# Please read this slowly to yourself. THINK about it. Ever been out of the country? Ever bought something from another country? Then you were part of the.

## Presentation on theme: "Please read this slowly to yourself. THINK about it. Ever been out of the country? Ever bought something from another country? Then you were part of the."— Presentation transcript:

Please read this slowly to yourself. THINK about it. Ever been out of the country? Ever bought something from another country? Then you were part of the Foreign Exchange market.

When you buy something from Wal-Mart that was made in another country, Wal- Mart eventually pays for it in the OTHER countrys currency. To get the foreign currency to pay for it, Wal-Mart must change their US \$ to the OTHER currency. They put their dollars on the ForEx market (they SUPPLY dollars) and they ask for (DEMAND) Euros. This leads us to:

AP Macroeconomics Mechanics of Foreign Exchange (FOREX)

Foreign Exchange (FOREX) The buying and selling of currency – Ex. In order to purchase souvenirs in France, it is first necessary for Americans to sell (supply) their Dollars and buy (demand) Euros. The exchange rate (e) is determined in the foreign currency markets. – Ex. The current exchange rate is approximately 99Japanese Yen to 1 US dollar – About a year ago 1 US dollar wouldve bought only 77 yen. Therefore the US dollar has appreciated; the Japanese yen has depreciated

Foreign Exchange (FOREX) The exchange rate (e) is determined in the foreign currency markets. – Ex. The current exchange rate is approximately 99Japanese Yen to 1 US dollar – About a year ago 1 US dollar wouldve bought only 77 yen. Therefore the US dollar has depreciated; the Japanese yen has appreciated

Simply put. The exchange rate is the price of a currency. Do not try to calculate the exact exchange rate ScenarioAssume only two currencies in the worldEuro and US \$ Americans buy more German cars than ever before Americans travel to France

An American has \$1,000,000 she/he wants to put in a bank account. She wants a HIGH rate of interest because the bank is going to PAY her interest. Banks in Germany are PAYING a higher interest rate than banks in the US. Where will he deposit his money? In a US bank that PAYS him 2% interest (\$20,000 a year) or in a German bank which will pay him 7% interest (\$70,000 a year)? Right, the German bank so he will demand… Euros and supply… US dollars in the ________________ … Foreign Exchange Market

\$/ Dollars per one Euro Q S D e q D1D1 e1e1 q 1 D.: e & Q.: appreciates relative to the \$ Increase in the Demand of Euros relative to the U.S. Dollar

Q\$Q\$ S\$S\$ D\$D\$ e q S \$.: e (ex. rate) & Q \$.: \$ depreciates relative to S \$ 1 e1e1 q1q1 Increase in the Supply of U.S. Dollars relative to the Euro / \$ Euros per ONE Dollar

Demand \$exports and capital inflows When the US exports goods/services to other countries, they need OUR dollar to complete the transaction. So they demand OUR money They need to supply theirs. Supply \$imports and capital outflows When we import goods/services from other countries, we need THEIR money to complete the transaction. So we demand THEIR money. We need to SUPPLY ours

Tips Always change the D line on one currency graph, the S line on the other currencys graph Move the lines of the two currency graphs in the same direction (right or left) and you will have the correct answer. If D on one graph increases, S on the other will also increase If D moves to the left, S will move to the left on the other graph.

Changes in Exchange Rates Exchange rates (e) are a function of the supply and demand for currency. – An increase in the supply of a currency will make it cheaper to buy one unit of that currency (that currency has depreciated) – A decrease in supply of a currency will make it more expensive to buy one unit of that currency (that currency has appreciated)

Changes in Exchange Rates – An increase in demand for a currency will make it more expensive to buy one unit of that currency (appreciated) – A decrease in demand for a currency will make it cheaper to buy one unit of that currency (depreciated)

Appreciation Appreciation of a currency occurs when the exchange rate of that currency increases (e) – Hypothetical: 100 Yen used to buy \$1. Now two hundred Yen buy 1US\$. – The dollar is stronger because one buys more Yen than it used to

Depreciation Depreciation of a currency occurs when the exchange rate of that currency decreases (e) – Depreciation of the Yen (¥) – 100 dollars used to buy one Yen. Now 50 dollars buys one Yen. – The Yen is weaker because it takes fewer dollars to buy one Yen

Example of Appreciation and Depreciation Ex. If more German tourists visit America then the demand of US dollars will… increase. This will cause the US dollar to appreciate. The supply of the Euro will increase causing the Euro to depreciate

\$/ Q S D 1 e1e1 q1q1 D e q D.: e & Q.: depreciates relative to the \$ Decrease in the Demand for Euro relative to the Dollar

/\$ Q\$ S\$ D\$ e q S\$.: e & Q\$.: \$ appreciates relative to S\$ 1 e1e1 q1q1 Decrease in the Supply of the Dollar relative to the Euro

Exchange Rate Determinants Interest Rates – Ex. If U.S. investors expect that Swiss interest rates will climb in the future, then Americans will demand Swiss Francs in order to earn the higher rates of return in Switzerland. – This will cause the Swiss Franc to appreciate as demand for it will increase. – Supply of the Dollar will increase causing it to depreciate

Exchange Rate Determinants Consumer Tastes – Ex. a preference for Japanese goods creates an increase in the demand of Yen and an increase in the supply of dollars in the currency exchange market. – The increase in demand of the Yen leads to the appreciation of the Yen. – The increase in the supply of dollars leads to the depreciation of the Dollar.

Exchange Rate Determinants (cont.) Relative Income – Imports tend to be normal goods – Ex. If Mexicos economy is becoming stronger and the U.S. economy is in recession, then Mexicans will buy more of everything, including American goods. – This increases the demand for the Dollar, causing the Dollar to appreciate and the Peso to depreciate

Exchange Rate Determinants (cont) Relative Price Level (or Rates of Inflation) – Ex. If the price level is higher in Canada than in the United States, then American goods are relatively cheaper than Canadian goods. – Thus Canadians will import more American goods causing the U.S. Dollar to appreciate and the Canadian Dollar to depreciate. – Demand for the US Dollar increased, supply of the Canadian Dollar increased

Exchange Rate Determinants (cont) Speculation Currency speculators try to buy low and sell high. Speculators think the \$ will depreciate in the future They will sell their US \$ now and buy a currency they think will appreciate in the future, say the Japanese Yen (¥) When they sell the \$ they supply it on the Forex Market When they buy the ¥ they demand it on the Forex Market

Xn The exchange rate is a determinant of both exports and imports Xn is a component of GDP GDPs rate of change is the determinant of economic status (recession or expansion)

Depreciation of the dollar makes it to where they have to spend less of their currency for one US dollar. Therefore our products are cheaper over there Therefore they will buy more of our products Therefore our _______ will increase

Appreciation of the dollar causes foreigners to spend more of their currency to buy one dollar. Therefore they have to spend more of their currency to buy our product. Therefore American goods are relatively more expensive and foreign goods are relatively cheaper. That reduces our exports and increases our imports

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