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Chronology: after the Prophet (pbuh) A.S. Hashim, MD

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Presentation on theme: "Chronology: after the Prophet (pbuh) A.S. Hashim, MD"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chronology: after the Prophet (pbuh) A.S. Hashim, MD
Imam Ali (a.s.), Part II Chronology: after the Prophet (pbuh) A.S. Hashim, MD

2 After The Prophet: The Aftermath
Without a job, Ali finds a job at an orchard belonging to a Jewish person Fatima is sick Ali Tutors his children, along with Ibn Abbas Ali buys one slave each week then set him free Ali Writes the Quran according to the order the Ayahs were revealed

3 After the Prophet: The aftermath
Ali Under pressure to give allegiance to Abu Bakr Fatima campaigns for Ali Fatima gives a stirring speech at the Masjid of the Prophet Fatima’s health deteriorates fast Tough times: Financially Politically At home

4 Ali during Khilaafah of Abu Bakr
Ali Finishes writing the chronology of the Quran Fatima dies: Ali left with four children Fatima buried at night according to her Will Only few are notified and attend burial Ali gives Allegiance to Abu Bakr

5 War of the renouncers! حروب الرده
For sake of Islam’s wellbeing, Ali gives support to Abu Bakr Ali begins writing Tafseer of the Quran called Mus’haf Fatima in Fatima’s honor Continues tutoring his children Continues to tutor Ibn Abbas after work Continues to buy then free a slave every week

6 Ali during Abu Bakr’s reign
Al-Hasan and Al-Husain learn to write Ibn Abbas heads toward being scholarly Ali the Marji' (the Reference) Ali frees an average of one slave per week (about 100 during Abu Bakr’s Khilaafah) Condition of the Ummah seems to stabilize

7 Omar appointed as Khalifa
Abu Bakr appoints Omar to Khilaafah Ali gives support to Omar Ali active in Omar's Council Ali teaches and educates Ali now married again Ali's family expands, he teaches at home

8 Ali’s during Omar’s reign
Ali finishes off writing Tafseer of the Quran Ali writes the wealth of Hadith Ali starts writing the Ah'kaam Al-Hasan helps his father in the writing Omar marries Ali’s daughter: Umm Kalthoom Ali continues to buy then free one slave per week (520) during Omar's Reign

9 Corpus of Knowledge consists of the following:
Ali’s writings Ali’s writings during Abu Bakr and Omar’s Khilaafah: Corpus of Knowledge consists of the following: Quran in chorological order Tafseer (Mus’haf Fatima) Hadith (Saheefa of Ali) Ah’kaam

10 Ali during Uthman’s Reign
Ali advises Uthman at first Ali detects a mellow ruler in Uthman Al-Hasan and Al-Husain are married Al-Hasan and Al-Husain in North Africa's campaign against the Byzantine. They reach Carthage in Libya to-days. Carthage battle decisive, Muslims victorious

11 Ali and Umm Al-Baneen Ali Marries Umm Al-Baneen
Ali has 5 boys through Umm Al-Baneen: Al-Abbas, 13 Years younger than Al-Husain One (nicknamed) Abu Bakr One (nicknamed) Omar One (nicknamed) Uthman Ali

12 Uthman in mid-term I Uthman listens to his relative Marwan,
Ali’s advice is ignored frequently Uthman appoints corrupt relatives as State Governors Uthman mistreats Ibn Masood and Abu Dhar

13 Uthman in mid-term II People object to Uthman’s rule and revolt
Ali tries to help Uthman Uthman surrounded by the rebels, is defended by Al-Hasan and Al-Husain among others Al-Hasan gets wounded defending Uthman Uthman is killed by the rebellious men Ali is upset to the extreme

14 Ali during Uthman’s reign I
Ali finishes writing Al-Ah'kaam Ali writes the Jafr: White Jafr Red Jafr Ali compares the Quranic text he wrote with the one written during Khilaafah of Uthman. Surahs were the exact replica

15 Ali’s writings Ali’s writings during: Abu Bakr, Omar, and
Uthman’s Khilaafah: Corpus of Knowledge consists of the following: Quran in chorological order Tafseer (Mus’haf Fatima) Hadith (Saheefa of Ali) Ah’kaam Al-Jafr White Jafr: Prophets and early times Red Jafr: Rules of war in Islam

16 Ali during Uthman’s reign II
Worrisome conditions of the Ummah Ali trying to diffuse discord Continues to be the Marji’ Tutors the new children born to him Ali continues to buy then free one slave per week. He freed 600 during Khilaafah of Uthman.

17 Imam Ali (a.s.) the Khalifa
Ali's administration: Exceptionally fair Wants to distribute the wealth fairly but many wealthy people object A'isha, Talha, and Zubair agitate A'isha, Talha, and Zubair revolt, claiming to avenge Uthman’s blood Benu Umayya join the rebels full force Mu’awiya rebels in a sneaky way

18 Confrontation at Basra
Ali’s Forces 12,000 Includes numerous Sahaaba (said 300) Al-Hasan and Al-Husain Muhammad son of Abu Bakr Ali’s forces Prevail The other side: Includes Talha, Zubair, and A’isha Local people of Basrah Most of Benu Umayya clan The fired governor of Yemen who stole the treasury of Yemen

19 Jamal Battle Protracted negotiations Persuades Zubair not to fight
Zubair quits The battle: Goes fast and about to end A’isha: On top of a camel urges to go on fighting People rally around the camel Incapacitating the camel ends the fight

20 Jamal Sequence

21 Jamal Battle II Ali lets A’isha be at home in Basrah to rest
40 Guards in company of A’isha on her way to Medina Brother of A’isha in charge of the escorting guards (Muhammad son of Abu Bakr) Al-Hasan and Al-Husain escort A’isha to the boundary of Basrah The 40 guards turn out to be women dressed as men

22 Jamal Battle III Benu Umayya, forming large part of the forces
Set free after the Battle Talha: was Killed by Marwan ibn Hakam Zubair: Did not participate The casualties: Fairly high The aftermath: Benu Umayya now join Mu’awiya to fight Ali in Siffin

23 Kufa the Capital Kufa the New Capital because:
Kufa is central in the Islamic Ummah Center of the bread basket of the area (Iraq) Closer to areas of revolts Possibility of better support to Ali Proved less disciplined and less reliable

24 Mu’awiya and Siffin Mu’awiya claiming revenge for Uthman’s blood
Mu’awiya’s forces move north to Siffin Mu’awiya cuts off water supply to Ali Ali’s forces reach Siffin, overpower guards preventing water Ali’s side generously allows water to Mu’awiya forces

25 Siffin Ali, trying to prevent bloodshed, sends negotiating delegates to Mu’awiya Negotiations continue for one month Negotiations fail Battle of Siffin starts

26 Siffin II Siffin Battle: Ammar Unique Role. Duration: 9 Days
Severity: Severe in many days Casualties: Thousands dead and wounded Ammar Unique Role.

27 Siffin Sequence

28 Importance of Ammar يا عمار سوف تقتلك الفئة الباغيه
Ammar was in Ali’s camp The Prophet (pbuh) told Ammar 30 Yrs earlier: يا عمار سوف تقتلك الفئة الباغيه ”O’ Ammar, you will be killed by the malicious group.” Ammar along with 400 companions fought Mu’awiya bravely until Ammar was killed. A lot of Commotion was the result in Mu’awiya’s camp.

29 Near the end of battle As Ali’s forces reach near Mu’awiya’s Headquarters in victory: Mu’awiya knows how religious Ali’s side is Mu’awiya gives commands to lift 500 Qurans on tips of Spears (thus desecrating them) Mu’awiya asks for arbitration Commotion is the result in Ali’s Camp Ali is forced for Arbitration by his troops

30 Tricking Ali’s forces Ibn Ash’ath and other undercover agents in Ali’s camp cajoled and bribed by Mu’awiya, they work for him Ibn Ash’ath and Khariji insist on their demands to arbitrate Ali is forced toward Arbitration Ali chooses the brilliant Ibn Abbas to represent him

31 Arbitration Ali wanted Ibn Abbas, but Khariji insisted instead on Al-Ashari to represent Ali Al-Ashari was not so bright Ali had to consent Mu’awiya chose Ibn Aas to represent him Ibn Aas is very cunning Both sides met a year later in a far away place to negotiate

32 Arbitration II The cunning Ibn Aas tricks Al-Ashari
Ibn Aas let Al-Ashari proclaim both Mu’awiya and Ali are to leave office then let people choose a Khalifa Ibn Aas followed by saying: Ali should leave office but Mu’awiya is to stay in Power Commotion was the result because of the lies and deception of Ibn Aas They return disappointed and disillusioned

33 Khariji Khariji revolt against Ali
Ali argues with Khariji, many decide not to fight against Ali 3000 Khariji insist of fighting Ali in Nahrawan, in Iraq Ali Defeats Khariji in Nahrawan Looks for the crippled man the Prophet foretold: They find him after 3 day search

34 Nahjul Balaaghah Nahjul Balaaghah is a collection of 54 Sermons, 212 sayings, and 48 letters by Ali Collected by Al-Shareef al-Radhee Full of Gems of Wisdom, it deals with numerous subjects: Theology History Human Relationship Taught all over in universities over the past centuries

35 Prediction of the Prophet About Ali’s end
30 years earlier, the Prophet said to Ali: The most evil of evildoers is the one who will wet this (beard) with the blood From this (forehead) إنَّ أشقى الأشـقـيين مَن يُخضِّبُ هذه بهذه   وأشار إلى لحيته ثم رأسه

36 Ibn Muljim, the Khariji Ibn Muljim, one of the deviators (Khariji),
Along with 2 others planned to kill Ali Mu’awiya Ibn Aas These Khariji were involved in Nahrawan They planned to avenge Mu’awiya and Ibn Aas escaped being killed

37 Ali assassinated Ibn Muljim with a poisoned sword, was in hiding to kill Ali Ali in Kufa Masjid had come to lead morning prayer, it was dark with poor visibility It was the 19th of Ramadhan, Yr 40 Hijri While Ali was in Sujood absorbed in prayer Ibn Muljim jumped and hit Ali at the head

38 I have won by the Lord of the Ka’ba
Ali’s assassination I Upon being so wounded Ali said: فزت ورب الكعبه I have won by the Lord of the Ka’ba A lot of commotion ensued Taken home Ali gave final advice to his son Al-Hasan, and other children Two days later he died on Leilatul Qadr 21st of Ramadhan

39 Ali’s assassination II
Ali’s last words were: فَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ خَيْرًا يَرَهُ وَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ شَرًّا يَرَهُ He with the slightest act of goodness will so be rewarded And he with the slightest act of evil deeds will so be rewarded

40 Site of Ali’s Assassination

41 Ali is buried Ali was taken to Najaf for burial, many miles from Kufa
Burial place remained secret, known to family and few others Years later Imam Al-Saadiq declared the whereabouts of the burial site A tomb was established then a town arose around it It became the center of visitation and learning

42 Ali’s Shrine

43 Ali’s tomb nowadays

44 Ali the person Imam Ali's self was molded completely by the Islamic ideals Ali's personality was overpowering, he was an overachiever Ali's brilliance and farsightedness were striking Ali set to teach, inform, and help others learn about Islam Ali was an idealist, and nothing could influence him to deviate from these ideals

45 Ali the person II Ali's ideals had to be in a head-on clash with the opportunist, demagogues, and power-hungry, Ali stood in the face of deceit, duplicity, trickery, hypocrisy, greed, and treachery, of corrupt Benu Umayya Ali was a compulsive perfectionist when it came to Islam Ali stood for justice and freedom of choice, and the Holy Book and Sunnah

46 Ali assassinated III Ali lived to be 63 year old, just as the Prophet (pbuh) He designated Al-Hasan as the 2nd Imam He gave advice to Al-Hasan as written in Nahjul Balaaghah After Al-Hasan’s agreement with Mu’awiya, the family returned to Medina to resume teaching Islam

47 Ali’s Shrine in Najaf Imam Ali’s Shrine: Multitudes of visitors every year. Inside it reflects reverence that uniquely affects the heart.

48 Khilaafah A birds-eye view
Khilaafah means the phenomenon of succession to Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) This phenomenon is viewed in certain ways as explained in the next two slides:

49 Khilaafah: A birds-eye view #1
VIEW POINT I  The phenomenon, the circumstance, the mode of choice and selection of the Khalifas are to be taken as they are This view is taken by the Sunni

50 Khilaafah: A birds-eye view #2
VIEW POINT II The phenomenon would have been remarkably different had the wishes of Prophet Muhammad been observed. This view is taken by the Shi’a 

51 Thank you and May God Bless you.
BE IN ALLAH’S CARE Thank you and May God Bless you. Dr. A.S. Hashim

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