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Customer Purchasing Behavior/the Buying Process. Major Faux Pas Results in Lost Sale Selling overseas (or to foreigners visiting the U.S.) demands a high.

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Presentation on theme: "Customer Purchasing Behavior/the Buying Process. Major Faux Pas Results in Lost Sale Selling overseas (or to foreigners visiting the U.S.) demands a high."— Presentation transcript:

1 Customer Purchasing Behavior/the Buying Process

2 Major Faux Pas Results in Lost Sale Selling overseas (or to foreigners visiting the U.S.) demands a high degree of cultural sensitivity. Steve Waterhouse, affiliated with Waterhouse Group of Scarborough, Maine, learned this lesson the hard way. He had been courting a Tokyo-based meeting planning company for six months. Finally, he arranged a meeting with the companys representative who was attending a national convention in the U.S. What breach of etiquette by Mr. Waterhouse resulted in the loss of a $100,000 sale? Source: Selling Today, by Manning and Reece (10 th ed., p. 40)

3 Im Looking for a New Computer John is a salesperson for Micro Solutions, a retail business, that sells personal computers and related products and services. John is about to meet and greet Alex who is in the market for a new computer. What should John know about Alex and how he is likely to make a computer purchase decision?

4 Your Price Is Too High! Martha is a sales rep for Central Hibreds. The seed varieties she sells typically sell at prices that are in the upper quartile for the market. What can Martha do to deal with the high price objection from a customer?

5 What You Gonna Sell? Susie calls on buyers for distributors who resell her companys products to their customers who are the end users. Should she emphasize end user benefits to her buyers?

6 Trivia Q Recent surveys of prospective ISU students reveal which of the following is reported as the most important factor to them in selecting a college? a) Reputation, respect of the school b) Use of progressive technology and career opportunities c) Diversity of experiences and choices for majors d) Extent to which the school seems to provide a fun, welcoming, supportive environment e) Extent to which the school offers challenging courses

7 Buyer DecisionsSalesperson Implications Why buy?How to present? What to buy?What to offer? How to buy?When to sell? (=> often difficult)(=> need to be a buying facilitator)

8 Types of Buyers and Purchaser AspectOrganizational BuyerEnd User Buyer Purpose of purchaseOrganizational use/benefit or resale (by distributor) Personal use/benefit BuyerOften a groupIndividual Purchase factorsProduct specifications Technical factors Rational criteria Brand reputation Personal recommendations Emotional criteria Decision timeOften lengthyUsually quick Alternative situations 1) First-time 2) Straight rebuy 3) Modified rebuy 1) Habitual, low cost, experiential 2) Variety seeking 3) Complex, high cost Source: Reece & Manning

9 Every customer is a highly unique and complex human, yet there are many things customers have in common when it comes to buying: Buy from people they like Buy from people they trust Want to feel secure and important Naturally suspicious of salespeople Want proper chemistry or human relationship Respect and acceptance must be earned Propensity for loyalty if treated well Expect technical competence and professionalism from salesperson Many factors involved in their buying decision, any one of which can become the deciding factor Buy to satisfy a need (for a reason)

10 Specific Reasons People Buy: Economic Psychological Sociological Practical (impractical) Rational (irrational) Factual (emotional) Attitudes, opinions, feelings, beliefs

11 More Reasons Why People Buy To Increase Sales Profit Satisfaction Confidence Convenience Pleasure Production To Protect Investment Self Employees Property Money Family To Make Money Satisfied customers Good impressions To Improve Customer relations Employee relations Image Status Earnings Performance To Reduce Risk Investment Expenses Competition Worry Trouble To Save Time Money Energy Space

12 Maslows Hierarchy of Human Needs & Sales Implications Need Physiological Security Social Esteem Self actualization +s Gained Health, comfort, ease, pleasure Safety, protection, stability, confidence Acceptance, popularity, attention, compliments Pride, prestige, recognition worthiness, success Creativity, growth, Accomplishments, potential Contributions, independence -s Avoided Sickness, displeasure, discomfort, inconvenience Worry, loss, danger, fear Rejection, dislike, criticism, embarassment Failure, inadequacy, guilt Boredom, dependence, unfilled potential, restraints

13 Some Non Traditional Buying Motives Conspicuous consumption or status effects: Lavish spending for the purpose of displaying wealth or social status; preference for buying increases with price. Snob effect: Desire to buy something nobody else has; preference for buying increases with rarity or scarcity. Bandwagon effect: Desire to buy something everybody else is buying; preference for buying increases with perceived popularity. Note: These effects are anomalies within D theory that normally assumes individual preferences are independent of price or other consumers decisions.

14 Sell Value Buyers want product solutions that add value which means a salesperson needs to: Sell benefits (and solutions) Be product experts Be able to develop product packages tailored to individual customer needs

15 Motivational Selling = Discovering what the dominant buying urge is (often hidden) and tailoring the sales presentation to address that drive.

16 The Buying Process 1. Problem/need recognition Real or imagined Customers often unaware there is a better way... 2. Information search Extent depends on Sources - Cost and risk- media (print, broadcast) -Frequency of purchase- public agencies -Style of customer- friends/neighbors -Level of trust w/salesperson- salespeople

17 The Buying Process 3.Evaluate alternatives like info search, extent varies salespersons role -clarify info -correct misconceptions -explain nuances, details, benefits 4.Purchase & evaluation

18 Multiattribute Evaluation Model of Alternatives A buyer views a product as a collection of characteristics, attributes or benefits. A buyers overall assessment of a products performance rating x the buyers importance rating for each benefit associated with the product.

19 Alpha Computer Multiattribute Evaluation Example WANTIMPORTANCE WEIGHT XPERFORMANCE RATING =BENEFIT POINTS Reliability4520 Weight2816 Size3824 Speed7321 Internal Memory6318 Monitor Display5210 Keyboard155 Service3721 TOTAL135

20 Computer Brand Tot. Benefit Pts. ÷Cost=Value (Benefit pts. Per $ Cost) Alpha1351,0500.13 Beta1501,1000.14 Delta1201,1500.10

21 Multiattribute Implications for Salespeople Brands the customer is considering Attributes or benefits being considered as well as their relative importance to the customer The customers performance rating of each product on each dimension

22 Alternatives for influencing a customers perceived value of your product: performance rating of your product performance rating of competitors product or importance rating Add an attribute previously not considered price

23 Purchase & Post-Purchase Observations Let the buyer make the uncoerced purchase decision The purchase decision is rational to the buyer (i.e. expect to gain more than they give up) Post purchase dissonance often sets in: Doubts/wonders: Right thing to do? Smart buy? Need justification, reinforcement (e.g. ads, others) Post purchase dissonance often caused by: Misunderstanding Miscommunication Misuse Unrealistic expectations Positive post purchase evaluation Enhanced by salespersons presence Is the 1 st step in the next sale

24 Product Adoption/Diffusion Customers vary by how quick they adopt a new product or new idea Categories 1. Innovators (first 2-3%) 2. Early adopters (next 13-14%)* 3. Early majority (next 33-34%) 4. Late majority (next 33-34%) 5. Laggards (last 15-16%) *often opinion leaders (i.e. good farmers, community leaders, influential, etc.)

25 Sales Quotes: Buying Process/Purchasing Behavior When dealing with people, remember you are NOT dealing with creatures of logic, but with creatures of emotion. (Dale Carnegie) People dont buy services, products or ideas. They buy because they have imagined how using them will make them FEEL. (The One Minute Sales Person) Sell the sizzle, not the steak. (Elmer Wheeler)

26 Sales Quotes: Buying Process/Purchasing Behavior A chain is only as strong as its weakest link. Likewise, a salespersons performance will only be as strong as his or her weakest step in the selling process. It takes confidence to make a buying decision. But how can a prospect have confidence in you, your product, and your company unless you first have that confidence? (Sales Upbeat, Feb. 2, 1995)

27 Sales Quotes: Buying Process/Purchasing Behavior Selling is information. Selling is finding out what the customer needs. (Wililam Devaney, Pres., Stanley-Vidmar) One job of a salesperson is to help people buy. Most people readily agree that they love to buy things, but hate to feel sold. (Mike Bosworth, Solution Selling, Inc.)

28 Sales Quotes: Buying Process/Purchasing Behavior We would like the business card of sellers we train to read Buying Facilitator. (Mike Bosworth, Solution Selling, Inc.) I am the worlds worst salesperson; therefore, I must make it easy for people to buy. (F.W. Woolworth) We dont SELL you tires. We help you BUY tires. (In-store ad, Tires Plus)


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