol Phase Separation Biodiesel 1.0 Wash Methanol Recovery Blend with Diesel Heat Add Hydrogen Crack with Catalyst Fuel HeatReaction Distill into Fractions Fuel
Distributed Refining Centralized Refining Distributed Refining Enables an exponential improvement in feedstock, the software of the biofuel industry.
Petroleum DieselBiodieselRenewable Diesel We call it Biodiesel 2.0 Producing a vegetable oil derived diesel fuel replacement that is ready to use in any diesel engine overcomes the need to convert the vehicle to Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO). This kind of diesel fuel production technology overcomes the practical issues that plague making biodiesel using transesterification... …and could be the missing piece of the aid puzzle.
The M.F.R.F.P. Platform The Multi Functional Rural Fuel Platform enables poor, rural farmers to free themselves from the poverty trap by using vegetable oil seed crops to energize their communities…
The M.F.R.F.P. Multi Functional Rural Fuel Platform brings….. …plus brings electricity and clean water to their communities … …a way for rural populations to earn money producing diesel fuel… Renewable Diesel Fuel Clean Water Rural Electricity
Multi Functional Platforms - MFP Multi Functional Platforms (MFPs) are used very successfully in countries like Mali as part of rural poverty alleviation programs.
The Multi Functional Rural Fuel Platform - MFRFP Adding a rural fuel production capability to other typical Multi Functional Platform sub-systems creates the Multi Functional Rural Fuel Platform (MFRFP)… +
Water pump for irrigation Components of a Multi Functional Rural Fuel Platform (MFRFP) Oil Seed Processor Skywater water maker Electric generator for lighting Rural Fuel Processor Diesel Engine Flour Mill
MFRFPs Oil Seed Processing The prototype MFRFP uses an seed Expeller combined with a… …C.S. Bell Flour Mill
MFRFP miniaturized Extrusion Technology for processing oil seeds The MFRFP will use a small, light weight, 60ib per hour Extrusion unit that was co-developed for a NASA mission to Mars producing 50ibs of meal cake and 1 gallon of oil per hour. Extrusion has a number of advantages as the process applies heat and pressure which enables oil seeds to be processed, ready for human and animal consumption directly out of the Platform.
The Lister Engine produces 12 hp and a torque of 84NM (8.4kg-m) at full power. Fuel consumption is 0.25 gallons per hour at 6 hp power output and 0.5 gallons per hour at full power. Our Lister Engine runs on SVO… MFRFP Diesel Engine Power The Lister Engine is one of the most commonly used engines in developing countries and has proven to be extremely reliable in the field... …The MFRFP uses Old Style Listers version which claims 100,000+ hours of 24/7 continuous operation which is 10+ years without the need for anything more than routine maintenance.
The field units will in all likelihood use a regular 12 volt vehicle alternator as these are readily available pretty much anywhere in the world. MFRFP Electricity Generation The generator is connected to a series of outlets, 12, 120 and 220 volt. We can run most of our equipment in our shop from this unit so we gain a lot of experience being off the grid ourselves… The prototype MFRFP uses a 10KVA generator…
Rechargeable LED lanterns can be used in community households, brought to be recharged in a Sandal grid network and recharged daily using the MFRFPs generator… Sandal Grid Community Lighting …an electric LED lantern can replace and provide more light than 3 kerosene lanterns... …a small business opportunity is created collecting and recharging the community's electric lanterns daily.
MFRFP drives a Water Pump The Prototype MFRFP is fitted with a 120 gallon per minute water pump… …for irrigation…
MFRFP makes water from the air Clean water is critical to any development effort that seeks to improve the lives of poor, rural communities… The MFRFP Platform is design to use a Skywater system coupled to a series of filters to produce good quality, drinking water without the need for a well…
MFRFP drives a Tool Grinder … a stone grinding wheel can easily be connected to a power takeoff shaft on the MFRFP… Manual grind stones require tremendous physical labor and dont do the most efficient job…
What does the MFRFP look like?
How does a community purchase a Multi Functional Rural Fuel Platform? We wish to create a micro bond finance system for financing community level MFRFP infrastructure… Proceeds from the sales of carbon credits are used to pay off the purchase costs of the MFRFP equipment and fuel sales provide cash to all those individuals in the community providing services and products to the MFRFP enterprise... similar to Muhammad Yunuss microfinance model…and supplemented with carbon credits…
MFRFPs Carbon Accounting
Cash from fuel sales funds the vegetable oil uplift system Cash from Carbon Credits funds the purchase of the MFRFP equipment
Land Available for Agriculture Afghanistan is 5 times bigger than Iowa and a little smaller than Texas, with a land mass of 250,000 square miles or 650,000 square kilometers and a population of approximately 30 million people. There are approximately 22 million acres of land currently under agricultural cultivation in Afghanistan. 5% of that land or 1 million acres is estimated at being currently available for soybean cultivation. At yields of 40 bushels per acre, 1 million acres of soybean will support 500 rural fuel reactors…
Soybeans available worldwide No need to wait for an Afghan soy harvest as soy can be shipped from overseas to get the first year MFRFP production up and running…. …the operating MFRFP Platform and Fuel reactor demonstrate to the local farming community that there is a viable market for soy, so reducing the risk to the farmer that if the does plant for next year, the farmer will be able to sell the soybeans harvested into a local market…. …using shipping containers as on-site storage for imported soybeans, these containers can be used in the following years as local silo storage for the future soy harvests…
National Protein Implications A person needs 65 grams of total protein per day and approximately ½ of that protein requirement for a healthy diet can be met using soy based protein. Soy protein can be used to make soy milk and soy flour, which when used in a 10% rate is a great protein fortification for Naan bread, an Afghan staple food. 3 pounds (ibs) of soy meal cake produces 1 gram of protein. At this rate, 1 persons annual protein needs can be met with 100 pounds of soy meal cake. Cultivating 1 million acres with soybeans will produce 40 million bushels of soy or 2 billion pounds (ibs) of soy meal cake per year. 1 million acres of soybeans will produce sufficient protein for 20 million people. This is sufficient protein to eliminate the entire Afghan protein deficiency that plays a large part in Afghanistan having the highest mortality rate for children under 5 years old, currently running at a stunning rate of 1 in 4. Soy Milk Naan Bread fortified with 10% soy flour
Afghan Diesel Market An estimated 75 million gallons of Petroleum and Lubricants were used in Afghanistan in Diesel represents 60% of consumption - 40 million gallons per year. Approximately 75 percent of all Petroleum and Lubricant products are imported through three border points: - Islam Qala - 30 percent - Heratan - 25 percent - Aqina - 20 percent. Iran supplies 50 percent of the total Petroleum and Lubricant volume to Afghanistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan supply nearly 25 percent each. Refined oil products are shipped over 700 miles by rail and truck from a Turkmen refinery on the Caspian Sea. Fuel is trucked from four refineries in Pakistan passing through the Khyber and Salang Passes and delivery runs take a week at a time. On any given day, there are approximately 50 to 60 trucks coming to the wholesale market daily. Kabul, its surroundings and the Northern Region consume over 55 percent of the total volume of imported petroleum products. Kabul generates 35% of its electricity from diesel - all funded by USAID…
National Economic Implications The envisioned Afghan soybean industry and using soybean derived vegetable oil used as a diesel fuel production feedstock replacement has the potential to transform the prospects for many poor, rural Afghans… 500 Fuel Reactors installed throughout rural Afghanistan could produce approximately 35 million gallons of diesel fuel. This volume of diesel production would represent approximately $70 million dollars in sales revenue and replace most of Afghanistans diesel imports at 2004 levels. Loan capital required for 500 systems would be approximately $90 million dollars. $70 million dollars of economic income usually results in a 7 to 1 multiplication in economic activity. At this rate, 500 Fuel Reactors installed throughout rural Afghanistan could potentially result in $500 million dollars of economic activity. Adding this much economic activity into the rural communities would result in the tripling of the average rural Afghans per capita income, from the current level of: $1 per day or $365 per year to $3 per day or $1,095 per year.
…roll out Micro Finance and Carbon program, install MFRFP equipment into rural communities… Capital and personnel are needed to establish a Vegetable Oil Uplift System Center of Excellence in the region… R&D Effort needed to investigate crop availability and suitability for area in need of Economic Development… What are the first steps establishing an MFRFP program?
Military patrols are the keystone customer The military patrols made into remote regions in Afghanistan can be used as a keystone customer base to help speed up getting rural fuel platforms installed around the country. Rural villagers have an economic interest in helping the military patrols arrive at remote villages safely to buy their fuel. Locally produced diesel can reduce the price the military pays for fuel at the front line and reduces the amount of fuel that has to be sent into Afghanistan via vulnerable fuel convoys.
Village Scale Deployment Expand program to other villages once model perfected… A military commander who is looking to win over a village in his area can provide a reactor in return for the villagers providing fuel for his patrol vehicles… The military can establish an economic link between their patrols and the villagers economic income. The more the military show up, the more fuel they can buy, the richer the villagers become and the more information on the insurgency that can be gleaned from this regular contact. The more the military show up, the more the villagers will reject the insurgent influence and the more secure the village will become. The military become associated with village well being, security and economic prosperity, not the mayhem and destruction of the insurgency.
If successful…install seed crush equipment …supply with raw oil seeds… If successful…local farmers will see seeds being processed in their community and will feel confident planting for the next season to meet this local oil seed demand. How to start? Install one Rural Fuel Reactor…supply with vegetable oil…sell fuel to a regular military patrol… Identify a local US commander that is willing to pilot the concept, that works with a suitable local community…
Thank you for your time. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact: Peter Bell at: