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Southeast Cattle Advisor Marketing School | March 8 th.

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Presentation on theme: "Southeast Cattle Advisor Marketing School | March 8 th."— Presentation transcript:

1 Southeast Cattle Advisor Marketing School | March 8 th

2 Looking Ahead Photo credit: Noble Foundation.

3 Looking Ahead Photo credit: Noble Foundation.

4 Looking Ahead Photo credit: Noble Foundation.

5 Forage Needed – Forage Provided Warm-season perennial grasses Warm-season perennial grasses Winter annual (small grain/ annual ryegrass) Winter annual (small grain/ annual ryegrass) Cool-season perennial grasses Cool-season perennial grasses Relative Forage Provided

6 Forage Productivity Differs Throughout the Year

7 Quality Differences in the Major Forage Species Dry Cow Stockers Needs

8 The Relationship between Fiber (NDF) and Dry Matter Intake (DMI) Fiber (NDF) Level Intake Intake to Meet Needs Intake is Physically Limited Dry Matter Intake (DMI) Dig. Energy Intake Dig. Energy Intake

9 The Relationship between Fiber (NDF) and Dry Matter Intake (DMI) Fiber (NDF) Level Intake Intake to Meet Needs Intake is Physically Limited Dry Matter Intake (DMI) Dig. Energy Intake Dig. Energy Intake

10 Georgias Stocker Forages High Quality Forage Systems A.NE Tall fescue + Clover B.Winter Annual Grass Prepared Seedbed +A. Ryegrass Hay/Baleage +Supplementation

11 Georgias Stocker Forages High Quality Forage Systems A.NE Tall fescue + Clover (Upper Pied.) Spring Only B.Winter Annual Grasses (& Legumes?) Sodseeded +A. Ryegrass Hay/Baleage +Supplementation

12 Georgias Stocker Forages High Quality Forage Systems A.Winter Annual Grasses (& Legumes!) Sodseeded or Prepared Ground B.Tifton 85 Bermudagrass C.Summer Annuals (distant 3 rd ) +A. Ryegrass Hay/Baleage +Supplementation

13 Efficiencies of Grazing and Mechanized Harvest MethodEfficiency Grazing Continuous Stocking30-40% Slow Rotation (3-4 paddocks)50-60% Moderate Rotation (6-8 paddocks)60-70% Strip Grazing70-80%

14 Mechanical Hay30-70% Silage60-85% Green Chop70-95% Efficiencies of Grazing and Mechanized Harvest MethodEfficiency Grazing Continuous Stocking30-40% Slow Rotation (3-4 paddocks)50-60% Moderate Rotation (6-8 paddocks)60-70% Strip Grazing70-80%

15 Grazing Pressure Productivity Per Animal vs. Per Acre Undergrazing Overgrazing Product animal Product animal Product acre Product acre Gain/acre ADG

16 Grazing Pressure Productivity Per Animal vs. Per Acre Product animal Product animal Undergrazing Overgrazing

17 Grazing Pressure Undergrazing Overgrazing Productivity Per Animal vs. Per Acre Product animal Product animal Product acre Product acre Optimum

18 Productivity Per Animal vs. Per Acre Bottomline: When evaluating grazing research, look at ADG, Gain/acre, Grazing Time, and Stocking Rate simultaneously. ADG Gain/acre Grazing Days Stocking Rate

19 Effect of Tall Fescue and the Endophyte on Stocker Production ADGGain Stocking Rate Grazing Time (lbs/hd/d)(lb/acre)(hd/acre)(days) Fall Jesup E Jesup E Jesup NE GA 5 NE Parish, University of Georgia Ph.D. Dissertation. In the fall, tall fescue is either Boom or Bust.

20 Effect of Tall Fescue and the Endophyte on Stocker Production ADGGain Stocking Rate Grazing Time (lbs/hd/d)(lb/acre)(hd/acre)(days) Fall Jesup E Jesup E Jesup NE GA 5 NE Spring Jesup E Jesup E Jesup NE GA 5 NE Parish, University of Georgia Ph.D. Dissertation.

21 Effect of Tall Fescue, Endophyte, and White Clover on Stocker Production in the Spring Jesup Tall Fescue and Durana White Clover. 3-yr trial. Eatonton, GA. Hill, Andrae, and Bouton (unpublished data) ADGGain (lbs/hd/d)(lb/acre) E NE E+ & WC NE & WC

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23 Winter Annual Forage Systems Overseeding Winter Annuals into Bermuda Ryegrass (Annual) Rye Oats Wheat Triticale Overseeding Winter Annuals into Bermuda Ryegrass (Annual) Rye Oats Wheat Triticale Arrowleaf clover Crimson clover Red clover* Arrowleaf clover Crimson clover Red clover*

24 Winter Annual Forage Quality Species Crude Protein Total Digestible Nutrients Annual Yield * % lbs DM/acre Ryegrass ,630 Oats ,100 Wheat ,110 Rye ,850 Arrowleaf ,470 Crimson ,570 Quality ranges are approximate and are highly dependant upon forage maturity at grazing/harvest. Yields are 3-yr averages from GA and AL.

25 Winter Annual Forage Distribution

26 Winter Annuals: When and How Much

27 Effect of Winter Annual Mixture on Beef Production ORGRGRRGTRGWRG ADG (lbs/hd/d) Winter Spring Beck et al., J. Anim. Sci. 85: (SW Arkansas, Avg. of 2 yrs)

28 Effect of Winter Annual Mixture on Beef Production ORGRGRRGTRGWRG ADG (lbs/hd/d) Winter Spring Gain (lb/acre) Beck et al., J. Anim. Sci. 85: (SW Arkansas, Avg. of 2 yrs)

29 Effect of Winter Annual Mixture on Beef Production ORGRGRRGTRGWRG ADG (lbs/hd/d) Winter Spring Gain (lb/acre) Cost of Gain ($/lb) $0.29$0.28$0.25$0.39$0.28 Net Return ($/acre) $110$106$144$56$115 Beck et al., J. Anim. Sci. 85: (SW Arkansas, Avg. of 2 yrs)

30 Winter Annual Forage Systems Rye Yields: Tifton

31 Winter Annual Forage Systems Ryegrass Yields: Tifton

32 Mechanical Hay30-70% Silage60-85% Green Chop70-95% Efficiencies of Grazing and Mechanized Harvest MethodEfficiency Grazing Continuous Stocking30-40% Slow Rotation (3-4 paddocks)50-60% Moderate Rotation (6-8 paddocks)60-70% Strip Grazing70-80%

33 Winter Annual Forage: Ryegrass Cost per ton of INTAKE Cost of Intake for Hay ($60/1000 lb roll and 70% Efficiency)

34 Beef Production on Selected Winter Annual Regimens vs. No Winter Annual TreatmentN Added Added GrazingADG Gain/a cre (lbs/ac per yr)(d/yr)(lbs/hd/d)(lbs) No Annuals Ryegrass Arrowleaf + Crimson Rye + Arrowleaf + Crimson Hoveland et al., Agron. J. 70:

35 Stocker Performance on Rye and Rye- Based Mixtures – Eatonton, GA 2010 Treatment Grazing Period Stock Rate ADGGain (days)(hd/a)(lbs/hd/d)(lbs/a) Rye Only Wheat A. Ryegrass Crimson + Arrowleaf Hancock et al., Unpublished data.

36 Stocker Performance on Rye and Rye- Based Mixtures – Eatonton, GA 2010 Treatment Pasture Cost of Gain Ending Value Beg. Value Value of Gain ($/lb of gain) ($/hd/a) ($/lb/a) Rye Only $0.410$1,626$1,159$367 + Wheat $0.440$1,674$1,318$356 + A. Ryegrass $0.520$1,444$1,084$360 + Crimson + Arrowleaf $0.415$1,412$1,015$398 Hancock et al., Unpublished data.

37 Forage Productivity Differs Throughout the Year

38 Stocker Steer Performance on Alfalfa Forage Allowance Stocking DensityADG Gain/ acre Grazing Days Hd/aclbs/hd/dlbsdays High Medium Low Bates et al., J. Prod. Ag. 9: (Avg. of 3 yrs: 1989, 90, 91.)

39 Steer Performance when Rotationally Grazing Alfalfa or High-Tannin (HT) or Low-Tannin (LT) Sericea Lespedeza Legume Treatment Stocking DensityADG Gain/ acreFinal Wt. Hd/aclbs/hd/dlbs Alfalfa HT Sericea LT Sericea Schmidt et al., AL Ag. Exp. St. Circular 288 (Avg. of 3 yrs)

40 Broad-Scope Assessment of Pasture Systems for Stockers

41 Forage Systems with Highest ADG RankForage SystemADG (lbs) 1NE Tall Fescue w/White Clover2.61 2Alfalfa2.16 3EF Tall Fescue ( NE) Sericea Lespedeza (cont.) Orchardgrass w/Ladino1.83 6Orchardgrass1.77 7Sericea Lespedeza (rotat.) Oats & Crimson Clover1.60 9Rye, Ryegrass & Crimson Clover Tall Fescue w/Ladino Clover1.53 Adapted from Ball and Prevatt (2009) and other studies presented herein.

42 RankForage SystemADG (lbs) 1Tall Fescue (NE + White Clover)2.61 2Alfalfa2.16 3Tall Fescue (endo. free NE)2.13 4Sericea Lespedeza (cont.)1.87 5Orchardgrass w/Ladino1.83 6Orchardgrass1.77 7Sericea Lespedeza (rotat.)1.65 8Oats & Crimson Clover1.60 9Rye, Ryegrass & Crimson Clover Tall Fescue w/Ladino Clover1.53 Forage Systems with Highest ADG Production is vanity… Profit is sanity! High ADG High Profitability

43 Forage Systems with Lowest Cost Pasture Cost RankForage System$/Ac$/lb 1 Tall fescue w/ladino Orchardgrass w/ladino Tall fescue w/BF trefoil Bermudagrass w/h. vetch Sericea lespedeza (cont.) Sericea lespedeza (rotat.) Sericea lespedeza (cont.) Rye & ryegrass Bermudagrass (hybrid) w/rye Rye, oats & crimson clover Source: Ball and Prevatt (2009).

44 Forage Systems with Lowest Cost Pasture Cost RankForage System$/Ac$/lb 1 Tall fescue w/ladino Orchardgrass w/ladino Tall fescue w/BF trefoil Bermudagrass w/h. vetch Sericea lespedeza (cont.) Sericea lespedeza (rotat.) Sericea lespedeza (cont.) Rye & ryegrass Bermudagrass w/rye Rye, oats & crimson clover Source: Ball and Prevatt (2009). You get what you pay for! (Usually.) Low Cost High Profitability

45 Forage Systems with Highest Profitability RankForage System 1Tall fescue w/ladino 2Orchardgrass w/ladino 3Bermudagrass (Hybrid) lbs N 4Rye, ryegrass & crimson clover 5Bermudagrass w/vetch 6Rye & ryegrass 7EF Tall Fescue ( NE) 8Bermudagrass w/rye 9Bermudagrass (Hybrid) lbs N 10Oats & crimson clover Verify by using the costs per acre and estimates of gain per acre from Ball and Prevatt (2009) and market price for selling calves. NE Tall fescue + w. clover NE Tall fescue

46 THE SEVEN LOWEST PASTURE COSTS/LB OF GAIN INVOLVED LEGUMES 4 OF THE TOP 5 MOST PROFITABLE FORAGE OPTIONS USE LEGUMES EXTENSIVELY!!!

47 QUESTIONS? ASK-UGA1


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