Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 Buying and Disposing"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 10 Buying and Disposing CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 8e Michael Solomon
2 Issues Related to Purchase and Postpurchase Activities A consumer’s choices are affected by many personal factors…and the sale doesn’t end at the time of purchase
3 Situational Effects on Consumer Behavior (cont.) Mood Effects: The way we feel at a particular time affects what we buy or doDay Reconstruction MethodHow do morning vs. afternoon vs. evening vs. late-night purchases differ?Weekend vs. weekday purchasesSituational self-image (“Who am I right now?”)
4 Social and Physical Surroundings Affect a consumer’s motives for product usage and product evaluationDécor, odors, temperatureCo-consumers as product attributeLarge numbers of people = arousalExamples: Jam-packed bars and stadiumsInterpretation of arousal: density versus crowdingType of consumer patronssocial classsimilarity to me
5 Temporal Factors (Time) What exactly is TIME?Time styles: consumers try to maximize satisfaction by dividing time among tasksTime povertyOne-third of Americans feel rushedMarketing innovations allow us to save timePolychronic activity – “multitasking”
6 Temporal Factors (cont.) Psychological time: consumers’ perception of timeOften much different than realityTime categories relevant to marketersGood times for ads / sales messages: occasion/leisure times, time to kill, distraction needsBad times for ads / sales messages : flow, engrossment and deadline timesTime perspective metaphorsTime is a pressure cookerTime is a mapTime is a mirrorTime is a riverTime is a feast
7 Temporal Factors (cont.) Time styles / attitudes come from cultureLinear separable time – “there’s a time and place for everything”, follow the clock (Americans)Procedural time – “when the time is right”, ignore the clock (French)Circular/cyclic time – present-oriented, actions governed by the seasons (Hispanics), little sense of futureQueuing theory: mathematical study of waiting linesWaiting for product = perception of good qualityToo much waiting = negative feelingsMarketers use “tricks” / distractions to minimize psychological waiting time
8 The Shopping Environment Antecedent states: mood/physiological condition influences what we buy, how much we spend and how we evaluate products and servicesMood = combination of “affective valence” and arousalThe difference between “mood” and “emotion”Happiness = high in pleasantness and moderate in arousalElation = high pleasantness, high arousalMood biases judgments of products/servicesMoods are affected by store design, music, interaction with staff, TV programs, ad humor, etc.
9 Reasons for Shopping Reasons for shopping: Utilitarian vs. ExperientialExperiential / Hedonic reasons include:Social experiencesSharing of common interestsInterpersonal attractionInstant statusThe thrill of the hunt
10 Retailing as TheaterCompetition for customers is becoming intense as nonstore alternatives multiplyMalls gain loyalty by appealing to social motives (much less about ‘buying product’)Retail techniques:Landscape themesMarketscape themesCyberspace themes“Home away from home”
12 Is store image easy to copy? Store image: personality of the storeAtmosphereLocationMerchandise mix and layoutCongeniality / politeness / helpfulness of sales staffIs store image easy to copy?
13 E-Commerce: Clicks versus Bricks E-commerce reaches customers around the world, but competition increases exponentiallyBenefits: good customer service, technology valueLimitations: security/identity theft, actual shopping experience, large delivery/return shipping chargesCan marketers instill “good mood online?”Is “store image” still relevant online?
14 Atmospherics & Consumer Involvement Atmospherics: conscious designing of space and dimensions to evoke certain effectsColors/lighting, scents, and sounds/music affect time spent in store and spendingGetting Consumers Involved in a Product Creation ExperienceBuild-A-Bear WorkshopClub Libby LuViking Home Chef and Viking Culinary AcademyUniversal Studios
15 In-Store Decision Making Spontaneous shopping consists of:Unplanned buying: reminded to buy somethingImpulse buying: sudden, irresistible urge to buyPoint-of-purchase (POP) stimuli: product display or demonstration that draws attentionMusic store CD sampler, “endcap” displaysSalespeople EffectsCommercial friendshipsAre “commercial friendships” a good idea?Good salespeople vs. bad salespeople
16 Quality Is What We Expect It to Be Expectancy disconfirmationconsumers form expectations of product quality based on prior performance and experienceDisconfirmation is when expectations aren’t metMarketers must “manage expectations”Don’t promise what you can’t deliverConsider under-promising a littleWhen product fails, marketers must reassure customers with honesty
18 Acting on Dissatisfaction Three ways consumers can act on dissatisfaction:Voice response: appeal to retailer directly (encourage this!)Private response: express dissatisfaction to friends or boycott storeThird-party response: take legal actionOr… Do nothing.
19 TQM: Going to the GembaObserve first-hand how people actually interact with their environment in order to identify potential problemsGemba: the one true source of informationNeed to send marketers/designers to the precise place of product consumptionHost Foods study in airport cafeterias
21 Product Disposal Strong product attachment = painful disposal process Ease of product disposal is now a key product attribute to consumersDisposal fees for tvs, computers, etc.Some consumers buy new products before disposing of old productsThe “move-then-throw-away” phenomenonDisposal options (see next slide)
23 Lateral Cycling: Junk versus “Junque” Lateral cycling: already purchased products are sold to others or exchanged for still other thingsEBay, Flea markets, garage sales, classified ads, bartering for services, hand-me-downs, etc.Divestment rituals:Iconic transfer: taking photos of objects before selling themTransition-place: putting items in an out-of-the-way location before disposing of themRitual cleansing: washing, ironing, and/or meticulously wrapping the item