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Splash Screen Contents Chapter Introduction Section 1America and the World Section 2World War II Begins Section 3The Holocaust Section 4America Enters.

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Presentation on theme: "Splash Screen Contents Chapter Introduction Section 1America and the World Section 2World War II Begins Section 3The Holocaust Section 4America Enters."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Splash Screen

3 Contents Chapter Introduction Section 1America and the World Section 2World War II Begins Section 3The Holocaust Section 4America Enters the War Chapter Summary Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.

4 Intro 1 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

5 Intro 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives Describe how postwar conditions contributed to the rise of antidemocratic governments in Europe. Explain why many Americans supported a policy of isolationism in the 1930s. Section 1: America and the World

6 Intro 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives Section 2: World War II Begins Explain why Hitler was able to take over Austria and Czechoslovakia. Describe the early events of the war and why Britain was able to resist the Nazis.

7 Intro 4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives Section 3: The Holocaust Describe Nazi prejudices against Jews and early persecution of German Jews. Explain the methods Hitler used to try to exterminate Europes Jewish population.

8 Intro 5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives Section 4: America Enters the War Explain how Roosevelt helped Britain while maintaining official neutrality. Trace the events that led to increasing tensions, and ultimately war, between the United States and Japan.

9 Intro 6 Why It Matters After World War I, Europe was unstable. Fascists led by Benito Mussolini seized power in Italy, and Adolf Hitler and the Nazis took control of Germany. Meanwhile, Japan expanded its territory in Asia. As the Nazis gained power, they began a campaign of violence against Jews. When Germany attacked Poland, World War II began. The United States clung to neutrality until Japan attacked Pearl Harbor.

10 Intro 7 The Impact Today European events of this time serve as lessons for American leaders. The danger of ethnic and religious prejudice is more readily recognized than it was before. Many American leaders believe that international aggression cannot be ignored. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

11 Intro 8 continued on next slide

12 Intro 9

13 End of Intro

14 Section 1-1 Guide to Reading In the years following World War I, aggressive and expansionist governments took power in both Europe and Asia. Benito Mussolini Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Key Terms and Names fascism Vladimir Lenin Joseph Stalin Adolf Hitler Manchuria Neutrality Act of 1935 internationalism

15 Section 1-2 Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Taking Notes As you read about the events in Europe and Asia after World War I, use the major headings of the section to create an outline similar to the one on page 584 of your textbook. Describe how postwar conditions contributed to the rise of antidemocratic governments in Europe. Reading Objectives Explain why many Americans supported a policy of isolationism in the 1930s.

16 Section 1-3 Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Theme Global Connections German and Japanese actions in the 1930s led President Roosevelt to work to prevent aggression.

17 Section 1-4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

18 Section 1-5 The Rise of Dictators The treaty that ended World War I and the economic depression that followed contributed to the rise of dictatorships in Europe and Asia. (pages 584–586) Italy developed the first major dictatorship in Europe. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

19 Section 1-6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In 1919 Benito Mussolini founded Italys Fascist Party. Fascism was a kind of aggressive nationalism. Fascists believed that the nation was more important than the individual, and that a nation became great by expanding its territory and building its military. Facists were anti-Communist. Backed by the militia known as Blackshirts, Mussolini became the premier of Italy and set up a dictatorship. The Rise of Dictators (cont.) (pages 584–586)

20 Section 1-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In 1917 the Bolshevik Party, led by Vladimir Lenin, set up Communist governments throughout the Russian empire. The Russian territories were renamed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1922. The Communists set up a one-party rule. The Rise of Dictators (cont.) (pages 584–586)

21 Section 1-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. By 1926 Joseph Stalin had become the new Soviet dictator. In 1927 he began a massive effort to industrialize the country. Millions of peasants who resisted the Communist policies were killed. The Rise of Dictators (cont.) (pages 584–586)

22 Section 1-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. After World War I, the political and economic chaos in Germany led to the rise of new political parties. The Nazi Party was nationalistic and anti-Communist. Adolf Hitler, a member of the Nazi Party, called for the unification of all Germans under one government. He believed certain Germans were part of a master race destined to rule the world. The Rise of Dictators (cont.) (pages 584–586)

23 Section 1-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. He wanted Eastern Europeans enslaved. He felt Jews were responsible for many of the worlds problems. In 1933 Hitler was appointed prime minister of Germany. Storm troopers intimidated voters into giving Hitler dictatorial powers. The Rise of Dictators (cont.) (pages 584–586)

24 Section 1-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Difficult economic times in Japan after World War I undermined the countrys political system. Many Japanese officers and civilians wanted to seize territory to gain needed resources. In 1931 the Japanese army, without the governments permission, invaded the resource-rich Chinese province of Manchuria. The military took control of Japan. The Rise of Dictators (cont.) (pages 584–586)

25 Section 1-12 What dictatorships were established in Europe and Asia after World War I? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The Rise of Dictators (cont.) (pages 584–586)

26 Section 1-12b Italy developed the first major dictatorship in Europe, with Benito Mussolini as its leader. In 1917 the Bolshevik Party, led by Vladimir Lenin, set up Communist governments throughout the Russian empire. The Russian territories were renamed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1922. The Communists set up a one-party rule. By 1926 Joseph Stalin had become the new Soviet dictator. In 1933 Adolf Hitler was appointed prime minister of Germany. Storm troopers intimidated voters into giving Hitler dictatorial powers. In 1931 the Japanese army, without the governments permission, invaded the resource-rich Chinese province of Manchuria. The military took control of Japan. The Rise of Dictators (cont.) (pages 584–586)

27 Section 1-13 America Turns to Neutrality The rise of dictatorships in Europe and Asia after World War I, the refusal of European countries to repay war debts owed to the United States, and the Nye Committee findings that arms factories made huge profits caused Americans to support isolationism. (pages 587–588)

28 Section 1-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Many Americans wanted to avoid international commitments. Congress passed the Neutrality Act of 1935 making it illegal for Americans to sell arms to any country at war. Congress passed the Neutrality Act of 1937, which continued the ban of selling arms to countries at war and required warring countries to buy nonmilitary supplies from the United States on a cash and carry basis. America Turns to Neutrality (cont.) (pages 587–588)

29 Section 1-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. President Franklin D. Roosevelt supported internationalism. Internationalists believe that trade between nations creates prosperity and helps to prevent war. America Turns to Neutrality (cont.) (pages 587–588)

30 Section 1-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Japan aligned itself with Germany and Italy, and these three countries became known as the Axis Powers. After Japan launched a full-scale attack on China in 1937, Roosevelt authorized the sale of weapons to China, saying that the Neutrality Act of 1937 did not apply, since neither China nor Japan had actually declared war. America Turns to Neutrality (cont.) (pages 587–588)

31 Section 1-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What factors led many Americans to support isolationism after World War I? The rise of dictatorships in Europe and Asia after World War I caused Americans to support isolationism. Isolationist ideas increased when most debtor nations stopped paying their war debts during the Great Depression. The Nye Committee found evidence that arms factories made huge profits, creating the impression that these businesses influenced the United States to enter World War I. America Turns to Neutrality (cont.) (pages 587–588)

32 Section 1-18 Checking for Understanding __ 1.a national policy of actively trading with foreign countries to foster peace and prosperity __ 2.a political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition A.fascism B.internationalism Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. A B

33 Section 1-19 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Explain why isolationism was strong in the United States in the early 1930s. Isolationism was strong because of unpaid European war debts and the belief that arms manufacturers influenced the United States to enter World War I. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

34 Section 1-20 Reviewing Themes Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Global Connections What events caused President Roosevelt to become more of an internationalist? The Japanese invasion of China caused Roosevelt to become more of an internationalist.

35 Section 1-21 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Interpreting Why did antidemocratic governments rise to power in postwar Europe and Asia? Antidemocratic governments rose to power because of unhappiness with the terms of the Treaty of Versailles and worldwide economic depression.

36 Section 1-22 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Art Study the Spanish Civil War era propaganda poster reproduced on page 587 of your textbook. Without being told the phrase, how would you be able to discover the posters meaning? A cruel claw-like hand is trying to grasp the country. The colors of the Italian flag are superimposed on the hand.

37 Section 1-23 Close Draw a political cartoon that expresses the feelings of internationalists or isolationists.

38 End of Section 1

39 Section 2-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading World War II officially began with the Nazi invasion of Poland and the French and British declaration of war on Germany in September 1939. Anschluss Main Idea Key Terms and Names appeasement blitzkrieg Maginot Line Winston Churchill Battle of Britain

40 Section 2-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Sequencing As you read about the events leading up to the beginning of World War II, record them by completing a time line similar to the one on page 589 of your textbook. Explain why Hitler was able to take over Austria and Czechoslovakia. Reading Objectives Describe the early events of the war and why Britain was able to resist the Nazis.

41 Section 2-3 Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Theme Continuity and Change The desire of the French and British to avoid another war helped encourage Hitlers aggression in Europe.

42 Section 2-4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

43 Section 2-5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Peace in Our Time Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In February 1938, Adolf Hitler threatened to invade Austria unless Austrian Nazis were given important government posts. In March 1938, Hitler announced the Anschluss, or unification, of Austria and Germany. (pages 589–591)

44 Section 2-6 Hitler claimed the Sudetenland, an area of Czechoslovakia with a large German-speaking population. Czechs strongly resisted Germanys demand for the Sudetenland. France, the Soviet Union, and Britain threatened to fight Germany if it attacked Czechoslovakia. Peace in Our Time (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 589–591)

45 Section 2-7 At the Munich Conference on September 29, 1938, Britain and France, hoping to prevent another war, agreed to Hitlers demands in a policy known as appeasement. In March 1939, Germany sent troops into Czechoslovakia, bringing the Czech lands under German control. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Peace in Our Time (cont.) (pages 589–591)

46 Section 2-8 Hitler demanded the return of Danzig–Polands Baltic Sea port. He also wanted a highway and railroad across the Polish Corridor. These demands convinced the British and French that appeasement had failed. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Peace in Our Time (cont.) (pages 589–591)

47 Section 2-9 In May 1939, Hitler ordered the invasion of Poland by the German army. On August 23, 1939, Germany and the USSR signed a nonaggression treaty, with a secret agreement to divide Poland. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Peace in Our Time (cont.) (pages 589–591)

48 Section 2-10 Why did Britain and France agree to Hitlers demands for the Sudetenland? They hoped that they could give Hitler the Sudetenland in exchange for peace. Also, this bought Britain time to get ready for war. Some thought Hitlers demand that all German-speaking regions of Europe be united with Germany was reasonable. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Peace in Our Time (cont.) (pages 589–591)

49 Section 2-11 The War Begins Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. On September 1, 1939, Germany and the USSR invaded Poland. On September 3, Britain and France declared war on Germany–starting World War II. The Germans used a blitzkrieg, or lightening war, to attack Poland. The Polish army was defeated by October 5. (pages 591–593)

50 Section 2-12 On April 9, 1940, the German army attacked Norway and Denmark. Within a month, Germany overtook both countries. The War Begins (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 591–593)

51 Section 2-13 After World War I, the French built a line of concrete bunkers and fortifications called the Maginot Line along the German border. When Hitler decided to attack France, he went around the Maginot Line by invading the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg. The French and British forces quickly went into Belgium, becoming trapped there by German forces. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The War Begins (cont.) (pages 591–593)

52 Section 2-14 By June 4, about 338,000 British and French troops had evacuated Belgium through the French port of Dunkirk and across the English Channel, using ships of all sizes. On June 22, 1940, France surrendered to the Germans. Germany installed a puppet government in France. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The War Begins (cont.) (pages 591–593)

53 Section 2-15 Why did France fall to the Germans? When Hitler decided to attack France, he went around the Maginot Line by invading the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg. The French and British forces quickly went into Belgium, becoming trapped there by German forces. These forces escaped to Britain through the French port of Dunkirk and across the English Channel. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The War Begins (cont.) (pages 591–593)

54 Section 2-16 Britain Remains Defiant Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Hitler thought that Britain would negotiate peace after France surrendered. He did not anticipate the bravery of the British people and their prime minister, Winston Churchill. On June 4, 1940, Churchill delivered a defiant speech that rallied the British people and alerted the United States to Britains plight. (pages 593–594)

55 Section 2-17 To invade Britain, Germany had to defeat the British air force. In the Battle of Britain, the German air force, the Luftwaffe, launched an all-out air battle to destroy the British Royal Air Force. After German bombers bombed London, the British responded by bombing Berlin, Germany. Britain Remains Defiant (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 593–594)

56 Section 2-18 The Royal Air Force was greatly outnumbered by the Luftwaffe, but the British had radar stations and were able to detect incoming German aircraft and direct British fighters to intercept them. Britain Remains Defiant (cont.) (pages 593–594)

57 Section 2-19 How did the British stop the German forces from invading Britain? Winston Churchill delivered a defiant speech, which rallied the British people. The British air force bombed Berlin, Germany, after the Germans bombed London. The British hid in subway tunnels when the Germans bombed London. Although the Royal Air Force was greatly outnumbered by the Luftwaffe, the British had radar stations that were able to detect incoming German aircraft and direct British fighters to intercept them. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Britain Remains Defiant (cont.) (pages 593–594)

58 Section 2-20 Checking for Understanding __ 1.accepting demands in order to avoid conflict __ 2.name given to sudden violent offensive attacks the Germans used during World War II; lightning war A.appeasement B.blitzkrieg Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. B A

59 Section 2-21 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Explain why Hitler was able to take over Austria and Czechoslovakia. Britain and France gave in to Hitlers demands.

60 Section 2-22 Reviewing Themes Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Continuity and Change How did the policy of appeasement affect France and Great Britain? France was not prepared for a German attack, and Britain was left to fight alone.

61 Section 2-23 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Evaluating Why were the British able to prevent the Germans from invading their country? Britain was an island, with a strong air force, navy, and radar stations.

62 Section 2-24 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Photographs Study the photographs on pages 593 and 594 of your textbook. How do they reflect the British resolve to never surrender? The photographs show British desire to continue with their daily routines and activities in spite of devastation.

63 Section 2-25 Close Summarize with the class the content of the section by creating a time line of the major events.

64 End of Section 2

65 Section 3-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading The Nazis believed Jews to be subhuman. They steadily increased their persecution of Jews and eventually set up death camps and tried to kill all the Jews in Europe. Holocaust Main Idea Key Terms and Names Shoah Nuremberg Laws Wannsee Conference concentration camp extermination camp

66 Section 3-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Organizing As you read about the Holocaust, complete a graphic organizer similar to the one on page 595 of your textbook by listing examples of Nazi persecution of German Jews. Describe Nazi prejudices against Jews and early persecution of German Jews. Reading Objectives Explain the methods Hitler used to try to exterminate Europes Jewish population.

67 Section 3-3 Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Theme Civic Rights and Responsibilities The Nazis systematically deprived Jews of their rights, while other nations refused to accept many Jewish refugees.

68 Section 3-4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

69 Section 3-5 Nazi Persecution of the Jews Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Nazis killed nearly 6 million Jews and millions of other people during the Holocaust. The Hebrew term for the Nazi campaign to exterminate the Jews before and during World War II is Shoah. The Nazis persecuted anyone who opposed them, as well as the disabled, Gypsies, homosexuals, and Slavic peoples. The Nazis strongest hatred was aimed at all Jews. (pages 595–598)

70 Section 3-7 In September 1935, the Nuremberg Laws took citizenship away from Jewish Germans and banned marriage between Jews and other Germans. German Jews were deprived of many rights that citizens of Germany had long held. By 1936 at least half of Germanys Jews were jobless. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Nazi Persecution of the Jews (cont.) (pages 595–598)

71 Section 3-8 Anti-Jewish violence erupted throughout Germany and Austria on November 9, 1938, known as Kristallnacht, or night of broken glass. Ninety Jews died, hundreds were badly injured, thousands of Jewish businesses were destroyed, and over 180 synagogues were wrecked. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Nazi Persecution of the Jews (cont.) (pages 595–598)

72 Section 3-9 Between 1933 and the beginning of World War II in 1939, about 350,000 Jews escaped Nazi-controlled Germany. Many of them emigrated to the United States. Millions of Jews remained trapped in Nazi-dominated Europe because they could not get visas to the United States or to other countries. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Nazi Persecution of the Jews (cont.) (pages 595–598)

73 Section 3-10 What factors limited Jewish immigration to the United States? Nazi orders limited Jews from taking more than four dollars out of Germany. The United States had laws restricting a visa to any one likely to become a public charge, which many assumed the Jews would become because they would have almost no money if they left Germany. Immigration was unpopular in the U.S. because unemployment was high during the 1930s. The U.S. immigration policy allowed only 150,000 immigrants annually. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Nazi Persecution of the Jews (cont.) (pages 595–598)

74 Section 3-11 The Final Solution Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. On January 20, 1942, Nazi leaders met at the Wannsee Conference to decide the final solution of the Jews and other undesirables. The plan was to round up Jews and other undesirables from Nazi-controlled Europe and take them to concentration camps–detention centers where healthy individuals worked as slave laborers. The elderly, the sick, and young children were sent to extermination camps to be killed in large gas chambers. (pages 599–600)

75 Section 3-12 After World War II began, Nazis built concentration camps throughout Europe. Extermination camps were built in many concentration camps, mostly in Poland. Thousands of people were killed each day at these camps. In only a few years, Jewish culture had been virtually obliterated by the Nazis in the lands they conquered. The Final Solution (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 599–600)

76 Section 3-14 What factors led to the Holocaust? The German peoples sense of injury after World War I; severe economic problems; Hitlers grip on the German nation; the lack of strong tradition of representative government in Germany; German fear of Hitlers secret police; and a long history of anti-Jewish prejudice and discrimination in Europe. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The Final Solution (cont.) (pages 599–600)

77 Section 3-15 Checking for Understanding __ 1.a camp where prisoners were sent to be executed __ 2.name given to the mass slaughter of Jews and other groups by the Nazis during World War II __ 3.a camp where persons are detained or confined A.Holocaust B.concentration camp C.extermination camp Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. A B C

78 Section 3-16 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. List the groups of people who were persecuted by the Nazis. Jews, the disabled, Gypsies, homosexuals, and Slavic peoples were persecuted by the Nazis.

79 Section 3-17 Reviewing Themes Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Civic Rights and Responsibilities Do you think the German people or other nations could have prevented the Holocaust? Why or why not? Answers will vary.

80 Section 3-18 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing What are some factors that attempt to explain the Holocaust? Hitlers dictatorship, European anti- Semitism, propaganda, and fear are some factors that explain the Holocaust.

81 Section 3-19 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Photographs Study the photographs of the Final Solution on pages 597–599 of your textbook. How do the photographs show the systematic destruction of Jewish life? The photographs show stages of Hitlers campaign, from civil discrimination and violence to deportation to camps.

82 Section 3-20 Close Summarize the gradually intensifying steps of Hitlers campaign against the Jews.

83 End of Section 3

84 Section 4-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading After World War II began, the United States attempted to continue its prewar policy of neutrality. America First Committee Main Idea Key Terms and Names Lend-Lease Act hemispheric defense zone Atlantic Charter strategic materials

85 Section 4-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Organizing As you read about the efforts of the United States to stay neutral in the war, complete a graphic organizer similar to the one on page 601 of your textbook by naming two events that shifted American opinion toward helping the Allies. Explain how Roosevelt helped Britain while maintaining official neutrality. Reading Objectives Trace the events that led to increasing tensions, and ultimately war, between the United States and Japan.

86 Section 4-3 Guide to Reading (cont.) Section Theme Individual Action Even while the United States was officially neutral, President Roosevelt found ways to help the British fight Germany.

87 Section 4-4 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

88 Section 4-5 FDR Supports England Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Two days after Britain and France declared war against Germany, President Roosevelt declared the United States neutral. The Neutrality Act of 1939 allowed warring countries to buy weapons from the United States as long as they paid cash and carried the arms away on their own ships. (pages 601–602)

89 Section 4-6 President Roosevelt used a loophole in the Neutrality Act of 1939 and sent 50 old American destroyers to Britain in exchange for the right to build American bases on British-controlled Newfoundland, Bermuda, and Caribbean islands. FDR Supports England (cont.) (pages 601–602)

90 Section 4-7 How did President Roosevelt support Britain in the war effort? President Roosevelt used a loophole in the Neutrality Act of 1939 and sent 50 old American destroyers to Britain in exchange for the right to build American bases on British-controlled Newfoundland, Bermuda, and Caribbean islands. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. FDR Supports England (cont.) (pages 601–602)

91 Section 4-8 The Isolationist Debate Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. After the German invasion of France and the rescue of Allied forces at Dunkirk, American public opinion changed to favor limited aid to the Allies. The America First Committee opposed any American intervention or aid to the Allies. (pages 602–603)

92 Section 4-9 President Roosevelt ran for an unprecedented third term as president in the election of 1940. Both Roosevelt and the Republican candidate, Wendell Willkie, said they would keep the United States neutral but assist the Allied forces. Roosevelt won by a large margin. The Isolationist Debate (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 602–603)

93 Section 4-10 What caused many Americans to change their opinion about United States neutrality? After the German invasion of France and the rescue of Allied forces at Dunkirk, American public opinion changed to favor limited aid to the Allies. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The Isolationist Debate (cont.) (pages 602–603)

94 Section 4-11 Edging Toward War Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. President Roosevelt proposed the Lend- Lease Act, which stated that the United States could lend or lease arms to any country considered vital to the defense of the United States. Congress passed the act by a wide margin. (pages 603–604)

95 Section 4-12 In June 1941, in violation of the Nazi- Soviet Pact, Hitler began a massive invasion of the Soviet Union. Edging Toward War (cont.) (pages 603–604)

96 Section 4-13 President Roosevelt developed the hemispheric defense zone, which declared the entire western half of the Atlantic as part of the Western Hemisphere and therefore neutral. This allowed Roosevelt to order the U.S. Navy to patrol the western Atlantic Ocean and reveal the location of German submarines to the British. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Edging Toward War (cont.) (pages 603–604)

97 Section 4-14 In August 1941, President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston Churchill agreed to the Atlantic Charter. This agreement committed the two leaders to a postwar world of democracy, nonaggression, free trade, economic advancement, and freedom of the seas. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Edging Toward War (cont.) (pages 603–604)

98 Section 4-15 After a German U-boat fired on the American destroyer Greer, Roosevelt ordered American ships to follow a shoot-on-sight policy toward German submarines. Germans torpedoed and sank the American destroyer Reuben James in the North Atlantic. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Edging Toward War (cont.) (pages 603–604)

99 Section 4-16 How did President Roosevelt get around American neutrality in order to aid the British? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Edging Toward War (cont.) (pages 603–604)

100 Section 4-16a President Roosevelt proposed the Lend-Lease Act, which stated that the United States could lend or lease arms to any country considered vital to the defense of the United States. President Roosevelt developed the hemispheric defense zone, which declared the entire western half of the Atlantic as part of the Western Hemisphere and therefore neutral. This allowed Roosevelt to order the U.S. Navy to patrol the western Atlantic Ocean and reveal the location of German submarines to the British. Edging Toward War (cont.) (pages 603–604)

101 Section 4-17 Japan Attacks the United States Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Roosevelts primary goal between August 1939 and December 1941 was to help Britain and its allies defeat Germany. When Britain began moving its warships from Southeast Asia to the Atlantic, Roosevelt introduced policies to discourage the Japanese from attacking the British Empire. (pages 604–606)

102 Section 4-18 In July 1940, Congress passed the Export Control Act, giving Roosevelt the power to restrict the sale of strategic materials–materials important for fighting a war–to other countries. Roosevelt immediately blocked the sale of airplane fuel and scrap iron to Japan. The Japanese signed an alliance with Germany and Italy. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Japan Attacks the United States (cont.) (pages 604–606)

103 Section 4-19 By July 1941, Japanese aircraft posed a direct threat to the British Empire. Roosevelt responded to the threat by freezing all Japanese assets in the United States and reducing the amount of oil shipped to Japan. He also sent General MacArthur to the Philippines to build up American defenses there. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Japan Attacks the United States (cont.) (pages 604–606)

104 Section 4-20 The Japanese decided to attack resource-rich British and Dutch colonies in Southeast Asia, seize the Philippines, and attack Pearl Harbor. Japan attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, sinking or damaging 21 ships of the U.S. Pacific Fleet, killing 2,403 Americans, and injuring hundreds more. The next day, President Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war on Japan. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Japan Attacks the United States (cont.) (pages 604–606)

105 Section 4-21 On December 11, 1941, Japans allies–Germany and Italy–declared war on the United States. Japan Attacks the United States (cont.) (pages 604–606)

106 Section 4-22 What series of events led to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Japan Attacks the United States (cont.) (pages 604–606)

107 Section 4-22a The United States Congress passed the Export Control Act that restricted the sale of strategic materials to other nations. Roosevelt immediately blocked the sale of airplane fuel and scrap iron to Japan. This angered Japan, which then signed an alliance with Germany and Italy. The Japanese invasion of southern Indochina caused Roosevelt to freeze all Japanese assets in the United States and reduce the amount of oil shipped to Japan. He also sent General MacArthur to the Philippines to build up American defenses there. The Japanese military, lacking oil and other resources, decided to attack the resource-rich British and Dutch colonies in Southeast Asia, seize the Philippines, and attack Pearl Harbor. Japan Attacks the United States (cont.) (pages 604–606)

108 Section 4-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Checking for Understanding __ 1.materials needed for fighting a war __ 2.national policy during World War II that declared the Western Hemisphere to be neutral and that the United States would patrol this region against German submarines A.hemispheric defense zone B.strategic materials Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. A B

109 Section 4-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Individual Action After Roosevelt made the destroyer-for-bases deal with Britain, some Americans called him a dictator. Do you think Roosevelt was right or wrong in his actions? Explain your answer. Answers will vary. Reviewing Themes

110 Section 4-25 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Interpreting Why was the United States unprepared for Japans attack on Pearl Harbor? The United States was still negotiating with Japan and had failed to collect sufficient information. The U.S. military had not shared information among the various branches.

111 Section 4-26 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Maps Study the map on pages 604–605 of your textbook. Based on the geography of Oahu, why was the location of Pearl Harbor perfect for a naval base? It was sheltered and provided easy access to the ocean.

112 Section 4-27 Close Create a relative chronology explaining the events that eventually led to war between the United States and Japan.

113 End of Section 4

114 Chapter Summary 1

115 End of Chapter Summary

116 Chapter Assessment 1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Reviewing Key Terms Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1.a camp where persons are detained or confined __ 2.a national policy of actively trading with foreign countries to foster peace and prosperity __ 3.national policy during World War II that declared the Western Hemisphere to be neutral and that the United States would patrol this region against German submarines A.fascism B.internationalism C.appeasement D.blitzkrieg E.Holocaust F.concentration camp G.extermination camp H.hemispheric defense zone I.strategic materials B H F

117 Chapter Assessment 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Reviewing Key Terms (cont.) Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 4.a political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition __ 5.materials needed for fighting a war __ 6.name given to the mass slaughter of Jews and other groups by the Nazis during World War II __ 7.a camp where prisoners were sent to be executed I E A G A.fascism B.internationalism C.appeasement D.blitzkrieg E.Holocaust F.concentration camp G.extermination camp H.hemispheric defense zone I.strategic materials

118 Chapter Assessment 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Reviewing Key Terms (cont.) Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 8.accepting demands in order to avoid conflict __ 9.name given to sudden violent offensive attacks the Germans used during World War II; lightning war D C A.fascism B.internationalism C.appeasement D.blitzkrieg E.Holocaust F.concentration camp G.extermination camp H.hemispheric defense zone I.strategic materials

119 Chapter Assessment 4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts Where did antidemocratic governments arise in Europe and Asia after World War I? Antidemocratic governments arose in Germany, Italy, and Japan.

120 Chapter Assessment 5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) Why was Austria easier for Hitler to annex than Czechoslovakia? The Austrians spoke German and had an authoritarian government. The Czechoslovakians spoke several languages and had a democratic government and allies.

121 Chapter Assessment 6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) What were four ways that Nazis persecuted Jews? Nazis took away their civil liberties, seized their property, imprisoned them, and killed them.

122 Chapter Assessment 7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) In what three ways did Roosevelt help Britain while maintaining an American policy of neutrality? Roosevelt made a destroyers-for-bases deal, got Congress to pass the Lend- Lease Act, and developed the hemispheric defense zone strategy.

123 Chapter Assessment 8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Critical Thinking Analyzing Themes: Global Connections If Roosevelts internationalist policy had been fully pursued, do you think it could have prevented World War II? Possible answers: Yes, because the attack on Pearl Harbor was the result of the United Statess efforts to help Britain in the war against Germany. No, because Hitler seemed bent on world domination so that U.S. interests would eventually have needed protection.

124 Chapter Assessment 9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Critical Thinking (cont.) Evaluating Why were the British able to stop the German invasion of their country? The British used radar and had a skilled air force.

125 Chapter Assessment 10 Geography and History The map below shows Nazi concentration and extermination camps. Study the map and answer the questions on the following slides.

126 Chapter Assessment 11 Interpreting Maps In which two countries were most of the concentration and extermination camps located? Most of the concentration and extermination camps were located in Germany and Poland. Geography and History (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

127 Chapter Assessment 12 Geography and History (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Applying Geography Skills What can you conclude about the extent of the Nazis final solution? The Nazis applied the Final Solution in Germany and in all the countries they conquered.

128 Chapter Assessment 13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Directions: Choose the phrase that best completes the following statement. When Roosevelt signed the Lend-Lease Act in 1941, he said that the United States must become the arsenal of democracy in order to Aend the Depression. Bhelp the Axis powers. Cremain neutral. Dhelp Great Britain. Test-Taking Tip An arsenal is a stockpile or storehouse of weapons. Eliminate any answer that does not relate to using weapons to protect democracy.

129 Chapter Assessment 14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What is the name of the German-born Nobel Prize-winning physicist whose scientific theories revolutionized modern physics? The name of the physicist is Albert Einstein.

130 End of Chapter Assessment

131 CC 3-1 World History In addition to the Jews, millions of others were exterminated by the Nazis. To learn more about how the Poles were treated by the Nazis, read Forgotten Holocaust: The Poles Under German Occupation, 1934-1944, by R. C. Lukas (Lexington, Kentucky, 1986).

132 CC 4-1 Geography To gain direct access to natural resources, Japanese military leaders aimed to build an empire in the Pacific. The U.S. Pacific Fleet was headquartered at Oahu island in Hawaii–approximately 70 warships, including 8 battleships and 24 auxiliary vessels, were stationed at Pearl Harbor on the island. Thus, Japanese military leaders saw the fleet as an obstacle that had to be destroyed if they were to achieve their goals.

133 F/F/F 1-Fact The Battle of Dunkirk Hitlers invasion of Poland fueled the fears of Americans who preferred not to become involved in Europes conflict. In contrast, the evacuation from Dunkirk less than a year later generated very different reactions. For example, soon after the evacuation, the New York Times wrote: So long as the English tongue survives, the word Dunkirk will be spoken with reverence. For in that harbor, in such a hell as never blazed on earth before, at the end of a lost battle, the rages and blemishes that have hidden the soul of democracy fell away. There, beaten but unconquered, in shining splendor, she faced the enemy. Indeed, the Battle of Dunkirk would soon help to lift the United States out of its isolationism. Despite the success of the evacuation of Dunkirk, Churchill warned Parliament, Wars are not won by evacuations.

134 FYI 1-1 The Joy Luck Club The Rape of Nanking

135 FYI 1-2 A section of Amy Tans popular novel The Joy Luck Club was set during the troubles between China and Japan during the 1930s.

136 FYI 1-3 During their invasion of China, the Japanese used extreme violence in the capital of Nanking. This incident, which became known as the Rape of Nanking, helped prompt President Roosevelt to sell weapons to China.

137 FYI Contents 2 Gdansk Polish Military The Bombing of Great Britain Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.

138 FYI 2-1a The Baltic city of Gdansk (Danzig in German) has alternated through its history between being a politically free city, or part of Poland or German-speaking Prussia. It was a part of Prussia until the Treaty of Versailles, when it became a free city again. Identification with Germany has been strong, however. In the 1930s, Nazi officials were voted into the majority of the city assembly. Gunter Grass writes of this era in his book The Tin Drum.

139 FYI 2-2b At the time of the invasion, the Polish military consisted of outdated infantry and horse cavalry. They were ineffectual against the 1,500 planes, including Stuka dive bombers, and the panzers, or German tanks. Also, they were not prepared for their invaders, whom Hitler had instructed to close their hearts to pity.

140 FYI 2-2c During the bombing of Great Britain from August 1940 to May 1941, large areas of London and the entire city of Coventry were reduced to rubble.

141 FYI 4-1 Isolationist sentiment in the United States arose in part from the fact that the nation was an ocean away from the conflict in Europe and Asia.

142 Moment in History 1 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

143 You Dont Say 1-1 Political Symbols The word fascist comes from the Latin word fasces, or the rods and axes that Roman officials carried in ancient times to represent their authority.

144 You Dont Say 3-1 Complete Destruction Holocaust means a sacrifice consumed by fire, especially a complete or thorough sacrifice or destruction.

145 CT Skill Builder 1 Making Generalizations Have you heard statements such as Only tall people play basketball well, or Dogs make better pets than cats? Do you accept these statements at face value, or do you stop and consider whether or not they are valid? Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

146 CT Skill Builder 2 Learning the Skill The statements listed above are called generalizations, which are broad statements about a topic. To be valid, a generalization must be based on accurate information. Lets examine the generalization, Only tall people play basketball well. We can find many examples of tall basketball players, but there are also many shorter players who excel at this sport. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Making Generalizations

147 CT Skill Builder 3 Learning the Skill (cont.) Making Generalizations In this case, we began with a generalization and looked for facts to support or disprove it. In other cases, you will start with a group of facts about a topic and then make a generalization from these facts. To make a valid generalization, first collect information relevant to the topic. This information must consist of accurate facts, not opinions.

148 CT Skill Builder 4 Making Generalizations Learning the Skill (cont.) Suppose that you want to make a generalization about the relative danger of airplane travel compared to automobile travel. First, you would collect accident statistics involving airplanes and cars. Your next step would be to classify the information into categories. Then you would look for relationships between these categories. For example, you might put the airplane and automobile statistics in separate categories. You might also categorize the number of accidents and the number of fatalities. Finally, you should make a generalization that is consistent with most of the facts you gathered.

149 CT Skill Builder 5 Practicing the Skill Reread the passage about the Austrian Anschluss on page 590 of your textbook, and then answer the following questions. Making Generalizations

150 1.What facts about the Anschluss are presented? 2.Organize these facts into categories. CT Skill Builder 6 Hitler demanded Anschluss on the basis of common language. He wanted to expand German territory and resources. He used threats and force to achieve it. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Making Generalizations Two possible categories are Hitlers actions and Austrias response. Practicing the Skill (cont.)

151 CT Skill Builder 7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. 3.How does the vote held in Austria relate to the other facts? 4.What generalization can you make about Austria regarding the Anschluss? The vote was held after Hitlers troops were already in Austria. Possible answers: Austrians could not have prevented the Anschluss; Austrians shared language and culture with Germans. Making Generalizations Practicing the Skill (cont.)

152 M/C 1-1

153 M/C 2-1

154 M/C 3-1

155 Why It Matters Transparency

156 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

157 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

158 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

159 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

160 GO 1

161 GO 2

162 GO 3

163 GO 4

164 HELP To navigate within this Presentation Plus! product: Click the Forward button to go to the next slide. Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide. Click the Section Back button to return to the beginning of the section you are in. If you are viewing a feature, this button returns you to the main presentation. Click the Home button to return to the Chapter Menu. Click the Help button to access this screen. Click the Speaker button to listen to available audio. Click the Speaker Off button to stop any playing audio. Click the Exit button or press the Escape key [Esc] to end the chapter slide show. Click the Maps and Chart button in the top right corner of many slides to link to relevant In-Motion and static maps and charts. Presentation Plus! features such as the Reference Atlas, History Online, and others are located in the left margin of most screens. Click on any of these buttons to access a specific feature.

165 End of Custom Shows WARNING! Do Not Remove This slide is intentionally blank and is set to auto-advance to end custom shows and return to the main presentation.

166 End of Slide Show


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