2The Psychological Importance of the Purchase High-involvement purchases:Involve goods or services that are psychologically important to the buyer because they address social or ego needs and therefore carry social and psychological risks.May also involve financial risk.A high-involvement product for one buyer may be a low-involvement one for another.
3Steps in the High-Involvement, Complex Decision-Making Process
4High-Involvement Purchase Decisions Step 1: Problem identificationPurchase-decision processes are triggered by unsatisfied needs or wants.We tend to focus on those needs that are strongest.A need can become stronger and be brought to our attention by a deterioration of our actual state or an upward revision of our ideal state.
5High-Involvement Purchase Decisions Step 2: Information searchPeople seek additional information about alternatives brands until they perceive that the costs of obtaining more information are equal to the additional value or benefit derived.Opportunity cost of the time involved in seeking information.Psychological costs involved in searching for information.
6High-Involvement Purchase Decisions Sources of informationPersonal sourcesCommercial sourcesPublic sources of informationCommercial sources perform an informing function for consumers.Personal and public sources serve an evaluating and legitimizing function.The Internet is reducing the opportunity costs of information gathering
7High-Involvement Purchase Decisions Step 3: Evaluation of alternativesConsumers simplify their evaluation in several ways.They focus on their evoked set.They evaluate each of the brands in the evoked set on a limited number of product dimensions or attributes.They combine evaluations across attributes, taking into account the relative importance of those attributes.
8High-Involvement Purchase Decisions Step 4: PurchaseConsumers usually select the source they perceive to be best on those attributes most important to them.Step 5: Postpurchase evaluationThe person’s expectation level and evaluation of how well the product actually did perform.The evaluation feeds back into memory where it can be recalled for a similar decision.Consistent positive experiences can ultimately lead to brand loyalty.
9Low-Involvement Purchase Decisions Most purchase decisions are low in consumer involvement.Extensive information search is absent.Two low-involvement buying decisions:InertiaConsumers either buy brands at random or buy the same brand repetitively to avoid making a choice.Impulse purchasing and variety seekingOccurs when consumers impulsively decide to buy a different brand from their customary choice or some new variety of a product.
10The Psychological Importance of the Purchase Understanding level of involvement enables better marketing decisionsProduct design and positioning decisionsHigh-involvement goods needs to be designed to provide at least some benefits that are demonstrably superior.Firms that market low-involvement goods need to pay particular attention to basic use-related attributes.
11The Psychological Importance of the Purchase Pricing decisionsHigh-involvement: Purchase of brand they believe will deliver the greatest value.Low-involvement: Products are largely or solely bought on the basis of low price.Advertising and promotion decisionsHigh-involvement: Promotional vehicles that communicate in greater detail.Low-involvement: Focus on a few main points and deliver the message frequently.
12The Psychological Importance of the Purchase Distribution decisionsLow-involvement: Extensive retail distribution is particularly important.High-involvement: Extensive retail coverage is less critical.Strategies to increase consumer involvementLink the product to some involving issue.Tie the product to a personally involving situation.Add an important feature to an unimportant product.
13The Marketing Implications of Psychological and Personal Influences Perception and memoryPerception is the process by which a person selects, organizes, and interprets information.
14The Marketing Implications of Psychological and Personal Influences Perception process for high-involvement products:Exposure to a piece of information, such as a new product, an ad, or a friend’s recommendation, leads to attention, then to comprehension, and finally to retention in memory.Once consumers have fully perceived the information, they use it to evaluate alternative brands and to decide which to purchase.
15The Marketing Implications of Psychological and Personal Influences Perception process for low-involvement products:Consumers have information in their memories without going through the sequence of attention and comprehension.Exposure may cause consumers to retain enough information so that they are familiar with a brand when they see it in a store.
16The Marketing Implications of Psychological and Personal Influences Selectivity and organization guide consumers’ perceptual processes and help explain why different consumers perceive product information differently.Selectivity: Even though the environment is full of product information, consumers pick and choose only selected pieces of information and ignore the rest.
17The Marketing Implications of Psychological and Personal Influences Perceptual vigilance: For high-involvement purchases, consumers pay particular attention to information related to the needs they want to satisfy and the particular brands they are considering for purchasePerceptual Defense: Consumers tend to avoid information that contradicts their current beliefs and attitudes.
18The Marketing Implications of Psychological and Personal Influences Memory limitationsLimitation of the human memory concerns marketers.Human memory works in two stages:Information from the environment is first processed by the short-term memory, which forgets most of it within 30 seconds or less.Some information is transferred to long-term memory.For information to be transferred to long-term memory for later recall, it must be actively rehearsed and internalized.
19The Marketing Implications of Psychological and Personal Influences Perceptual organizationCategorization helps consumers process known information quickly and efficiently.Integration means that consumers perceive separate pieces of related information as an organized whole.
20The Marketing Implications of Psychological and Personal Influences Effects of stimulus characteristicsPersonal characteristics influence the information consumers pay attention to, comprehend, and remember.Message characteristics and the way it is communicated influence consumers’ perceptions.
21The Marketing Implications of Psychological and Personal Influences Needs and AttitudesThe Fishbein model specifies how consumers combine evaluations of a brand across multiple attributes to arrive at a single overall attitude toward that brand.This approach is compensatory in nature.
22The Marketing Implications of Psychological and Personal Influences Noncompensatory attitude modelsThe mental processes involved in forming an attitude are quite complex.Consumers may evaluate alternative brands on only one attribute at a time particularly with low-involvement products.
23The Marketing Implications of Psychological and Personal Influences Marketing implications of attitude modelsMarketers must have information about:The attributes or decision criteria used to evaluate a particular product category.The relative importance of those attributes to different consumers.How consumers rate their brand relative to competitors’ offerings on important attributes.Multiattribute models show the consumer’s ideal combination of product/service attributes, each of which is weighted as to its relative importance.
24The Marketing Implications of Psychological and Personal Influences Attitude changeChanging attitudes toward the product class or type.Changing the importance attached to attributes.Adding a salient attribute to the existing set.Improving ratings of the brand on one or more salient attributes.Lowering the ratings of the salient product characteristics of competing brands.
25The Marketing Implications of Psychological and Personal Influences Demographics influenceThe nature of consumers’ needs and wants.Their ability to buy products or services to satisfy those needs.The perceived importance of various attributes or choice criteria used to evaluate alternative brands.
26The Marketing Implications of Psychological and Personal Influences Personality and self-conceptBrands are perceived to have personalities, and consumers are likely to choose brands whose personalities match their own.Consumers tend to choose brands with personalities that match either their own self-concept or their ideal self-concept.
27The Marketing Implications of Psychological and Personal Influences LifestylesTo obtain lifestyle data, consumers are asked to indicate the extent to which they agree/disagree with a series of statements involving price consciousness, family activities, spectator sports, traditional values, adverturesomeness, and fashion.Lifestyle typologies or psychographic profiles.
28The Marketing Implications of Social Influences CultureCulture is the set of beliefs, attitudes, and behavior patterns shared by members of a society and transmitted from one generation to the next through socialization.Cultural differences across countries create both problems and opportunities for international marketers.Subcultures
29The Marketing Implications of Social Influences Social classStatus groupings largely based on similarities in income, education, and occupation.It is possible to infer certain behavior concerning some products and services, including class members’ reactions to advertising.
30The Marketing Implications of Social Influences Reference groups include a variety of groups that affect consumer behavior through:Normative complianceValue-expressed influence: Involves conforming to gain status within one’s group.Informational influence: Involves the use of certain influentials to help assess the merits of a given product/service.
31The Marketing Implications of Social Influences The FamilyIt serves as the primary socialization agent.It has a great and lasting influence on its younger members’ attitudes toward various brands and stores.Family members tend to specialize in the purchase of certain products either because of their interest or expertise or the role structure of the family.Influence varies across countries.Family life cycle.
32Take-AwaysNot all purchase decisions are equally important or psychologically involving for the consumer.People engage in a more extensive decision-making process, involving a more detailed search for information and comparison of alternatives, when buying high-involvement goods and services than when purchasing more mundane, low-involvement items.
33Take-AwaysA given marketing strategy will not be equally effective for both high- and low-involvement products.The consumer marketer’s first task, then, is to determine whether the majority of potential customers in the target segment are likely to be highly involved with the purchase decision or not.
34Take-AwaysFor low-involvement products, marketers need to focus their promotional messages on a few frequently repeated points and to distribute such products extensively.Consumers often prefer different brands because of differences in their psychological or personal characteristics, such as their perceptions, memories, attitudes, and lifestyles.
35Take-AwaysRegardless of the consumer’s level of involvement with a product category, consumers often prefer different brands because of differences in their social relationships, such as their culture, social class, reference groups, and family circumstances.