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Presentation on theme: "Splash Screen."— Presentation transcript:

1 Splash Screen

2 Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
Chapter Introduction Section 1 America and the World Section 2 World War II Begins Section 3 The Holocaust Section 4 America Enters the War Chapter Summary Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. Contents

3 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Intro 1

4 Chapter Objectives Section 1: America and the World
Describe how postwar conditions contributed to the rise of antidemocratic governments in Europe. Explain why many Americans supported a policy of isolationism in the 1930s. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Intro 2

5 Chapter Objectives Section 2: World War II Begins
Explain why Hitler was able to take over Austria and Czechoslovakia. Describe the early events of the war and why Britain was able to resist the Nazis. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Intro 3

6 Chapter Objectives Section 3: The Holocaust
Describe Nazi prejudices against Jews and early persecution of German Jews. Explain the methods Hitler used to try to exterminate Europe’s Jewish population. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Intro 4

7 Chapter Objectives Section 4: America Enters the War
Explain how Roosevelt helped Britain while maintaining official neutrality. Trace the events that led to increasing tensions, and ultimately war, between the United States and Japan. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Intro 5

8 Why It Matters After World War I, Europe was unstable. Fascists led by Benito Mussolini seized power in Italy, and Adolf Hitler and the Nazis took control of Germany. Meanwhile, Japan expanded its territory in Asia. As the Nazis gained power, they began a campaign of violence against Jews. When Germany attacked Poland, World War II began. The United States clung to neutrality until Japan attacked Pearl Harbor. Intro 6

9 The Impact Today European events of this time serve as lessons for American leaders. The danger of ethnic and religious prejudice is more readily recognized than it was before. Many American leaders believe that international aggression cannot be ignored. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Intro 7

10 continued on next slide
Intro 8

11 Intro 9

12 End of Intro

13 Guide to Reading Main Idea Key Terms and Names
In the years following World War I, aggressive and expansionist governments took power in both Europe and Asia. Key Terms and Names Benito Mussolini Adolf Hitler Manchuria Neutrality Act of 1935 internationalism fascism Vladimir Lenin Joseph Stalin Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-1

14 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Reading Strategy Taking Notes As you read about the events in Europe and Asia after World War I, use the major headings of the section to create an outline similar to the one on page 584 of your textbook. Reading Objectives Describe how postwar conditions contributed to the rise of antidemocratic governments in Europe. Explain why many Americans supported a policy of isolationism in the 1930s. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-2

15 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Section Theme Global Connections German and Japanese actions in the 1930s led President Roosevelt to work to prevent aggression. Section 1-3

16 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Section 1-4

17 The Rise of Dictators The treaty that ended World War I and the economic depression that followed contributed to the rise of dictatorships in Europe and Asia. Italy developed the first major dictatorship in Europe. (pages 584–586) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-5

18 The Rise of Dictators (cont.)
In 1919 Benito Mussolini founded Italy’s Fascist Party. Fascism was a kind of aggressive nationalism. Fascists believed that the nation was more important than the individual, and that a nation became great by expanding its territory and building its military. Facists were anti-Communist. Backed by the militia known as Blackshirts, Mussolini became the premier of Italy and set up a dictatorship. (pages 584–586) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-6

19 The Rise of Dictators (cont.)
In 1917 the Bolshevik Party, led by Vladimir Lenin, set up Communist governments throughout the Russian empire. The Russian territories were renamed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1922. The Communists set up a one-party rule. (pages 584–586) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-7

20 The Rise of Dictators (cont.)
By 1926 Joseph Stalin had become the new Soviet dictator. In 1927 he began a massive effort to industrialize the country. Millions of peasants who resisted the Communist policies were killed. (pages 584–586) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-8

21 The Rise of Dictators (cont.)
After World War I, the political and economic chaos in Germany led to the rise of new political parties. The Nazi Party was nationalistic and anti-Communist. Adolf Hitler, a member of the Nazi Party, called for the unification of all Germans under one government. He believed certain Germans were part of a “master race” destined to rule the world. (pages 584–586) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-9

22 The Rise of Dictators (cont.)
He wanted Eastern Europeans enslaved. He felt Jews were responsible for many of the world’s problems. In 1933 Hitler was appointed prime minister of Germany. Storm troopers intimidated voters into giving Hitler dictatorial powers. (pages 584–586) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-10

23 The Rise of Dictators (cont.)
Difficult economic times in Japan after World War I undermined the country’s political system. Many Japanese officers and civilians wanted to seize territory to gain needed resources. In 1931 the Japanese army, without the government’s permission, invaded the resource-rich Chinese province of Manchuria. The military took control of Japan. (pages 584–586) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-11

24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
The Rise of Dictators (cont.) What dictatorships were established in Europe and Asia after World War I? (pages 584–586) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-12

25 The Rise of Dictators (cont.)
Italy developed the first major dictatorship in Europe, with Benito Mussolini as its leader. In 1917 the Bolshevik Party, led by Vladimir Lenin, set up Communist governments throughout the Russian empire. The Russian territories were renamed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in The Communists set up a one-party rule. By 1926 Joseph Stalin had become the new Soviet dictator. In 1933 Adolf Hitler was appointed prime minister of Germany. Storm troopers intimidated voters into giving Hitler dictatorial powers. In 1931 the Japanese army, without the government’s permission, invaded the resource-rich Chinese province of Manchuria. The military took control of Japan. (pages 584–586) Section 1-12b

26 America Turns to Neutrality
The rise of dictatorships in Europe and Asia after World War I, the refusal of European countries to repay war debts owed to the United States, and the Nye Committee findings that arms factories made huge profits caused Americans to support isolationism. (pages 587–588) Section 1-13

27 America Turns to Neutrality (cont.)
Many Americans wanted to avoid international commitments. Congress passed the Neutrality Act of 1935 making it illegal for Americans to sell arms to any country at war. Congress passed the Neutrality Act of 1937, which continued the ban of selling arms to countries at war and required warring countries to buy nonmilitary supplies from the United States on a “cash and carry” basis. (pages 587–588) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-14

28 America Turns to Neutrality (cont.)
President Franklin D. Roosevelt supported internationalism. Internationalists believe that trade between nations creates prosperity and helps to prevent war. (pages 587–588) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-15

29 America Turns to Neutrality (cont.)
Japan aligned itself with Germany and Italy, and these three countries became known as the Axis Powers. After Japan launched a full-scale attack on China in 1937, Roosevelt authorized the sale of weapons to China, saying that the Neutrality Act of 1937 did not apply, since neither China nor Japan had actually declared war. (pages 587–588) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-16

30 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
America Turns to Neutrality (cont.) What factors led many Americans to support isolationism after World War I? The rise of dictatorships in Europe and Asia after World War I caused Americans to support isolationism. Isolationist ideas increased when most debtor nations stopped paying their war debts during the Great Depression. The Nye Committee found evidence that arms factories made huge profits, creating the impression that these businesses influenced the United States to enter World War I. (pages 587–588) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-17

31 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Checking for Understanding Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. a national policy of actively trading with foreign countries to foster peace and prosperity __ 2. a political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition B A. fascism B. internationalism A Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Section 1-18

32 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Checking for Understanding (cont.) Explain why isolationism was strong in the United States in the early 1930s. Isolationism was strong because of unpaid European war debts and the belief that arms manufacturers influenced the United States to enter World War I. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-19

33 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Themes Global Connections What events caused President Roosevelt to become more of an internationalist? The Japanese invasion of China caused Roosevelt to become more of an internationalist. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-20

34 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Interpreting Why did antidemocratic governments rise to power in postwar Europe and Asia? Antidemocratic governments rose to power because of unhappiness with the terms of the Treaty of Versailles and worldwide economic depression. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-21

35 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Analyzing Visuals Analyzing Art Study the Spanish Civil War era propaganda poster reproduced on page 587 of your textbook. Without being told the phrase, how would you be able to discover the poster’s meaning? A cruel claw-like hand is trying to grasp the country. The colors of the Italian flag are superimposed on the hand. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 1-22

36 Close Draw a political cartoon that expresses the feelings of internationalists or isolationists. Section 1-23

37 End of Section 1

38 Guide to Reading Main Idea Key Terms and Names
World War II officially began with the Nazi invasion of Poland and the French and British declaration of war on Germany in September 1939. Key Terms and Names Anschluss Maginot Line Winston Churchill Battle of Britain appeasement blitzkrieg Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-1

39 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Reading Strategy Sequencing As you read about the events leading up to the beginning of World War II, record them by completing a time line similar to the one on page 589 of your textbook. Reading Objectives Explain why Hitler was able to take over Austria and Czechoslovakia. Describe the early events of the war and why Britain was able to resist the Nazis. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-2

40 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Section Theme Continuity and Change The desire of the French and British to avoid another war helped encourage Hitler’s aggression in Europe. Section 2-3

41 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Section 2-4

42 “Peace in Our Time” In February 1938, Adolf Hitler threatened to invade Austria unless Austrian Nazis were given important government posts. In March 1938, Hitler announced the Anschluss, or unification, of Austria and Germany. (pages 589–591) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-5

43 “Peace in Our Time” (cont.)
Hitler claimed the Sudetenland, an area of Czechoslovakia with a large German-speaking population. Czechs strongly resisted Germany’s demand for the Sudetenland. France, the Soviet Union, and Britain threatened to fight Germany if it attacked Czechoslovakia. (pages 589–591) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-6

44 “Peace in Our Time” (cont.)
At the Munich Conference on September 29, 1938, Britain and France, hoping to prevent another war, agreed to Hitler’s demands in a policy known as appeasement. In March 1939, Germany sent troops into Czechoslovakia, bringing the Czech lands under German control. (pages 589–591) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-7

45 “Peace in Our Time” (cont.)
Hitler demanded the return of Danzig–Poland’s Baltic Sea port. He also wanted a highway and railroad across the Polish Corridor. These demands convinced the British and French that appeasement had failed. (pages 589–591) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-8

46 “Peace in Our Time” (cont.)
In May 1939, Hitler ordered the invasion of Poland by the German army. On August 23, 1939, Germany and the USSR signed a nonaggression treaty, with a secret agreement to divide Poland. (pages 589–591) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-9

47 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
“Peace in Our Time” (cont.) Why did Britain and France agree to Hitler’s demands for the Sudetenland? They hoped that they could give Hitler the Sudetenland in exchange for peace. Also, this bought Britain time to get ready for war. Some thought Hitler’s demand that all German-speaking regions of Europe be united with Germany was reasonable. (pages 589–591) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-10

48 The War Begins On September 1, 1939, Germany and the USSR invaded Poland. On September 3, Britain and France declared war on Germany–starting World War II. The Germans used a blitzkrieg, or lightening war, to attack Poland. The Polish army was defeated by October 5. (pages 591–593) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-11

49 The War Begins (cont.) On April 9, 1940, the German army attacked Norway and Denmark. Within a month, Germany overtook both countries. (pages 591–593) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-12

50 The War Begins (cont.) After World War I, the French built a line of concrete bunkers and fortifications called the Maginot Line along the German border. When Hitler decided to attack France, he went around the Maginot Line by invading the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg. The French and British forces quickly went into Belgium, becoming trapped there by German forces. (pages 591–593) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-13

51 The War Begins (cont.) By June 4, about 338,000 British and French troops had evacuated Belgium through the French port of Dunkirk and across the English Channel, using ships of all sizes. On June 22, 1940, France surrendered to the Germans. Germany installed a puppet government in France. (pages 591–593) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-14

52 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
The War Begins (cont.) Why did France fall to the Germans? When Hitler decided to attack France, he went around the Maginot Line by invading the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg. The French and British forces quickly went into Belgium, becoming trapped there by German forces. These forces escaped to Britain through the French port of Dunkirk and across the English Channel. (pages 591–593) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-15

53 Britain Remains Defiant
Hitler thought that Britain would negotiate peace after France surrendered. He did not anticipate the bravery of the British people and their prime minister, Winston Churchill. On June 4, 1940, Churchill delivered a defiant speech that rallied the British people and alerted the United States to Britain’s plight. (pages 593–594) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-16

54 Britain Remains Defiant (cont.)
To invade Britain, Germany had to defeat the British air force. In the Battle of Britain, the German air force, the Luftwaffe, launched an all-out air battle to destroy the British Royal Air Force. After German bombers bombed London, the British responded by bombing Berlin, Germany. (pages 593–594) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-17

55 Britain Remains Defiant (cont.)
The Royal Air Force was greatly outnumbered by the Luftwaffe, but the British had radar stations and were able to detect incoming German aircraft and direct British fighters to intercept them. (pages 593–594) Section 2-18

56 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Britain Remains Defiant (cont.) How did the British stop the German forces from invading Britain? Winston Churchill delivered a defiant speech, which rallied the British people. The British air force bombed Berlin, Germany, after the Germans bombed London. The British hid in subway tunnels when the German’s bombed London. Although the Royal Air Force was greatly outnumbered by the Luftwaffe, the British had radar stations that were able to detect incoming German aircraft and direct British fighters to intercept them. (pages 593–594) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-19

57 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Checking for Understanding Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. accepting demands in order to avoid conflict __ 2. name given to sudden violent offensive attacks the Germans used during World War II; “lightning war” A A. appeasement B. blitzkrieg B Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Section 2-20

58 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Checking for Understanding (cont.) Explain why Hitler was able to take over Austria and Czechoslovakia. Britain and France gave in to Hitler’s demands. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-21

59 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Themes Continuity and Change How did the policy of appeasement affect France and Great Britain? France was not prepared for a German attack, and Britain was left to fight alone. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-22

60 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Evaluating Why were the British able to prevent the Germans from invading their country? Britain was an island, with a strong air force, navy, and radar stations. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-23

61 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Analyzing Visuals Analyzing Photographs Study the photographs on pages 593 and 594 of your textbook. How do they reflect the British resolve to “never surrender”? The photographs show British desire to continue with their daily routines and activities in spite of devastation. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-24

62 Close Summarize with the class the content of the section by creating a time line of the major events. Section 2-25

63 End of Section 2

64 Guide to Reading Main Idea Key Terms and Names
The Nazis believed Jews to be subhuman. They steadily increased their persecution of Jews and eventually set up death camps and tried to kill all the Jews in Europe. Key Terms and Names Holocaust Wannsee Conference concentration camp extermination camp Shoah Nuremberg Laws Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-1

65 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Reading Strategy Organizing As you read about the Holocaust, complete a graphic organizer similar to the one on page 595 of your textbook by listing examples of Nazi persecution of German Jews. Reading Objectives Describe Nazi prejudices against Jews and early persecution of German Jews. Explain the methods Hitler used to try to exterminate Europe’s Jewish population. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-2

66 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Section Theme Civic Rights and Responsibilities The Nazis systematically deprived Jews of their rights, while other nations refused to accept many Jewish refugees. Section 3-3

67 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Section 3-4

68 Nazi Persecution of the Jews
The Nazis killed nearly 6 million Jews and millions of other people during the Holocaust. The Hebrew term for the Nazi campaign to exterminate the Jews before and during World War II is Shoah. The Nazis persecuted anyone who opposed them, as well as the disabled, Gypsies, homosexuals, and Slavic peoples. The Nazis’ strongest hatred was aimed at all Jews. (pages 595–598) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-5

69 Nazi Persecution of the Jews (cont.)
In September 1935, the Nuremberg Laws took citizenship away from Jewish Germans and banned marriage between Jews and other Germans. German Jews were deprived of many rights that citizens of Germany had long held. By 1936 at least half of Germany’s Jews were jobless. (pages 595–598) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-7

70 Nazi Persecution of the Jews (cont.)
Anti-Jewish violence erupted throughout Germany and Austria on November 9, 1938, known as Kristallnacht, or “night of broken glass.” Ninety Jews died, hundreds were badly injured, thousands of Jewish businesses were destroyed, and over 180 synagogues were wrecked. (pages 595–598) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-8

71 Nazi Persecution of the Jews (cont.)
Between 1933 and the beginning of World War II in 1939, about 350,000 Jews escaped Nazi-controlled Germany. Many of them emigrated to the United States. Millions of Jews remained trapped in Nazi-dominated Europe because they could not get visas to the United States or to other countries. (pages 595–598) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-9

72 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Nazi Persecution of the Jews (cont.) What factors limited Jewish immigration to the United States? Nazi orders limited Jews from taking more than four dollars out of Germany. The United States had laws restricting a visa to any one “likely to become a public charge,” which many assumed the Jews would become because they would have almost no money if they left Germany. Immigration was unpopular in the U.S. because unemployment was high during the 1930s. The U.S. immigration policy allowed only 150,000 immigrants annually. (pages 595–598) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-10

73 The Final Solution On January 20, 1942, Nazi leaders met at the Wannsee Conference to decide the “final solution” of the Jews and other “undesirables.” The plan was to round up Jews and other “undesirables” from Nazi-controlled Europe and take them to concentration camps–detention centers where healthy individuals worked as slave laborers. The elderly, the sick, and young children were sent to extermination camps to be killed in large gas chambers. (pages 599–600) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-11

74 The Final Solution (cont.)
After World War II began, Nazis built concentration camps throughout Europe. Extermination camps were built in many concentration camps, mostly in Poland. Thousands of people were killed each day at these camps. In only a few years, Jewish culture had been virtually obliterated by the Nazis in the lands they conquered. (pages 599–600) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-12

75 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
The Final Solution (cont.) What factors led to the Holocaust? The German people’s sense of injury after World War I; severe economic problems; Hitler’s grip on the German nation; the lack of strong tradition of representative government in Germany; German fear of Hitler’s secret police; and a long history of anti-Jewish prejudice and discrimination in Europe. (pages 599–600) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-14

76 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Checking for Understanding Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. a camp where prisoners were sent to be executed __ 2. name given to the mass slaughter of Jews and other groups by the Nazis during World War II __ 3. a camp where persons are detained or confined C A. Holocaust B. concentration camp C. extermination camp A B Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Section 3-15

77 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Checking for Understanding (cont.) List the groups of people who were persecuted by the Nazis. Jews, the disabled, Gypsies, homosexuals, and Slavic peoples were persecuted by the Nazis. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-16

78 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Themes Civic Rights and Responsibilities Do you think the German people or other nations could have prevented the Holocaust? Why or why not? Answers will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-17

79 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Analyzing What are some factors that attempt to explain the Holocaust? Hitler’s dictatorship, European anti-Semitism, propaganda, and fear are some factors that explain the Holocaust. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-18

80 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Analyzing Visuals Analyzing Photographs Study the photographs of the Final Solution on pages 597–599 of your textbook. How do the photographs show the systematic destruction of Jewish life? The photographs show stages of Hitler’s campaign, from civil discrimination and violence to deportation to camps. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 3-19

81 Close Summarize the gradually intensifying steps of Hitler’s campaign against the Jews. Section 3-20

82 End of Section 3

83 Guide to Reading Main Idea Key Terms and Names
After World War II began, the United States attempted to continue its prewar policy of neutrality. Key Terms and Names America First Committee Atlantic Charter strategic materials Lend-Lease Act hemispheric defense zone Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-1

84 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Reading Strategy Organizing As you read about the efforts of the United States to stay neutral in the war, complete a graphic organizer similar to the one on page 601 of your textbook by naming two events that shifted American opinion toward helping the Allies. Reading Objectives Explain how Roosevelt helped Britain while maintaining official neutrality. Trace the events that led to increasing tensions, and ultimately war, between the United States and Japan. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-2

85 Guide to Reading (cont.)
Section Theme Individual Action Even while the United States was officially neutral, President Roosevelt found ways to help the British fight Germany. Section 4-3

86 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Section 4-4

87 FDR Supports England Two days after Britain and France declared war against Germany, President Roosevelt declared the United States neutral. The Neutrality Act of 1939 allowed warring countries to buy weapons from the United States as long as they paid cash and carried the arms away on their own ships. (pages 601–602) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-5

88 FDR Supports England (cont.)
President Roosevelt used a loophole in the Neutrality Act of 1939 and sent 50 old American destroyers to Britain in exchange for the right to build American bases on British-controlled Newfoundland, Bermuda, and Caribbean islands. (pages 601–602) Section 4-6

89 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
FDR Supports England (cont.) How did President Roosevelt support Britain in the war effort? President Roosevelt used a loophole in the Neutrality Act of 1939 and sent 50 old American destroyers to Britain in exchange for the right to build American bases on British-controlled Newfoundland, Bermuda, and Caribbean islands. (pages 601–602) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 4-7

90 The Isolationist Debate
After the German invasion of France and the rescue of Allied forces at Dunkirk, American public opinion changed to favor limited aid to the Allies. The America First Committee opposed any American intervention or aid to the Allies. (pages 602–603) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-8

91 The Isolationist Debate (cont.)
President Roosevelt ran for an unprecedented third term as president in the election of 1940. Both Roosevelt and the Republican candidate, Wendell Willkie, said they would keep the United States neutral but assist the Allied forces. Roosevelt won by a large margin. (pages 602–603) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-9

92 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
The Isolationist Debate (cont.) What caused many Americans to change their opinion about United States neutrality? After the German invasion of France and the rescue of Allied forces at Dunkirk, American public opinion changed to favor limited aid to the Allies. (pages 602–603) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 4-10

93 Edging Toward War President Roosevelt proposed the Lend-Lease Act, which stated that the United States could lend or lease arms to any country considered “vital to the defense of the United States.” Congress passed the act by a wide margin. (pages 603–604) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-11

94 Edging Toward War (cont.)
In June 1941, in violation of the Nazi-Soviet Pact, Hitler began a massive invasion of the Soviet Union. (pages 603–604) Section 4-12

95 Edging Toward War (cont.)
President Roosevelt developed the hemispheric defense zone, which declared the entire western half of the Atlantic as part of the Western Hemisphere and therefore neutral. This allowed Roosevelt to order the U.S. Navy to patrol the western Atlantic Ocean and reveal the location of German submarines to the British. (pages 603–604) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-13

96 Edging Toward War (cont.)
In August 1941, President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston Churchill agreed to the Atlantic Charter. This agreement committed the two leaders to a postwar world of democracy, nonaggression, free trade, economic advancement, and freedom of the seas. (pages 603–604) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-14

97 Edging Toward War (cont.)
After a German U-boat fired on the American destroyer Greer, Roosevelt ordered American ships to follow a “shoot-on-sight” policy toward German submarines. Germans torpedoed and sank the American destroyer Reuben James in the North Atlantic. (pages 603–604) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-15

98 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Edging Toward War (cont.) How did President Roosevelt get around American neutrality in order to aid the British? (pages 603–604) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 4-16

99 Edging Toward War (cont.)
President Roosevelt proposed the Lend-Lease Act, which stated that the United States could lend or lease arms to any country considered “vital to the defense of the United States.” President Roosevelt developed the hemispheric defense zone, which declared the entire western half of the Atlantic as part of the Western Hemisphere and therefore neutral. This allowed Roosevelt to order the U.S. Navy to patrol the western Atlantic Ocean and reveal the location of German submarines to the British. (pages 603–604) Section 4-16a

100 Japan Attacks the United States
Roosevelt’s primary goal between August 1939 and December 1941 was to help Britain and its allies defeat Germany. When Britain began moving its warships from Southeast Asia to the Atlantic, Roosevelt introduced policies to discourage the Japanese from attacking the British Empire. (pages 604–606) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-17

101 Japan Attacks the United States
(cont.) In July 1940, Congress passed the Export Control Act, giving Roosevelt the power to restrict the sale of strategic materials–materials important for fighting a war–to other countries. Roosevelt immediately blocked the sale of airplane fuel and scrap iron to Japan. The Japanese signed an alliance with Germany and Italy. (pages 604–606) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-18

102 Japan Attacks the United States
(cont.) By July 1941, Japanese aircraft posed a direct threat to the British Empire. Roosevelt responded to the threat by freezing all Japanese assets in the United States and reducing the amount of oil shipped to Japan. He also sent General MacArthur to the Philippines to build up American defenses there. (pages 604–606) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-19

103 Japan Attacks the United States
(cont.) The Japanese decided to attack resource-rich British and Dutch colonies in Southeast Asia, seize the Philippines, and attack Pearl Harbor. Japan attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, sinking or damaging 21 ships of the U.S. Pacific Fleet, killing 2,403 Americans, and injuring hundreds more. The next day, President Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war on Japan. (pages 604–606) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 4-20

104 Japan Attacks the United States
(cont.) On December 11, 1941, Japan’s allies–Germany and Italy–declared war on the United States. (pages 604–606) Section 4-21

105 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Japan Attacks the United States (cont.) What series of events led to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor? (pages 604–606) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 4-22

106 Japan Attacks the United States
(cont.) The United States Congress passed the Export Control Act that restricted the sale of strategic materials to other nations. Roosevelt immediately blocked the sale of airplane fuel and scrap iron to Japan. This angered Japan, which then signed an alliance with Germany and Italy. The Japanese invasion of southern Indochina caused Roosevelt to freeze all Japanese assets in the United States and reduce the amount of oil shipped to Japan. He also sent General MacArthur to the Philippines to build up American defenses there. The Japanese military, lacking oil and other resources, decided to attack the resource-rich British and Dutch colonies in Southeast Asia, seize the Philippines, and attack Pearl Harbor. (pages 604–606) Section 4-22a

107 Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. materials needed for fighting a war __ 2. national policy during World War II that declared the Western Hemisphere to be neutral and that the United States would patrol this region against German submarines B A. hemispheric defense zone B. strategic materials A Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Section 4-23

108 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Themes Individual Action After Roosevelt made the destroyer-for-bases deal with Britain, some Americans called him a dictator. Do you think Roosevelt was right or wrong in his actions? Explain your answer. Answers will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 4-24

109 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Interpreting Why was the United States unprepared for Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor? The United States was still negotiating with Japan and had failed to collect sufficient information. The U.S. military had not shared information among the various branches. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 4-25

110 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Analyzing Visuals Analyzing Maps Study the map on pages 604–605 of your textbook. Based on the geography of Oahu, why was the location of Pearl Harbor perfect for a naval base? It was sheltered and provided easy access to the ocean. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 4-26

111 Close Create a relative chronology explaining the events that eventually led to war between the United States and Japan. Section 4-27

112 End of Section 4

113 Chapter Summary 1

114 End of Chapter Summary

115 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Reviewing Key Terms Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 1. a camp where persons are detained or confined __ 2. a national policy of actively trading with foreign countries to foster peace and prosperity __ 3. national policy during World War II that declared the Western Hemisphere to be neutral and that the United States would patrol this region against German submarines F A. fascism B. internationalism C. appeasement D. blitzkrieg E. Holocaust F. concentration camp G. extermination camp H. hemispheric defense zone I. strategic materials B H Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Chapter Assessment 1

116 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Reviewing Key Terms (cont.) Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 4. a political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition __ 5. materials needed for fighting a war __ 6. name given to the mass slaughter of Jews and other groups by the Nazis during World War II __ 7. a camp where prisoners were sent to be executed A A. fascism B. internationalism C. appeasement D. blitzkrieg E. Holocaust F. concentration camp G. extermination camp H. hemispheric defense zone I. strategic materials I E G Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Chapter Assessment 2

117 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.
Reviewing Key Terms (cont.) Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. __ 8. accepting demands in order to avoid conflict __ 9. name given to sudden violent offensive attacks the Germans used during World War II; “lightning war” C A. fascism B. internationalism C. appeasement D. blitzkrieg E. Holocaust F. concentration camp G. extermination camp H. hemispheric defense zone I. strategic materials D Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Chapter Assessment 3

118 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts Where did antidemocratic governments arise in Europe and Asia after World War I? Antidemocratic governments arose in Germany, Italy, and Japan. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 4

119 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) Why was Austria easier for Hitler to annex than Czechoslovakia? The Austrians spoke German and had an authoritarian government. The Czechoslovakians spoke several languages and had a democratic government and allies. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 5

120 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) What were four ways that Nazis persecuted Jews? Nazis took away their civil liberties, seized their property, imprisoned them, and killed them. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 6

121 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) In what three ways did Roosevelt help Britain while maintaining an American policy of neutrality? Roosevelt made a destroyers-for-bases deal, got Congress to pass the Lend-Lease Act, and developed the hemispheric defense zone strategy. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 7

122 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking Analyzing Themes: Global Connections If Roosevelt’s internationalist policy had been fully pursued, do you think it could have prevented World War II? Possible answers: Yes, because the attack on Pearl Harbor was the result of the United States’s efforts to help Britain in the war against Germany. No, because Hitler seemed bent on world domination so that U.S. interests would eventually have needed protection. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 8

123 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking (cont.) Evaluating  Why were the British able to stop the German invasion of their country? The British used radar and had a skilled air force. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 9

124 Geography and History The map below shows Nazi concentration and extermination camps. Study the map and answer the questions on the following slides. Chapter Assessment 10

125 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Geography and History (cont.) Interpreting Maps  In which two countries were most of the concentration and extermination camps located? Most of the concentration and extermination camps were located in Germany and Poland. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 11

126 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Geography and History (cont.) Applying Geography Skills  What can you conclude about the extent of the Nazis’ “final solution”? The Nazis applied the “Final Solution” in Germany and in all the countries they conquered. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 12

127 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Directions: Choose the phrase that best completes the following statement. When Roosevelt signed the Lend-Lease Act in 1941, he said that the United States must become the “arsenal of democracy” in order to A end the Depression. B help the Axis powers. C remain neutral. D help Great Britain. Test-Taking Tip An arsenal is a stockpile or storehouse of weapons. Eliminate any answer that does not relate to using weapons to protect democracy. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 13

128 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
What is the name of the German-born Nobel Prize-winning physicist whose scientific theories revolutionized modern physics? The name of the physicist is Albert Einstein. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Chapter Assessment 14

129 End of Chapter Assessment

130 World History In addition to the Jews, millions of others were exterminated by the Nazis. To learn more about how the Poles were treated by the Nazis, read Forgotten Holocaust: The Poles Under German Occupation, , by R. C. Lukas (Lexington, Kentucky, 1986). CC 3-1

131 Geography To gain direct access to natural resources, Japanese military leaders aimed to build an empire in the Pacific. The U.S. Pacific Fleet was headquartered at Oahu island in Hawaii–approximately 70 warships, including 8 battleships and 24 auxiliary vessels, were stationed at Pearl Harbor on the island. Thus, Japanese military leaders saw the fleet as an obstacle that had to be destroyed if they were to achieve their goals. CC 4-1

132 The Battle of Dunkirk Hitler’s invasion of Poland fueled the fears of Americans who preferred not to become involved in Europe’s conflict. In contrast, the evacuation from Dunkirk less than a year later generated very different reactions. For example, soon after the evacuation, the New York Times wrote: “So long as the English tongue survives, the word Dunkirk will be spoken with reverence. For in that harbor, in such a hell as never blazed on earth before, at the end of a lost battle, the rages and blemishes that have hidden the soul of democracy fell away. There, beaten but unconquered, in shining splendor, she faced the enemy.” Indeed, the Battle of Dunkirk would soon help to lift the United States out of its isolationism. Despite the success of the evacuation of Dunkirk, Churchill warned Parliament, “Wars are not won by evacuations.” F/F/F 1-Fact

133 The Joy Luck Club The Rape of Nanking FYI 1-1

134 A section of Amy Tan’s popular novel The Joy Luck Club was set during the troubles between China and Japan during the 1930s. FYI 1-2

135 During their invasion of China, the Japanese used extreme violence in the capital of Nanking. This incident, which became known as the “Rape of Nanking,” helped prompt President Roosevelt to sell weapons to China. FYI 1-3

136 Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
Gdansk Polish Military The Bombing of Great Britain Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide. FYI Contents 2

137 The Baltic city of Gdansk (Danzig in German) has alternated through its history between being a politically free city, or part of Poland or German-speaking Prussia. It was a part of Prussia until the Treaty of Versailles, when it became a free city again. Identification with Germany has been strong, however. In the 1930s, Nazi officials were voted into the majority of the city assembly. Gunter Grass writes of this era in his book The Tin Drum. FYI 2-1a

138 At the time of the invasion, the Polish military consisted of outdated infantry and horse cavalry. They were ineffectual against the 1,500 planes, including Stuka dive bombers, and the panzers, or German tanks. Also, they were not prepared for their invaders, whom Hitler had instructed to “close their hearts to pity.” FYI 2-2b

139 During the bombing of Great Britain from August 1940 to May 1941, large areas of London and the entire city of Coventry were reduced to rubble. FYI 2-2c

140 Isolationist sentiment in the United States arose in part from the fact that the nation was an ocean away from the conflict in Europe and Asia. FYI 4-1

141 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Moment in History 1

142 Political Symbols The word fascist comes from the Latin word fasces, or the rods and axes that Roman officials carried in ancient times to represent their authority. You Don’t Say 1-1

143 Complete Destruction Holocaust means a sacrifice consumed by fire, especially a complete or thorough sacrifice or destruction. You Don’t Say 3-1

144 Making Generalizations
Have you heard statements such as “Only tall people play basketball well,” or “Dogs make better pets than cats”? Do you accept these statements at face value, or do you stop and consider whether or not they are valid? Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again. CT Skill Builder 1

145 Making Generalizations
Learning the Skill The statements listed above are called generalizations, which are broad statements about a topic. To be valid, a generalization must be based on accurate information. Let’s examine the generalization, “Only tall people play basketball well.” We can find many examples of tall basketball players, but there are also many shorter players who excel at this sport. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. CT Skill Builder 2

146 Making Generalizations
Learning the Skill (cont.) In this case, we began with a generalization and looked for facts to support or disprove it. In other cases, you will start with a group of facts about a topic and then make a generalization from these facts. To make a valid generalization, first collect information relevant to the topic. This information must consist of accurate facts, not opinions. CT Skill Builder 3

147 Making Generalizations
Learning the Skill (cont.) Suppose that you want to make a generalization about the relative danger of airplane travel compared to automobile travel. First, you would collect accident statistics involving airplanes and cars. Your next step would be to classify the information into categories. Then you would look for relationships between these categories. For example, you might put the airplane and automobile statistics in separate categories. You might also categorize the number of accidents and the number of fatalities. Finally, you should make a generalization that is consistent with most of the facts you gathered. CT Skill Builder 4

148 Making Generalizations
Practicing the Skill Reread the passage about the Austrian Anschluss on page 590 of your textbook, and then answer the following questions. CT Skill Builder 5

149 Making Generalizations
Practicing the Skill (cont.) 1. What facts about the Anschluss are presented? 2. Organize these facts into categories. Hitler demanded Anschluss on the basis of common language. He wanted to expand German territory and resources. He used threats and force to achieve it. Two possible categories are Hitler’s actions and Austria’s response. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. CT Skill Builder 6

150 Making Generalizations
Practicing the Skill (cont.) 3. How does the vote held in Austria relate to the other facts? 4. What generalization can you make about Austria regarding the Anschluss? The vote was held after Hitler’s troops were already in Austria. Possible answers: Austrians could not have prevented the Anschluss; Austrians shared language and culture with Germans. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. CT Skill Builder 7

151 M/C 1-1

152 M/C 2-1

153 M/C 3-1

154 Why It Matters Transparency

155 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 1
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 1

156 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2

157 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 3
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 3

158 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 4
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 4

159 GO 1

160 GO 2

161 GO 3

162 GO 4

163 To navigate within this Presentation Plus! product:
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