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An Operator’s View on Deepwater Floating Systems and Technology Development Ming-Yao Lee Manager of Offshore & Marine Engineering Chevron Energy Technology.

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Presentation on theme: "An Operator’s View on Deepwater Floating Systems and Technology Development Ming-Yao Lee Manager of Offshore & Marine Engineering Chevron Energy Technology."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Operator’s View on Deepwater Floating Systems and Technology Development
Ming-Yao Lee Manager of Offshore & Marine Engineering Chevron Energy Technology Company SMART 100 Symposium on MArine Resource & Technology Taipei, Taiwan October 16, 2011 Notes go here. 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc.  All rights reserved.

2 Presentation Outline Why Deep Water?
Overview of Floating System Concepts Concept Selection Process and Criteria Deepwater Design Challenges Chevron’s Deepwater Project Experiences New and Emerging Floating System Concepts Concluding Remarks 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc.  All rights reserved.

3 Why Deep Water? – Easy Oil is Gone!
What does it mean: Harsher environments Deeper waters Lack of infrastructures What can we do about it: Courtesy of Bluewater Opportunities of floating system technologies for enabling solutions Mitigation of risks associated with use of new technology Building collaborative & productive partnerships to leverage project experience and accelerate technology deployment 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc.  All rights reserved.

4 Deepwater Resource is Significant
7500 ft 5000 ft 1000 ft 1500ft Reserves MMBOE Water Depth ft 1 – 49 5 – 249 250+ 1,000 – 1,499 1,500 – 4,999 5,000 – 7,499 >7,500 More bubbles and bigger bubbles, e.g. CVX will drill an average of 4-5 exploration wildcat wells per year, with a focus on Lower Tertiary prospects, and maintain an impact Exploration Factory. Estimated Volume of Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Fields OCS Report: MMS 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc.  All rights reserved.

5 Chevron and the Worldwide Portfolio
Long-term global deepwater offshore growth expected 2011–2015 deepwater expenditures estimated to be over $200 B, ~75% increase over the previous five years The “Golden Triangle” still dominate, growth in Asia Pacific will be significant Worldwide Producing Deepwater (DW) Basins Global Forecast of FPS Spending The “Golden Triangle” of deepwater, namely Africa, the Gulf of Mexico, and Brazilian areas, still will account for nearly 75% of global deepwater expenditure over the forecast period, but the emergence of Asia as a significant deepwater region should not be overlooked. Asian deepwater expenditure over the period will increase by 90% compared to spend. Much of this growth will be driven by the development of the Kebabangan cluster in Malaysia as well as the MA-6 development offshore India. Chevron Participation Other DW Basins 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc.  All rights reserved.

6 What Concepts Are in Use?
FPSOs continue to dominate concept selection primarily from lack of pipeline infrastructure. Driven by drilling, completion and well intervention costs, other concepts have become more important such as: Semi-submersibles Tension leg platforms (TLPs) Spars Global Forecast of FPS Hull Type Despite the near-term slowdown due to global financial crisis in and oscillating crude oil prices, the global deepwater offshore market is expected to be both healthy and with robust growth. 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc.  All rights reserved.

7 Proven Floating Concepts
Dry- or Wet-Tree Solutions Wet-Tree Solutions Developments in deepwater environments can be characterized by the type of access to the development wells; direct vertical access (DVA) systems from surface (e.g. dry-tree solutions), non-DVA systems at seabed (i.e. wet-tree solutions), or combination systems. Given the relatively short history of production in deep waters, operators need to have more confidence that the chosen floating system concept will perform as planned and produce competitive economics. Technical attributes (pros & cons) associated with the existing tool-kit concepts are shown on this slide. This does NOT preclude operators from considering other more innovative development concepts and/or extending these tool-kit concepts to reduce cost and risk. Spar  Good heave motions ▬ Vortex-induced motion (VIM) ▬ Size-limited TLP Minimum heave Weight-sensitive Depth-limited Semi-Submersible  Quayside integration Riser fatigue FPSO Storage capacity Quayside integration Riser interface Riser fatigue 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc.  All rights reserved.

8 Looking at Water Depth TLPs: Depth-limited due to conventional tendon design restrictions. Semis: Increasingly popular due to depth insensitive and quayside integration and might soon be used for dry-tree applications. Cascade/Chinook: Soon to be the first GOM FPSO One of the key factors that affect the selection of a floating system concept is “water depth”. This slide shows the relative water depths of floating system concepts that are either installed or under construction. The perceived water depth capability of each concept is also illustrated. As shown, the main limitation for TLP is due to the weight of its tethers. For water depth beyond 1,500 – 2,000 meters, the tether weight tends to penalize the hull size and the economics of a TLP concept. 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc.  All rights reserved.

9 Multiple Concepts Needed for Opportunities
Water Depth vs. Production Capacity Large overlaps reinforce the need for concept evaluation and selection during early phase of a project. There are a number of opportunities where only a single concept is practical. Water Depth (ft) 9,000 - 7,000 - Spar TLP Semi FPSO 5,000 - 3,000 - FPSO Boundaries Abalone –A petrobras development in 6500 feet and bopd Spar Boundaries 7,800 feet and bopd TLP Boundaries feet and 250,000 bopd Nb. Snorre A is an outlier in todays market. It would not be an economic choice today. Semi Boundaries Independence 7,900 feet and Thunder 290,000 bopd Platform Name Water Depth(ft) Production Capacity (Mboe/day) SPAR Neptune Medusa Genesis Gunnison Front Runner Boomvang Nansen Tahiti Holstein Mad Dog Hoover/Diana Constitution Red Hawk Horn Mountain Devils Tower Perdido TLP Hutton Snorre A Heidrum Prince Morpeth Jolliet Matterhorn Auger Mars Brutus Ram/Powell Marlin Ursa Neptune Marco Polo Shenzi Magnolia SEMI Innovator P P Thunder Hawk P Na Kika Thunder Horse Blind Faith Atlantis Independence Hub FPSO Abalone Agbami Aker Smart Akpo Baobab Ivoirien Berge Helene Bonga Brasil Capixaba Captain Cidade Janiero Dalia Erha Espadarte Firenze Fluminense FPSO Frade Gimboa Girassol Golfinho II Greater Plutonio Kikeh FPSO Kizomba A Kizomba B Kizomba C # Marlim Sul Mondo Opportunity Oil P P P P P P P P P-53 FPSO P-54 Roncador Piranema Sao Mateus Seillean Sendje Ceiba Stybarrow Xikomba 1,000 - 100 200 300 400 Production Capacity (Mboe/day) 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc.  All rights reserved.

10 Concept Selection Process
Cost Hull motion characteristics Export options or storage requirements Hull Technical Commercial Riser system Production rate and reservoir aerial extent Hull Concept Selection Water depth Direct vertical access of wells Understanding the advantages/disadvantages Minimizing the risks, especially subsurface & drilling (~> 50% cost) Ranking based on project/company criteria Metocean Production only? Drilling? Region and Location Reservoir Management 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc.  All rights reserved.

11 Motion Characteristics of Floating Hulls
Natural Periods of Motion Vertical motions are controlled by tendons Vertically moored Spread moored Vertical motions are controlled by hull configuration Sea Energy TLP Spar Semi Ship Beam To minimize vessel motions, it is desirable to ensure that the frequency of the waves (period) does not coincide with a resonant frequency of the vessel (the frequency at which the vessel ‘sings’ and so motions are significantly worse). The slide shows the typical wave period together with typical heave motion periods for the primary floating concepts. The TLP, semi-submersible, and spar will not suffer resonant response since their natural heave periods are far away from the period with maximum sea energy. However, ship-shaped FPSO in beam sea configuration may suffer significant motion. Therefore, the aforementioned design of weathervaning or turret moored FPSO’s are deployed in regions where storms are likely to occur equally from all headings, in order to maintain the FPSO in head seas. Spread moored FPSO’s are acceptable in West Africa since severe weather is predominantly from the south or southwest. Ship Bow 5 Wave Period (Seconds) 20 Note: Hull motions are minimized by keeping outside the area of wave energy. 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc.  All rights reserved.

12 Summary of Basic Concept Features
Spar TLP Deep-Draft Semi FPSO Turret Spread Moored Export Alternatives Pipeline Pipeline/ Tanker Water Depth Up to 8,000 ft 400 to 6,000 ft 800 to 8,000 ft 50 to 8,000 ft Topside Weight Requirements Up to 20,000t Up to 40,000t Metocean Characteristics by Region All Not harsh conditions Riser System Top-tensioned, SCR*, Flexible, Tower Top-tensioned, SCR, Flexible, Tower SCR, Flexible, Tower Flexible, SCR, Tower Dry or Wet Trees Dry or Wet Wet (eg. FPSO for GoM) Concept selection for floating production systems has a complex number of parameters to consider. FPSO’s are the most common concept selected because of storage or export capabilities. Local regulations and local content may impact concepts. *Steel catenary riser (SCR) 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc.  All rights reserved.

13 Key Concept Selection Criteria
Technical Feasibility; support all equipment for operations while meeting all performance criteria Maturity of Design Technical robustness Historical performance Experience of people involved Costs and Risks CAPEX / OPEX Project Execution Plan After stepping through the selection process, these are some of the key criteria that affect the final selection. The ultimate goal is to select an optimum hull concept which: Supports all necessary equipment for production while meet all performance criteria Provides sufficient robustness to fulfill its intended purpose Built, installed and operated at minimum risks and costs 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc.  All rights reserved.

14 Ultra-Deep Water Has Other Challenges
Design Challenges Capability to predict and verify response behavior of entire floating system Testing facilities cannot model floating systems with complete mooring lines and risers Key Questions* To what extent can the truncated test be done? Can the numerical analysis reproduce the test results? Can the full-depth extrapolation capture the coupling effects, e.g., “tail wagging the dog”? 1:100 model in a 10m deep wave basin for 1500m full water depth Compromise Wave basins are not big nor deep enough!! e.g., 1:100 model scale in a 10-m deep basin for 1,500-m WD Typical Range 1:50 – 1:100 Numerical Interpretation Physical Testing Uncertainties Model Scale (- Water Depth) 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc.  All rights reserved. *Ref: Lee & Ma, DOT 2008

15 How do we handle uncertainty in this area?
Ever-Changing Environment:100-year Hs Contours Based on Passage of More Large Storms How do we handle uncertainty in this area? Hot spot ??? JSM (7,000’) BGF (5,200’) Point to note: in the Central GOM “hot spot”, the new API RP 2MET has the revised criteria in place. Recent major hurricanes in the GOM like Ivan (2004)/Katrina (2005) tracking would feed into increased design statistics. However, there’s still significant upside potential outside of Central GOM, e.g. Gustav & IKE of 2008. Several large storms passing west of central GOM could change platform design statistics further, widen perceived intense area of Gulf* Hs (m) 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc.  All rights reserved. *Ref: OTC & 19602 15

16 Example Changes: Central GOM
Add large storms, eliminate early data… Example, 100-year Hs, Central GOM: 2003 was 13.5 m 2008 now m Example Changes: Central Gulf site 100-year Hs: 2003 was 13.5 m 2008 now m Have adjusted JSM, BGF sites for historical record and Ike, but… Statistics still vulnerable to change from big storms 16 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc.  All rights reserved. 16

17 Chevron Installations and Constructions
FSU/FPSO Alba/Captain Rosebank FPSO *Terra Nova FPSO *Hai Yang Shi You *Nan Hai Fa Zian *Bohai Shi Ji Spar Genesis Tahiti *Mad Dog *Perdido Semi-Submersible Blind Faith Jack/St. Malo Compliant Tower Petronius TLP Big Foot FPSO Tantawan Benchamas Explorer Pattani Spirit FPSO Frade *Papa Terra FPSO/FSO Agbami Escravos LPG *Usan FPSO *Cossack Pioneer FPSO/FSO Kuito Sanha *Kome Kribi *Moho-Bilondo *N’Kossa Negage Lucapa FPSO *Intan *PBS&J San Jacinto Gendalo-Geham TLP West Seno Compliant Tower BBLT Tombua-Landana * Non-Operated Joint Venture In Design 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc.  All rights reserved.

18 Recent Chevron Floating Projects
The Chevron Way at its best: people, partnership and performance – health, environment and safety Used a system approach in concept selection – coupled hull, mooring and riser solutions Integrated operations and project teams early in the process Aligned company and contractor – contracting strategy Guard unknowns in deepwater operations, especially contingency of vessel and equipment – crane limit, vessel breakdown OTC 19857 OTC 20249 Agbami 3Q 2008 Blind Faith 4Q 2008 Frade 1Q 2009 Tahiti 2Q 2009 Agbami – 3Q08 (The world’s largest FPSO; A worldwide partnership/teamwork – “One Project, One Team”) Blind Faith – 4Q08 (Reached full production within 2 months of first oil) Frade – 1Q09 (CVX’s first operating asset in one of the most promising deepwater regions) Right to hold facility in yard to achieve planned sailaway completion? Use Separate integration contactor? Tahiti – 2Q09 (Reached full production within 2 months of first oil) 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc.  All rights reserved.

19 Current Floating Systems Projects in Design
Jack & St Malo semi Big Foot TLP Papa Terra TLWP 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc.  All rights reserved.

20 Dry Tree Facilities for Ultra-Deep and Large Payload
No proven dry-tree concepts TLP limited by Water Depth For ultra-deepwater Wilcox reservoirs, our additional challenges: WD is deep; the drilling (reservoir) depth is even deeper. High tension and large stroke for the riser tensioning systems. Spar limited by Payload 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc.  All rights reserved.

21 New Enabling or Enhancing Concepts
FPSO with drilling capability Reduce development drilling cost Increase oil recovery Circular-shaped FPSOs to reduce CAPEX Better hull steel efficiency Simplified constructability No turret (even in harsh conditions) Dry-tree semis to reduce CAPEX and increase flexibility Higher topsides weight Deeper dry-tree developments Quayside integration Octabuoy MinDOC Azurite FDPSO Sevan SSP Pair-C Semi Aker Dry Tree Semi 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc.  All rights reserved. Azurite FPSO photo courtesy of Murphy Oil Company

22 Chevron Technology Qualification Process
“All new technologies that will, by the end of Select (i.e. prior to FEED), have been proven either through field trials, extensive testing, or successful application in a parallel industry, shall be considered.” Example: Dry-Tree Semi Issues Hull motions to accommodate proven riser tensioning systems Constructability of new hull forms and/or critical components Minimize risks of new technologies 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc.  All rights reserved.

23 Concluding Remarks Deep water will require a large portfolio of projects to be developed with floating production systems. Development opportunities often call for floating system concept evaluation and selection. A more standardized concept selection process is needed. Focus on new developments of enabling/ enhancing concepts, and be open to new technologies. Dry trees and/or platform drilling are likely to become more important, to increase recovery and reduce cost. Operation’s input early and throughout the floating system project will pay significant dividends. A standardized concept selection process is needed to: not re-inventing the wheels. Leverage best practices & lessons learned to improve project results. Integrated operations and design will lead to a more reliable floating facility, which is easier to operate & maintain. 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc.  All rights reserved.

24 Thank You! New floating system technologies are required to address ever increasing water depth and large topside challenges Experience, technology and perseverance enable us to overcome challenges and deliver value Collaborative and productive partnership will accelerate technology development and deployment Questions? New concept from inception to installation ~10 years. 2011 Chevron U.S.A., Inc.  All rights reserved.

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