Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 6e

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Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 6e
Chapter 16 – Wave Motion

In a long line of people waiting to buy tickets, the first person leaves and a pulse of motion occurs as people step forward to fill the gap. As each person steps forward, the gap moves through the line. The propagation of this gap is transverse longitudinal 1 2 3 4 5

It is longitudinal because the disturbance (the shift of position of the people) is parallel to the direction in which the wave travels.

Consider the “wave” at a baseball game: people stand up and shout as the wave arrives at their location, and the resultant pulse moves around the stadium. This wave is transverse longitudinal 1 2 3 4 5

It is transverse because the people stand up and sit down (vertical motion), whereas the wave moves either to the left or to the right.

twice that of the first wave half that of the first wave
A sinusoidal wave of frequency f is traveling along a stretched string. The string is brought to rest, and a second traveling wave of frequency 2f is established on the string. The wave speed of the second wave is twice that of the first wave half that of the first wave the same as that of the first wave impossible to determine 1 2 3 4 5

The wave speed is determined by the medium, so it is unaffected by changing the frequency.

twice that of the first wave half that of the first wave
A sinusoidal wave of frequency f is traveling along a stretched string. The string is brought to rest, and a second traveling wave of frequency 2f is established on the string. The wavelength of the second wave is twice that of the first wave half that of the first wave the same as that of the first wave impossible to determine 1 2 3 4 5

Because the wave speed remains the same, the result of doubling the frequency is that the wavelength is half as large.

twice that of the first wave half that of the first wave
A sinusoidal wave of frequency f is traveling along a stretched string. The string is brought to rest, and a second traveling wave of frequency 2f is established on the string. The amplitude of the second wave is twice that of the first wave half that of the first wave the same as that of the first wave impossible to determine 1 2 3 4 5

The amplitude of a wave is unrelated to the wave speed, so we cannot determine the new amplitude without further information.

The speed of the wave changes. The frequency of the wave changes.
The amplitude of a wave is doubled, with no other changes made to the wave. As a result of this doubling, which of the following statements is correct? The speed of the wave changes. The frequency of the wave changes. The maximum transverse speed of an element of the medium changes. All of these are true. None of these is true. 1 2 3 4 5

With a larger amplitude, an element of the string has more energy associated with its simple harmonic motion, so the element passes through the equilibrium position with a higher maximum transverse speed.

reducing the linear mass density of the string by one half
Which of the following, taken by itself, would be most effective in increasing the rate at which energy is transferred by a wave traveling along a string? reducing the linear mass density of the string by one half doubling the wavelength of the wave doubling the tension in the string doubling the amplitude of the wave 1 2 3 4 5

Doubling the amplitude of the wave causes the power to be larger by a factor of 4. In (1), halving the linear mass density of the string causes the power to change by a factor of 0.71 – the rate decreases. In (2), doubling the wavelength of the wave halves the frequency and causes the power to change by a factor of 0.25 – the rate decreases. In (3), doubling the tension in the string changes the wave speed and causes the power to change by a factor of 1.4 – not as large as in part (4).

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