Presentation on theme: "The Achievement Gap and School Counselors: Preparing School Counselors to Play a Role in Culturally Responsive Education Blaire Cholewa, Ph.D – Kean University."— Presentation transcript:
The Achievement Gap and School Counselors: Preparing School Counselors to Play a Role in Culturally Responsive Education Blaire Cholewa, Ph.D – Kean University Ellen Amatea, Ph.D & Cirecie West-Olatunji, Ph.D- University of Florida
Persistent differences in academic achievement between low income, culturally diverse students and their White peers (Planty et al., 2008; U.S. Department of Education, 2007) Discrepancies in drop out rates between culturally diverse students and their White peers (Planty et al., 2008; U.S. Department of Education, 2007) Disproportionate referrals for special education (Blair & Scott, 2002; Skiba et al., 2008) Disproportionate number of discipline referrals, suspensions and expulsions (Gordon et al., 2000; Skiba et al., 2002) Chronic Underachievement
U.S. education is based on the norms and values of White, middle and upper class (Boykin, 2001; Foster et al., 2003) Cultural discontinuity theory examines the disconnection between the education system and the students home (Irvine, 1990; Gay, 2000; Ladson-Billings, 1994; Moll & Gonzalez, 2004) Failure of some educators to recognize culturally diverse students ways of knowing, speaking, and interacting (Moll & Gonzalez, 2004; Nieto, 2004) Cultural dys-synchronization has been linked with psychological distress in culturally diverse students ( Brody et al., 2006; Fisher et al., 2001; Murdock, 1999; Wong et al.,2003) Cultural Dys-synchronization
Culturally Responsive Educational Practices Culturally responsive educational practices bridge the existing disconnection between the school and home These practices combine: – culturally based pedagogical and instructional methods (Gay, 2000; Ladson-Billings, 1994; King, 2005; Nieto, 2004a) – culturally responsive classroom management and teacher-student interactions (Brown, 2003, 2004; Bondy, et al., 2007; Weinstein et al., 2003, 2004)
The Impact of Culturally Responsive Educational Practices The research suggests the low-income, culturally diverse students of teachers who implement these practices are related to: – significant academic gains (Foster, Lewis, & Onafowora, 2003, 2005; Foster, 1997; Gay, 2000; Ladson-Billings, 1994; Pransky & Bailey, 2002; Vogt, Jordan, & Tharp, 1993) – Positive increases in aspects of psychological well-being (Cummins, 1996; Diaz-Greenberg, 2001; Howard, 2001; Ladson-Billings, 1994)
6 Cultural Dyschronization Education Psychological Distress Academic Outcomes Relationship among Cultural Dys-synchronization, Psychological Distress and Academic Outcomes
21 st Century School Counselor ASCA calls for school counselors to serve as: – Leaders, – Advocates – Consultants (ASCA, 2003) School counselors work toward equity and social justice (Bemak & Chung, 2005) Consultant role is increasingly important with low- income, culturally diverse students. (Amatea & West-Olatunji, 2007; Bemak, 2000; Brown & Trusty, 2005). School counselors receive extensive relational and multicultural training and yet are often absent from conversations regarding teacher instruction. (Cholewa & West- Olatunji, 2008; Sue, Arredondo & McDavis, 1992 ).
Three Recommendations for Counselor Educators Creating School Counselor Trainee Buy-in and Commitment Preparing Trainees to Deal with Potential Teacher Resistance Curricular Activities
Creating School Counselor Trainee Buy-in and Commitment Stress the significance of school counselors indirect service roles: leader, advocate, consultant Increase trainees awareness of cultural dys- synchronization Provide basic knowledge of culturally responsive educational practices Provide knowledge and skills around leadership and consultation Foster trainees agency
Preparing the Trainee to Deal with Teacher Resistance Emphasize the collaborative nature of consultation and the importance of partnering with teachers – Facilitate trainees empathy towards teachers- putting themselves in the teachers shoes Provide examples of collaborative interventions with teachers including: – Story Circle – School wide readings with reading groups – Online discussions – Examples of Outcomes: Paige Allison
Curricular Activities Conscious Raising Activities for Trainees – Story Circle (Clay, Olatunji & Cooley, 2001) – Circles of Diversity – Horatio Algiers By the Bootsraps (DeRosa, 1994) Create opportunities counselor trainees to practice the implement culturally responsive strategies in their own large group counseling. This will: – Solidify the concepts of culturally responsive educational practices – Facilitate trainees ability to consult with teachers on this topic having actually done so themselves.
Curricular Activities Partner with teacher education and educational leadership departments and create interdisciplinary assignments Create and implement in-class role plays around consultation skills Require counselor-teacher consultation experiences in practica/internships
Future Research Further inquiry into the psychological impact of culturally responsive teachers on their students Evaluate existing leadership training initiatives that have been incorporated into school counselor education programs Intervention studies to examine ways to facilitate collaborative partnerships between school counselors and teachers
Selected References Amatea, E., & West-Olatunji, C. (2007). Joining the conversation about educating our poorest children: New leadership roles for school counselors in high poverty schools. Professional School Counseling, 11, Cholewa, B. & West-Olatunji, C. (2008). Exploring the relationship among cultural discontinuity, psychological distress, and academic outcomes with low-income, culturally diverse students. Professional School Counseling, 12, Clay, L., Olatunji, C., & Cooley, S. (2001). Keeping the story alive: Narrative in the African-American church and community. Educational Resource Information Clearinghouse, ERIC No: ED462666, pp DeRosa, P. (1994). Diversity training: In search of anti-racism. Peacework, 240, 1-4. Foster, M., Lewis, J., & Onafowora, L. (2003). Anthropology, culture, and research on teaching and learning: Applying what we have learned to improve practice. Teachers College Record, 105, Fisher C. B., Wallace S. A., & Fenton R. E. (2000). Discrimination distress during adolescence. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 29, 679– 695.
Irvine, J.J. (1990). Black students and school failure: Policies, practices, and prescriptions. New York: Praeger. Ladson-Billings, G. (1994). The dreamkeepers: Successful teachers of African American children. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Nieto, S. (2004). Affirming diversity: The sociopolitical context of multicultural education, (4th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn Bacon U. S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2007). The Condition of Education 2007 (NCES ). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Wong, C. A., Eccles, J. S., & Sameroff, A. (2003). The influence of ethnic discrimination and ethnic identification on African American adolescents school and socioemotional adjustment. Journal of Personality, 71, 1197–1232. Selected References
16 Cirecie A. West-Olatunji, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Counselor Education University of Florida 1204 Norman Hall PO Box Gainesville, FL Blaire Cholewa, Ph. D Assistant Professor Department of Counselor Education Kean University 306 Hennings Hall 1000 Morris Ave Union, NJ (908) Contact Information Ellen Amatea, Ph.D Professor Department of Counselor Education University of Florida 1202 Norman Hall PO Box Gainesville, FL