THE OBJECTIVES OF PURCHASING 1.PROVIDE APPROPRIATE LEVELS OF SUPPLY + 2.THE APPROPRIATE LEVEL OF QUALITY + 3.THE LOWEST TOTAL COST
WHAT COMPANIES REALLY PAY FOR OWNERSHIP Cost of ownership goes beyond the price paid for a product TOTAL COST OF OWNERSHIP = PRODUCT PRICE + DELIVERY + INSTALLATION + MAINTENANCE / REPAIR + POWER COSTS + SUPPLY COSTS + OPERATING COSTS + FINANCING
PURCHASING PARTNERSHIPS ARE MADE WITH VENDORS WHO PROVIDE: High-purchase-volume materials, components or strategic products Information and training for effective product use Services requiring specialized knowledge for cost reductions and/or performance Materials unavailable elsewhere
Steps in the Business Buying Process 1.Recognizing the need 2.Developing product specifications 3.Soliciting bids from potential suppliers 4.Making the purchase decision 5.Issuing the contract 6.Inspecting delivered goods for quality 7.Evaluating vendor performance
MAKE-OR-BUY DECISION ANALYSIS ACCEPTABLE RISK Buy the Products, Components or Services UNACCEPTABLE RISK Retain Production and Provide Services RISK ASSESSMENT FINANCIAL RISKS Resource Allocation Investment of Resources Accurate Cost Analysis Legal Issues MARKETING RISKS Customer Impact Supplier Impact MANUFACTURING RISKS Reliability Expertise Equipment Patent Protection POLITICAL RISKS Management commitment/ willingness to partner Turf Battles Internal Strife
Quotations and Contracts RFQ: Request for Quotation RFP: Request for Proposal Boilerplate: –Standard legal clauses (fine print) on RFQs, your bid, and the customers order. –May contain terms of sale that contradict terms on your bid, and often contain penalties for nonperformance.
Types of Business Buying Situations New-task buy: –Business buying situation that is new and very different from anything that the buyer has faced previously. Straight rebuy: –Most common type of business buying situation; buyer purchases a part, material, or service routinely, with little thought going into buying process. Modified rebuy: –Reevaluation of alternatives; necessary because buying requirements have changed such that relatively routine buy or purchase no longer is routine.
Examples of Products Purchased Using the Buy-Class Pure routine Complete negotiation Straight Rebuy Modified Rebuy New Buy Electricity Gas/Water Office Supplies Bulk Chemicals VehiclesConsulting Services Electrical Components Computer Systems Installations Moon Shot Insurance
Buygrid Analysis FrameworkStraight Rebuy RebuyModified NewBuy Need Recognition Develop Product Specifications Solicit Bids Make Purchase Decision Issue the Contract Inspect Goods for Quality Evaluate Vendor Performance Complexity of Buying Situation
Buygrid Analysis FrameworkStraight Rebuy RebuyModified NewBuy Need Recognition Develop Product Specifications Solicit Bids Make Purchase Decision Issue the Contract Inspect Goods for Quality Evaluate Vendor Performance CreepingCommitment
Forces Influencing Organizational Buying Behavior Environmental Forces Organizational Forces Group Forces Individual Forces Organizational Buying Behavior Economic Outlook: Domestic & Global Pace of Technological Change Global Trade Relations Goals, Objectives, and Strategies Organizational Position of Purchasing Roles, relative influence, and patterns of interaction of buying decision participants Job function, past experience, and buying motives of individual decision participants A projected change in business conditions can drastically alter buying plan.
Multi-Attribute Theory Product offerings are bundles of attributes. Attributes provide benefits. Benefits satisfy needs. Buyers differ in their needs, therefore Buyers differ in the importance they place upon various attributes. Some buyers seek to maximize the set of attributes. Others seek to satisfy most important attributes first.
Role Theory The differing roles people play (in business, society, or life in general) have differing norms and expectations. Examines how people interact in the Buying Center (more than one person is involved in the purchasing decision.) In many cases, the buying center is an informal, complex, changing group. In other cases, it is a formal part of the organization (such as cross-functional teams)
The Buying Center Consists of those individuals –who participate in the purchasing decision and –who share the goals and risks arising from the decision Average buying center includes more than 4 persons per purchase
Roles of Buying Center Members User –Will use product in question; minimal - major influence Gatekeeper –Tight controller of information flow to other buying center members; can open/close gate for salespeople. Influencer –Provides information to other members for evaluating alternative products or sets purchasing specifications; can operate within/outside buying center. Decider –Makes buying decision; often difficult to ID. Buyer –Assigned formal authority to select vendors and complete purchasing transaction.
Buying Center Dimensions Time –Time fragmentation: length of time people are in the buying center. –Limits members influence –Can lengthen decision making time due to inexperience Vertical –Layers of management involved Horizontal –Number of departments involved
Clues for Identifying Powerful Buying Center Members Isolate the personal stakeholders Follow the information flow Identify the experts Trace the connections to the top Understand purchasings role
Individual Forces Evaluative criteria –education, training, experience Information Processing –selective exposure, attention, perception, and retention Risk-Reduction Preferences –level of uncertainty about outcomes –magnitude of consequences associated with incorrect choice
Selective Perception Selective exposure. Selective attention. Selective retention. Impacts how your buyer views and understands the world Impacts how your buyer views risk
Impact of Increasing Levels of Perceived Risk Buying center becomes larger Higher level managers become involved Information search more active Wider variety of info sources accessed Buying center members exert more effort Sellers with proven track records tend to be more favored Product quality & after-sale service tend to become more important than price