Presentation on theme: "Political audience reaction ratings"— Presentation transcript:
1 Political audience reaction ratings Consumer Behavior– you are what you buy…How do we make decisions about what we buy?What are stages of the decision process?What can reduce “buyers remorse”?How would you prepare a “pitch” for different audiences?Song Airlines CommercialProduct PlacementPolitical audience reaction ratings
2 Marketing News: Downsizing products (while keeping the price the same) Economy: Commodity costs are risingMarket Research: People are more conscious of changes in pricing than changes in quantityRepackaging: Packaging “sleeves” to maintain freshnessRephrasing: Old packaging was a “limited time offer”Reframing: “Future Friendly Products…uses 15% less energy, water or packaging…”Downsizing packages get sneakierMouseprint.org
3 How much?! Chicken of the Sea tuna in 5oz instead of 6 oz cans Doritos, Tostitos & Fritos hold 20% fewer chips (more air)Kraft Premium Saltines & Honey Maid Grahams has 15% fewer crackers (sleeves)Tropicana orange juice from 64-oz carton to 59 oz.Skippy peanut butter indented the container bottom for a reduction of 1.7 ozSpecial K is down 2.4 ozDial soap from .5 oz to 4.5 ozQuilted Northern toiler paper lost .5” from widthIce cream down from 1.75 to 1.5Whole Wheat Pasta from 16 ox to 13.5Box of Baby Wipes from 80 to 72Mrs. Stauber 16 oz can of corn down to 14.5 oz
4 Consumer Decision-Making Process PostpurchaseBehaviorPurchaseEvaluationof AlternativesInformation SearchNeed RecognitionCultural, Social, Individual andPsychological Factors affect all steps
5 Complete model of consumer behavior Alternative evaluation StartNeed recognitionStimuli (marketer dominated, other)External searchMemoryInternalsearchExposureAttentionComprehensionAcceptanceRetentionOutcomesDissatisfactionSatisfactionIndividualdifferencesresourcesmotivation &involvementknowledgeattitudespersonality,values, lifestyleInfluencesculturesocial classfamilysituationSearchAlternative evaluationPurchase
6 How do you know when to shop How do you know when to shop? What are the triggers that initiate an awareness & search?What are the internal & external sources of these triggers?
8 Need Recognition (& reminding) When a current product isn’tperforming properlyWhen the consumer is running out of an productWhen another product seemssuperior to the one currently usedMarketing helps consumers recognize (or create) an imbalance between present status and preferred statePreferred State
9 The information search stage An internal search involves the scanning of one's memory to recall previous experiences or knowledge concerning solutions to the problem-- often sufficient for frequently purchased products.Personal sources (friends and family)Public sources (rating services like Consumer Reports)An external search may be necessary when past experience or knowledge is insufficient, the risk of making a wrong purchase decision is high, and/or the cost of gathering information is low.Marketer-dominated sources (advertising or sales people)The evoked set: a group of brands from which the buyer can choose
11 Think about your past purchase– who was in which role? Buyer Behavior: The Decision Making UnitOther people often influence a consumers purchase decision. The marketer needs to know which people are involved in the buying decision and what role each person plays, so that marketing strategies can also be aimed at these people. (Kotler et al, 1994).Initiator: the person who first suggests or thinks of the idea of buying a particular product or service.Influencer: a person whose views or advice carry weight in making the final buying decisionDecider: the person who ultimately makes the final buying decision or any part of itBuyer: the person who makes the actual purchaseUser: the person who consumes the product or serviceNote: teens are increasingly assuming more of these rolesThink about your past purchase– who was in which role?
12 Relative influence of husbands & wives WifeDominantRelative influence of husbands & wivesChild clothingWomen’s clothingFinal decisionInformationsearchgroceriesPots & pansNonRxlampsToys/gamesfurnitureluggagecarpetPaint wallpaperrefrigeratorvacationsMen’s leisure clothingJointMen’s business clothingstereoTV setscameraFinancial planningFamily carSport equipmenthardwareLawn mowerHusbandDominantExtent of role specialization100755025Davis & Rigaux, 1974
16 Factors affecting Consumer involvement Previous experience: low level involvementInterest: high involvementPerceived risk of negative consequences: high involvementSituation: low to high due to riskSocial visibility: involvement increases with product visibilitySo…Offer extensive information on high involvement productsIn-store promotion & placement is important for low involvement productsLinking low-involvement product to high-involvement issue can increase sales
17 think of an important purchasing decision you have made what are some of the thoughts you have had following your purchase? Any regrets?what has influenced those thoughts?how have you dealt with the discomfort?how has the company anticipated or dealt with your discomfort?
18 Sour Grapes– a story of cognitive dissonance …after being unable to reach the grapes the fox said, “these grapes are probably sour, and if I had them I would not eat them.”--Aesop
19 Did I make a good decision? Did I buy the right product? Postpurchase BehaviorCognitive Dissonance?Did I make a good decision?Did I buy the right product?Did I get a good value?MarketingCan minimize through:Effective CommunicationFollow-upGuarantees WarrantiesUnderpromise & overdeliver
21 ELM: Persuasion & Attitude Change John Cacioppo & Richard Petty Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) was formulated in 1979 by R.E. Petty & J.T. Cacioppo, & describes how attitudes are formed and changed after a exposure to an important and meaningful message.
23 Retain or Regain Initial Attitude Elaboration Likelihood Method (ELM) of persuasionPersuasive CommunicationNature of Active Cognitive Processing: (initial attitude, argument quality, etc.)FavorableThoughtsPredominateUnfavorableNeither orNeutralCognitive Structure Change: Are new cognitions adopted and stored in memory? Are different responses made salient than previously?personal relevancepersonal importancepersonal responsibilityMotivated to Process?dissonance arousalneed for cognitionrepetitioncognitive complexitycritical thinkingdistraction freelow arousalAbility to Process?appropriate schemamessage paceissue familiarityEnduring positive or negative attitude change (persuasion)greater persistenceresistant to counterattacks & fadingpredictive of behavior> brand memory> elaboration>usage intention> attitude accessibility> attitude confidence> attitude-behavior consistencyPeripheral Cues Present?reciprocity (obligated, did a favor)consistency (way it’s done, similar to before)social proof (peer pressure, conformity)liking (attractiveness, friendliness)celebrity (identification, prestige)authority (expertise, experience, credibility)rapid speech, forceful presentation, charismatic stylescarcity (limited time offer)tangible rewardsappealing visuals & music (emotional arousal)fear appealweak counter-argumentsAttitude Shift:short-livedsusceptible to influenceunpredictableRetain or Regain Initial Attitude
25 Need for Cognition Scale back to Attitudes back to 7670 Homepage Write in the number that best fits your view: 1 2 3 4 completely mostly mostly completely false false true true_____1. I would prefer complex to simple problems._____2. I like to have the responsibility of handling a situation that requires a lot of thinking._____3. Thinking is not my idea of fun. *_____4. I would rather do something that requires little thought than something that is sure to challenge my thinking abilities. *_____5. I try to anticipate and avoid situations where there is likely chance I will have to think in depth about something. *_____6. I find satisfaction in deliberating hard and for long hours._____7. I only think as hard as I have to. *_____8. I prefer to think about small, daily projects to long-term ones. *_____9. I like tasks that require little thought once I’ve learned them. *_____10. The idea of relying on thought to make my way to the top appeals to me._____11. I really enjoy a task that involves coming up with new solutions to problems._____12. Learning new ways to think doesn’t excite me very much. *_____13. I prefer my life to be filled with puzzles that I must solve._____14. The notion of thinking abstractly is appealing to me._____15. I would prefer a task that is intellectual, difficult, and important to one that is somewhat important but does not require much thought._____16. I feel relief rather than satisfaction after completing a task that required a lot of mental effort. *_____17. It’s enough for me that something gets the job done; I don’t care how or why it works. *_____18. I usually end up deliberating about issues even when they do not affect me personally.Items 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 12, 16, and 17 are reverse scoredNeed for Cognition Scale
26 Sleeper Effect:when secondary source becomes more credible than primary source over timepersuasion may increase over time with a weak sourceforget the source but remember the messagenot if source is learned prior to the message (will ignore or bias processing)Example: Attack ads during political campaigns
27 "Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteers be at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe."