Presentation on theme: "An Operators View on Deepwater Floating Systems and Technology Development Ming-Yao Lee Manager of Offshore & Marine Engineering Chevron Energy Technology."— Presentation transcript:
An Operators View on Deepwater Floating Systems and Technology Development Ming-Yao Lee Manager of Offshore & Marine Engineering Chevron Energy Technology Company SMART 100 Symposium on MArine Resource & Technology Taipei, Taiwan October 16, Chevron U.S.A., Inc. All rights reserved. 1
Presentation Outline Why Deep Water? Overview of Floating System Concepts Concept Selection Process and Criteria Deepwater Design Challenges Chevrons Deepwater Project Experiences New and Emerging Floating System Concepts Concluding Remarks Chevron U.S.A., Inc. All rights reserved.
Why Deep Water? – Easy Oil is Gone! 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc. All rights reserved. 3 Opportunities of floating system technologies for enabling solutions Mitigation of risks associated with use of new technology Building collaborative & productive partnerships to leverage project experience and accelerate technology deployment What does it mean: Harsher environments Deeper waters Lack of infrastructures What can we do about it: Courtesy of Bluewater
Deepwater Resource is Significant 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc. All rights reserved ft 5000 ft 1000 ft 1500ft Reserves MMBOE Water Depth ft 1 – 49 5 – ,000 – 1,499 1,500 – 4,999 5,000 – 7,499 >7,500 Estimated Volume of Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Fields OCS Report: MMS
Chevron and the Worldwide Portfolio Long-term global deepwater offshore growth expected 2011–2015 deepwater expenditures estimated to be over $200 B, ~75% increase over the previous five years The Golden Triangle still dominate, growth in Asia Pacific will be significant 5 Worldwide Producing Deepwater (DW) Basins Other DW Basins Global Forecast of FPS Spending Chevron Participation 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc. All rights reserved.
What Concepts Are in Use? FPSOs continue to dominate concept selection primarily from lack of pipeline infrastructure. Driven by drilling, completion and well intervention costs, other concepts have become more important such as: Semi-submersibles Tension leg platforms (TLPs) Spars 6 Global Forecast of FPS Hull Type 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc. All rights reserved.
Proven Floating Concepts 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc. All rights reserved. 7 Wet-Tree SolutionsDry- or Wet-Tree Solutions Spar Good heave motions Vortex-induced motion (VIM) Size-limited TLP Minimum heave Weight-sensitive Depth-limited Semi-Submersible Quayside integration Riser fatigue FPSO Storage capacity Quayside integration Riser interface Riser fatigue
Looking at Water Depth 8 TLPs: Depth-limited due to conventional tendon design restrictions. Semis: Increasingly popular due to depth insensitive and quayside integration and might soon be used for dry-tree applications. Cascade/Chinook: Soon to be the first GOM FPSO 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc. All rights reserved.
Multiple Concepts Needed for Opportunities Large overlaps reinforce the need for concept evaluation and selection during early phase of a project. There are a number of opportunities where only a single concept is practical Chevron U.S.A., Inc. All rights reserved. 9 Water Depth vs. Production Capacity 1, , , , , Production Capacity (Mboe/day) Water Depth (ft) Spar TLP Semi FPSO
Concept Selection Process 10 Region and LocationReservoir Management CommercialHull Technical Hull motion characteristics Riser system Water depth Metocean Production only? Drilling? Direct vertical access of wells Production rate and reservoir aerial extent Export options or storage requirements Cost Hull Concept Selection 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc. All rights reserved.
Motion Characteristics of Floating Hulls 11 Note: Hull motions are minimized by keeping outside the area of wave energy Chevron U.S.A., Inc. All rights reserved. 520Wave Period (Seconds) TLP Ship Beam Ship Bow Semi Spar Natural Periods of Motion Vertical motions are controlled by tendons Vertical motions are controlled by hull configuration Spread mooredVertically moored Sea Energy
Summary of Basic Concept Features 12 SparTLPDeep-Draft Semi FPSO Turret Spread Moored Export Alternatives Pipeline Pipeline/ Tanker Water DepthUp to 8,000 ft400 to 6,000 ft800 to 8,000 ft50 to 8,000 ft Topside Weight Requirements Up to 20,000t Up to 40,000t Metocean Characteristics by Region All Not harsh conditions Riser System Top-tensioned, SCR*, Flexible, Tower Top-tensioned, SCR, Flexible, Tower SCR, Flexible, Tower Flexible, SCR, Tower Dry or Wet Trees Dry or Wet Wet 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc. All rights reserved. *Steel catenary riser (SCR)
Key Concept Selection Criteria Technical Feasibility; support all equipment for operations while meeting all performance criteria Maturity of Design Technical robustness Historical performance Experience of people involved Costs and Risks CAPEX / OPEX Project Execution Plan 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc. All rights reserved. 13
Ultra-Deep Water Has Other Challenges Design Challenges Capability to predict and verify response behavior of entire floating system Testing facilities cannot model floating systems with complete mooring lines and risers 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc. All rights reserved. 14 Key Questions* To what extent can the truncated test be done? Can the numerical analysis reproduce the test results? Can the full-depth extrapolation capture the coupling effects, e.g., tail wagging the dog? *Ref: Lee & Ma, DOT 2008 Compromise Model Scale (- Water Depth) Typical Range 1:50 – 1:100 Uncertainties Physical Testing Numerical Interpretation 1:100 model in a 10m deep wave basin for 1500m full water depth
Ever-Changing Environment:100-year H s Contours Based on Passage of More Large Storms 15 Hs (m) Several large storms passing west of central GOM could change platform design statistics further, widen perceived intense area of Gulf* ??? Hot spot *Ref: OTC & Chevron U.S.A., Inc. All rights reserved. JSM (7,000) BGF (5,200) How do we handle uncertainty in this area?
16 Example Changes: Central GOM 16 Example, 100-year Hs, Central GOM: 2003 was 13.5 m 2008 now m Add large storms, eliminate early data… 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc. All rights reserved.
Chevron Installations and Constructions Chevron U.S.A., Inc. All rights reserved. FPSO/FSO Kuito Sanha *Kome Kribi *Moho-Bilondo *NKossa Negage Lucapa FPSO *Cossack Pioneer FPSO * Hai Yang Shi You *Nan Hai Fa Zian *Bohai Shi Ji FPSO/FSO Agbami Escravos LPG *Usan FPSO Frade *Papa Terra Spar Genesis Tahiti *Mad Dog *Perdido Semi-Submersible Blind Faith Jack/St. Malo Compliant Tower Petronius TLP Big Foot FSU/FPSO Alba/Captain Rosebank FPSO *Terra Nova FPSO Tantawan Benchamas Explorer Pattani Spirit FPSO *Intan *PBS&J San Jacinto Gendalo-Geham TLP West Seno *Non-Operated Joint Venture In Design Compliant Tower BBLT Tombua-Landana
Recent Chevron Floating Projects 18 Used a system approach in concept selection – coupled hull, mooring and riser solutions The Chevron Way at its best: people, partnership and performance – health, environment and safety Integrated operations and project teams early in the process Aligned company and contractor – contracting strategy Guard unknowns in deepwater operations, especially contingency of vessel and equipment – crane limit, vessel breakdown 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc. All rights reserved. OTC OTC Blind Faith 4Q 2008Tahiti 2Q 2009Frade 1Q 2009Agbami 3Q 2008
2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc. All rights reserved. 19 Jack & St Malo semi Big Foot TLP Papa Terra TLWP Current Floating Systems Projects in Design
Dry Tree Facilities for Ultra-Deep and Large Payload No proven dry-tree concepts TLP limited by Water Depth Spar limited by Payload Chevron U.S.A., Inc. All rights reserved.
New Enabling or Enhancing Concepts 21 Circular-shaped FPSOs to reduce CAPEX Better hull steel efficiency Simplified constructability No turret (even in harsh conditions) FPSO with drilling capability Reduce development drilling cost Increase oil recovery Azurite FPSO photo courtesy of Murphy Oil Company 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc. All rights reserved. Dry-tree semis to reduce CAPEX and increase flexibility Higher topsides weight Deeper dry-tree developments Quayside integration OctabuoyPair-C Semi Aker Dry Tree Semi SevanSSP Azurite FDPSO MinDOC
Chevron Technology Qualification Process All new technologies that will, by the end of Select (i.e. prior to FEED), have been proven either through field trials, extensive testing, or successful application in a parallel industry, shall be considered Chevron U.S.A., Inc. All rights reserved. 22 Example: Dry-Tree Semi Issues Hull motions to accommodate proven riser tensioning systems Constructability of new hull forms and/or critical components Minimize risks of new technologies
Deep water will require a large portfolio of projects to be developed with floating production systems. Development opportunities often call for floating system concept evaluation and selection. A more standardized concept selection process is needed. Focus on new developments of enabling/ enhancing concepts, and be open to new technologies. Dry trees and/or platform drilling are likely to become more important, to increase recovery and reduce cost. Operations input early and throughout the floating system project will pay significant dividends. Concluding Remarks Chevron U.S.A., Inc. All rights reserved.
Thank You! Chevron U.S.A., Inc. All rights reserved. Questions? New floating system technologies are required to address ever increasing water depth and large topside challenges Experience, technology and perseverance enable us to overcome challenges and deliver value Collaborative and productive partnership will accelerate technology development and deployment