215-1 GUIDED READING ACTIVITY 15-1 I. Europeans Flood Into the United StatesA. eastern and southernB. military serviceC. religious persecutionD. steerage; Ellis IslandE. learned English; American cultureII. Asian Immigration to AmericaA. discovery of gold in CaliforniaB. insurrection against the Chinese government;20 million livesC. Angel IslandIII. The Resurgence of NativismA. Irish immigrants; Asians; Jews; easternEuropeansB. CatholicsC. labor unions; strikebreakers
315-21. In 1840 the number of cities was 131; in 1900, it was over 1,700.2. the money to buy farms and the education to obtain higher-paying jobs3. more and better-paying jobs; bright lights; running water; modern plumbing; museums; libraries; theaters
415-2 (continued) 4. the rising price of land 5. Louis Sullivan 6. the cable car, which was pulled along tracks by underground cables7. It was a $3 million French château equipped with a two-story dining room, a gymnasium, and a solid marble bathroom.8. doctors, lawyers, engineers, managers, social workers, architects, and teachers
515-2 (continued)9. Three out of four residents squeezed into tenements, dark and crowded multifamily apartments.10. crime and violence, fire, disease, and pollution11. Native-born Americans; the crime rate for immigrants was not significantly higher than that for other Americans12. saloons or alcohol13. an informal political group designed to gain and keep power
615-2 (continued)14. when party bosses accepted bribes from contractors who were supposed to compete fairly to win contracts to build streets, sewers, and buildings15. the corrupt boss of Tammany Hall, the New York Democratic political machine during the 1860s and 1870s16. They provided necessary services and helped to assimilate the masses of new city dwellers.
715-31. Something is gilded if it is covered in gold on the outside, but is made of cheaper material inside. A gilded age might appear to glitter, but beneath the surface might lie corruption, swindles, poverty, crime, and great disparities in wealth between the rich and the poor.
82. the way Americans looked at themselves and their society; they gave rise to new values, new art, and new forms of entertainment3. in individualism—that no matter how humble their origins, they could rise in society, and go as far as their talents and commitment would take them4. Horatio Alger
95. The books inspired them to think that no matter how many obstacles they faced, perhaps they could win success, too.6. Those species that cannot adapt to the environment in which they live gradually die out, while those that adapt best thrive.7. Both essentially opposed any government programs that interfered with business.8. They believed it contradicted the Bible’s account of creation.
109. Andrew Carnegie’s philosophy that wealthy Americans bear the responsibility of engaging in philanthropy—using their great fortunes to further social progress10. a new movement in art and literature that attempted to portray people realistically instead of idealizing them as romantic artists had done11. They functioned like community centers and also served as political centers.12. amusement parks such as New York’s Coney Island; baseball and “rounders” games
1113. It began in private colleges and universities that the middle and working classes could not afford.14. leisure activities that involved physical exercise15. animal acts, acrobats, gymnasts, and dancers
12GUIDED READING ACTIVITY 15-4 1. standard of living2. land3. cooperate4. circumstances they could not control5. Social Gospel; biblical6. YMCA (Young Men’s Christian Association)7. reforming their character8. Americanized9. Booker T. Washington; Tuskegee Institute10. Morrill Land Grant Act; agricultural; mechanical