Presentation on theme: "Second Life &Task-Based Language Learning"— Presentation transcript:
1 Second Life &Task-Based Language Learning Randall Sadler, Ulugbek Nurmukhamedov, & Susan Fassler
2 Overview of Presentation Introductions (right now!)Quick overview of studyWhat is TBLT?What is Second Life?The studyDemoThe resultsThe end ;-)R
3 What is a Task?…a pedagogical task is a piece of classroom work that involves learners in comprehending, manipulating, producing or interacting in the target language while their attention is focused on mobilizing their grammatical knowledge in order to express meaning…. (Nunan, 2004, p. 4)…a piece of work undertaken for oneself or for others, freely or for some reward. (Long, 1985)R
4 Key Characteristics of Tasks (Skehan, 1998, cited in Nunan, 2004, p. 3) Meaning is primaryLearners are not given other people’s meaning to regurgitateThere is some sort of relationship to comparable real-world activities.Task completion has some priorityThe assessment of the task is in terms of the outcomeR
5 TBLT: Definitions…aims at proving opportunities for the learners to experiment with and explore both spoken and written language through learning activities which are designed to engage learners in the authentic, practical and functional use of language for meaningful purposes. (Nunan, 1999)...an approach to teaching a second/foreign language that seeks to engage learners in interactionally authentic language use by having them perform a series of tasks (Ellis, 2003)UMARKEE:an analytic approach to syllabus design and methodology in which chains of information-gathering, problem-solving and evaluative tasks are used to organize language teaching and learning; these interdependent pedagogical tasks, which combine insights from sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic research, are designed to methodologically simulate the communicative events which learners encounter in specific second language-using environments (Markee, 1994a)A task-based approach sees the language process as one of learning through doing--- it is primarily engaging in meaning that the learner’s system is encouraged to develop (Long & Crooks, 1993)… interdependent pedagogical tasks … designed to methodologically simulate the communicative events which learners encounter in specific second language-using environments (Markee, 1994a)an activity in which the target language is used by the learner for a communicative purpose in order to achieve an outcome (Willis, 1996)
6 Learn language by doing things Experiential Learning Learner Centered Key ideas in TBLTLearn language by doing thingsExperiential LearningLearner CenteredMeaning is primaryCould be written or oralConnection to the “real world”U
7 Task Examples Tasks Pedagogical Tasks painting a fence buying a pair of shoesmaking an airline reservationborrowing a library booktaking a driving testtyping a letterweighing a patienttaking a hotel reservationfinding a street destination, etc. (Long, ‘85)Pedagogical TasksInformation GapOpinion GapReasoning GapPersonal TasksRole play tasksJigsawProblem SolvingDecision MakingOpinion ExchangeU
8 Why TBLT?…offers the opportunity for ‘natural’ learning inside the classroom (Ellis, 2003)...well-designed and implemented tasks can engage learners in meaningful interaction and...negotiation can occur through these interactions (Pica, 1994).It is intrinsically motivating (Ellis, 2003)It emphasizes meaning over form but can also cater for learning form (Ellis, 2003)U“Task-based teaching offers the opportunity for ‘natural’ learning inside the classroom”Natural learning will take place even outside of the classroom too.
9 What is a virtual world? …an online environment Avatars representing “real” peopleReal time communication via text and/or voiceTypically control own appearance: gender, shape, clothing, species?May have control over environmentMay be similar or nearly identical to real world…Or may allow users to fly, teleport, or build a home floating 200 meters above the ground.R9
10 About Second Life (most from Gronstedt, 2007) ~1.5 million logged in over last 60 days54,000 logged in 1pm Saturday.60 % users European (Germans outnumber Americans)16 % from U.S.13 % from Asia.60 % men40 % women20% of F avatars are RL MAlmost all M avatars are RL M.average age: 30s.What you see….is created primarily by usersR10
11 What can you do there? Explore Shop Dance Make money …also a great place to learn languagesMany language schools, millions to practice withText chat, oral chat, nonverbal communicationR
12 Theoretical Foundations for TBLT Experiential & Social Learning: (Dewey, 1916), (Kilpatrick , 1918)Sociocultural Theory, Negotiation, Zone of Proximal Development: VygotskyConstructivist Theory (Piaget, 1967)Interaction Hypothesis (Long & Robinson,1998)Negotiation Model (Doughty, 2000)R
13 Why TBLTvia CALL?CMC interaction creates less threatening and less stressful environment (Smith, 2003)Simulations... [allow] students to be immersed and actively involved in an environment that is not otherwise accessible (González-Lloret, 2003, citing 3 others)…successful implementation of computer- based, interactive, communicative tasks can yield numerous benefits for L2 Learners (de la Fuente, 2003, citing 12 others)U
14 A few Studies with “TBLT” & CALL González-Lloret. (2003): 3-D environmentZähner, Fauverge, & Wong (2000): Audiovisual networksMüller-Hartmann (2000):Linder & Rochon (2003): text chat, MOOBlake (2000): text chatSmith. (2005): text chatOscoz (2003): text chatShamsudin. (2003): Microsoft NetmeetingU
15 Motivation for the Study: Applying tasks in 3D environment of Second LifePreparing students’ communicative competence before they go to real lifeBuilding confidence in students language useExploring task building possibilities in Second Life and integrating them to task-based curriculumResearching how the use of SL might help tasks and TBLT become more real and more interesting to language learnersR
16 Settings and Participants RL SettingA large MW Univ.Intensive English Institute (UIUC)MA TESOL programVirtual SettingSecond Life— various locationsParticipants10 ESL studentsLanguage backgrounds: Arabic, Turkish, Korean, Thai, ChineseLanguage Proficiency— upper intermediate23 MA TESOL ssLanguage backgrounds: a lotLanguage Proficiency: from NS to near NSR
17 Data collectionPre and Post Questionnaires—experience, attitudes, etc.Participant Journals & InterviewsTasksCompleted objectsWritten products via notecardsWritten products via other sourcesVideos of task activitiesR
18 Tasks: Orientation Overview & practice of common SL personal tasks Scavenger HuntThe BuildTravel GuideOrienteeringOverview & practice of common SL personal tasksWalk around (harder than you might think!)FlyWork with your inventoryChange appearanceTeleportSet landmarksR
19 Tasks: Scavenger Hunt Orientation The Build Travel Guide Orienteering Intro to common SL tasksuse your inventorymove around in SL"buy" thingsteleporttake picturesset landmarksmake and use notecardsIntro to useful areas: museums, freebies, nature, history, language learningRFor this hunt you must find some places in Second Life that I describe in "The Scavenger Hunt!" notecard. These include places for art, free things, historical places, nature sites, and education sites. At each place I ask you to do something to show that you were there.For each of these places, you will put the answers on a new notecard. Call it "Scavenger Hunt--"insert your names here."1. Number your answers in the notecard in the same way you will see in the "Scavenger Hunt!" notecard (1. Art in SL, etc.)2. For each number, put in the answer, photo, or landmark for your answer.3. When you finish, place the notecard in Randall Renoir's mail box, located on his house below the "Renoir's Roost" sign:The winning group will be the one that gets the most points--each correct answer is worth 10 points. That winning team will get a prize!==HOWEVER==1. The group that finishes the fastest gets 10 bonus points2. For some of the questions you have a choice. If a group does finds both places they will get extra points._____________________________________________RULES:1. You should work on this project with a partner.2. Any pictures you take must include both you and your partner.3. Your answers should be turned in on a notecard. The name of the notecard should be: "Scavenger Hunt!--insert your names here"4. If you get stuck, you can me for a hint....but I won't just give you the answer! ;-)Good luck!
20 Tasks: Must work in groups to complete hunt tasks: Scavenger Hunt II OrientationScavenger Hunt IIThe BuildTravel GuideOrienteeringMust work in groups to complete hunt tasks:Group turns in written notecards with written answers, but also require:Oral communicationText chatGroup decision making(integrative skills—Ellis)R
21 Tasks: The Build Orientation Scavenger Hunt Travel Guide Orienteering Building tutorialBuild something in a groupWrite instructions to recreate your buildAnother group gets notes, attempts to recreatePrizes for best build, best recreationR
27 Tasks: The Build II Orientation Scavenger Hunt Travel Guide OrienteeringRequirementsReasoningDecision Making/ConsensusProblem solvingOpinion exchangeOral/chat exchangesWritten descriptionsLanguage & GrammarRTBLT items this would includeOpinion GapReasoning GapPersonal TasksRole play tasksJigsawProblem SolvingDecision MakingOpinion Exchange
28 Some Verbs and Adjectives for the building task Making & SelectingChangingMovementAdjectivesSL editing windowCreateExpandMoveLongTabBuildShrinkLifeShortAxis (X,Y,Z)RezzStretchRaiseSmallPositionDuplicateLowerLargeSizeClickColorSlideSquareTextureRight-clickPushFlatTransparentSelectAttachPullThinEditLinkPutThickChooseConnectRotateU
29 Prepositions of location from: http://www.esolcamba.org/visualprep.htm U
32 Extensions Build some historical artifact Write directions for someone to re-createWrite a “history” for that creationBuild a space for a group—class exchangeNegotiate look, furnishingsPurpose?Info from countries?Authors/history from countries?RCould show them my pyramid or rocky temple?
33 Preliminary Results TBLT in SL--yes Maintaining motivation Get physicalLearner background differencesRL pedagogy may not transfer to VWsImportance of task designImportance of student responsibilityTechnical issues…the best of times??RPay particular attention to some of the buzzwords they used in the literature.
34 Thanks!For a copy of the presentation and a full list of references, you can go to Randall’s webpage (in a couple days!):R & U