Presentation on theme: "U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey USGS Digital Imagery Derived from the Historical Film Archive – Status and Applications Randy A."— Presentation transcript:
U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey USGS Digital Imagery Derived from the Historical Film Archive – Status and Applications Randy A. McKinley Sr. Scientist Scientific Applications International Corp (SAIC) Contractor to USGS Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Sioux Falls, SD 57198-0001 Phone: 605-594-2745 Email: RMcKinley@usgs.gov
Presentation Overview Next Generation Film Archive Status of the Ongoing Film to Digital Image Conversion Effort Digital Photo Application Examples *175,000 sq. ft. of office space, ~660 employees
USGS Film/Photo Archive of the 21 st Century Fully transition to digital product delivery Assure long-term preservation of USGS film Significantly improve access to the USGS Film Archive and Film Collections from other participating Agencies and Bureaus Provide access to long term National Archive and Records Administration (NARA) archive (through available browse images, digitized products, etc.) Hardcopy product generation shifted to the customer or USGS Business Partners Business Partners available for customer technical assistance
Why Change was Required Customer demand for film based products trending downward Cost to produce film/paper products exceeded income Market pressures; the photo industry is moving to digital Positive paper raw stock no longer being manufactured Not all of the USGS film collections are accessible: Only single frame metadata references were searchable in Earth Explorer which represents 33% of the USGS film archive Over 19,500 film rolls have the vinegar syndrome problem (including over 310,000 frames of Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research - SCAR photography)
Historical Film Archive Access Methods Photo Index Single Frame
Terminology Digitize Medium-resolution digitized image files. Output of Kodak 14.4 MP digital cameras. Non-photogrammetric quality, 600 dpi. TIFF output format, B/W=13 MB, color=38 MB. Adobe Photoshop CS (format, crop, adjust polarity, add USGS vis/ID). Stored near-line on a Silo for ready access to serve customer orders. Digitized browse quality image files. By-product of creating the medium–resolution image JPG, B/W=148 KB, color=400 KB, 72 dpi. Browse downloadable at no cost to customers.
Terminology (cont.) Scan High-resolution scanned image files. Output of Zeiss SCAI and Leica DSW700 photogrammetric scanners. Standard spot size is 21micron (1200 dpi). Options to 7 (3600 dpi). TIFF output format, B/W=120 MB, color 360 MB. On-demand products (output scans are not archived by EROS).
Digital Capture Systems Kodak Digital Cameras - Phoenix IV Medium-resolution Digitization System (archive/access conversion) Zeiss & Leica High-resolution Photogrammetric Quality Scanners (customer products only)
Historical Film Digitization Plan 5+ yr Plan to Digitize Archive Film Create full frame browse to improve film archive access Store medium-resolution images created during the process Digitize all photo indexes & line plots (over 72,000) Creation of geo-referenced browse images if possible Systems Development Progressing Four systems are operational; 2 or 3 shifts/day 5th backup system/setup for sheet feed Archive Digitization Ops Digitizing 60-65 rolls/day Priority scheme: one time U.S. coverage, vinegar syndrome rolls, USGS collections, science & customer Interests.
Digital Data Sales Providing on-demand high-resolution scanned products from the historical film archive $30 / per frame scanning fee, plus $5 order fee/ FTP or on CD/DVD Providing ready near-line access to the medium-resolution digitized files as they become available. $3/ per frame access fee, plus $5 order/ FTP or on CD/DVD Refer hardcopy product requests to USGS Business Partners and other service providers
Total Frames at EROS8.003 M Frames Digitized4.197 Frames to be Digitized3.806 M % Complete52.44% Archive Status - Digitizing
Archive Status - Digitizing Detail Also space acquired photos like Gemini, Shuttle LFC, others.
How to find archive photos Earth Explorer http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov Glovis (NAPP, more later…) http://glovis.usgs.gov Photo Finder http://edc.usgs.gov/products/aerial.html NAPP and NHAP archives only Easy for zip code or city name search
Land Management Applications of Photo Archive Wyoming Coal Bed Methane Infrastructure and Agricultural Development North Carolina Forestry & Land Cover Change Alaska Disappearing Lakes & Land Cover Change
Photo: CBMCC Wyoming Sagebrush/Sage Grouse & Coal Bed Methane Development Photo: Brett Walker
Dry Land/Ditch Irrigated Cropland to Center Pivot Irrigation Cropland conversion to pasture Sagebrush/Grass rangeland impacted by CBM development (discharge ponds, roads, pipelines, compressor stations, other infrastructure) 1966 Historical Aerial Photo 2001 USGS DOQ On Tongue River Northeast of Sheridan, WY
Southwest Wyoming – Near Farson and potential Oil and Gas Development BLM Photo 1964 Quickbird 2006
USGS Photo Archive Mosaic 1950 Over Landsat 2000 Lake Change Classification Appear 1975-2000=Green; Appear 1950-1975=Blue; Disappear 1975-2000=Orange; Disappear 1950-1975= Red ~ 55 miles
Landsat 7 (CIR/432) Path 79 Row 15 August 21, 2002 EROS Archive B&W Digital Photo 3gyl13021_115 July 4, 1950 Comparison of Historic Photos with Current Landsat Image Study site is NE of Council, AK near confluence of Fish and Paragon rivers. (Approx. 65 00 00 N 162 57 57 W)
LFC – Nepal (47 Miles SE of Kathmandu) Nepal 10/06/1984 (AR7S41000100175 – Full Frame) Detailed study area India Nepal Tibet
LFC – Nepal (47 Miles SE of Kathmandu) Nepal 10/06/1984 (AR7S41000100175 – Full Frame) Detailed study area
Note area of deforestation with conversion to silvicultural land use. This is a large eucalyptus tree plantation. Funded by the world bank, approximately 11,000 hectares are being planted and harvested in a short 10-12 years rotation cycle mainly to meet fuelwood demand in the capital city of Kathmadu. *Due to inconsistent acquisition strategies internationally, there is no Landsat data in the US archives for this region in the 1980s. Nepal – LFC/Landsat TM/Pan Comparison ~10 miles LFC 1984Landsat TM/Pan 2001
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