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An Overview of U.S. Sport Management October 15, 2013 – Budapest, Hungary.

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Presentation on theme: "An Overview of U.S. Sport Management October 15, 2013 – Budapest, Hungary."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Overview of U.S. Sport Management October 15, 2013 – Budapest, Hungary

2 Bocsánat Nem tudok [jól] magyarul Indianából vagyok – 6.5M 9.9M 1820 46.8K – 115K – 8 campuses

3 CSM – 5 th Edition (2014) Introduction to Sport Management – Chapter 1. Managing Sport – Chapter 2. Developing a Professional Perspective – Chapter 3. Historical Aspects of Sport Business – Chapter 4. Management Concepts and Practice – Chapter 5. Managerial Leadership in Sport Orgs Sport Management Sites – Chapter 6. Community and Youth Sport – Chapter 7. Interscholastic Athletics – Chapter 8. Intercollegiate Athletics – Chapter 9. Professional Sport – Chapter 10. Sport Management/Marketing Agencies – Chapter 11. Sport Tourism Sport Management Functions – Chapter 12. Sport Marketing – Chapter 13. Sport Consumer Behavior – Chapter 14. Communication in the Sport Industry – Chapter 15. Finance/Economics in the Sport Industry – Chapter 16. Sport Facility and Event Management Current Challenges in Sport Management – Chapter 17. Legal Considerations in Sport Mgmt – Chapter 18. Sociological Aspects of Sport – Chapter 19. North American Per. on International Sport – Chapter 20. Sport Management Research

4 Introduction to Sport Management 1. Managing Sport 2. Developing a Prof. Perspective 3. Historical Aspects of Sport Bus. 4. Management Concepts/Practice 5. Managerial Lead. in Sport Orgs Sport Management Sites 6. Community and Youth Sport 7. Interscholastic Athletics 8. Intercollegiate Athletics 9. Professional Sport 10. Sport Mgmt/Marketing Agencies 11. Sport Tourism Sport Management Functions 12. Sport Marketing 13. Sport Consumer Behavior 14. Comm. in the Sport Industry 15. Finance/Economics in Sport 16. Sport Facility and Event Mgmt Current Challenges in Sport Mgmt 17. Legal Considerations in Sport 18. Sociological Aspects of Sport 19. North Amer. Per. on Int. Sport 20. Sport Management Research

5 Much more than Big Four Boundaryless – Segments, scope, activities, personnel, functions, orgs, etc. Types - youth, community, college, elite-amateur, semi-pro, pro, senior, etc. Participatory – Ultra-marathon, endurance, survival » Tough Mudder 50 events, $2M (10) - $115M (13) Spectatorial – 363 million {$27B (U.S.)} » Gate receipts, concessions, parking, on-site merchandise, premium seating U.S. Sport Industry Introduction to Sport Management 1. Managing Sport 2. Developing a Prof. Perspective 3. Historical Aspects of Sport Bus. 4. Management Concepts/Practice 5. Managerial Lead. in Sport Orgs Sport Management Sites 6. Community and Youth Sport 7. Interscholastic Athletics 8. Intercollegiate Athletics 9. Professional Sport 10. Sport Mgmt/Marketing Agencies 11. Sport Tourism Sport Management Functions 12. Sport Marketing 13. Sport Consumer Behavior 14. Comm. in the Sport Industry 15. Finance/Economics in Sport 16. Sport Facility and Event Mgmt Current Challenges in Sport Mgmt 17. Legal Considerations in Sport 18. Sociological Aspects of Sport 19. North Amer. Per. on Int. Sport 20. Sport Management Research

6 Settings and Products – – Single sports - Leagues, teams, orgs – Multi-sports State games, colleges, conferences, high schools, foundations, commissions, HOFs – Mass/new/social media, sponsors, retailers, manufacturers, events, meetings, trade shows – Services Agencies, search firms, event staffing, research, travel, legal/financial/marketing, recruiting, consulting – Sport Mgmt/Marketing firms (775) – Facilities All levels, record numbers built, economic impact, civic pride, event solicitation, etc. – Goods and Apparel Sporting goods, equipment, sportswear, footwear, etc. Licensed goods, apparel, merchandise, etc. – Advertising, sponsorships, endorsements, etc. $20B in North America, 70% going to sports Naming rights, bowls, events, athletes, teams, organizations, etc. – Gambling and fantasy sports – Transportation, tourism, travel, medical, accommodations, meals, etc. U.S. Sport Industry

7 Toy dept. of life? Diversion from everyday life? Hard to quantify and define* Sport Management – study and practice of all people, activities, businesses, or organizations involved in producing, facilitating, promoting, or organizing any sport-related product** Management, marketing, sponsorship, sales Governance, communications, events, promotions Media/public relations, financial, legal aspects U.S. Sport Industry *(Howard & DeSchriver, 2005; **Pitts & Stotlar, 2002; Plunkett, 2013)

8 The Study Of… Before 80s, few classes/majors 682 SM Programs – 581 in U.S. 354 – BA/BS 198 – Masters 29 - Doctoral IU

9 The Study Of… Before 80s, few classes/majors 682 SM Programs – 581 in U.S. IU – History/Personnel 1982 – SMM Undergraduate (~180) 1985 – Masters (~50) 1999 – SC Undergraduate (~200) 2001 – PhD (~20) 7 Faculty; ~450 Students – Tracks B: Marketing/Management; Communication (Print/Broadcast) M: Athletic Administration; Sport Marketing; Sport Communication – SM/SC Industry Segments Served Pro leagues; Intercollegiate/scholastic; Governing bodies Sport media outlets; Sporting goods; Academy – Topics Covered History/Sociology/Psychology of Sport; OT/OB; Strategic Mgmt Communication, Law, Finance, Marketing, Sales, & Promotions

10 Introduction to Sport Management 1. Managing Sport 2. Developing a Prof. Perspective 3. Historical Aspects of Sport Bus. 4. Management Concepts/Practice 5. Managerial Lead. in Sport Orgs Sport Management Sites 6. Community and Youth Sport 7. Interscholastic Athletics 8. Intercollegiate Athletics 9. Professional Sport 10. Sport Mgmt/Marketing Agencies 11. Sport Tourism Sport Management Functions 12. Sport Marketing 13. Sport Consumer Behavior 14. Comm. in the Sport Industry 15. Finance/Economics in Sport 16. Sport Facility and Event Mgmt Current Challenges in Sport Mgmt 17. Legal Considerations in Sport 18. Sociological Aspects of Sport 19. North Amer. Per. on Int. Sport 20. Sport Management Research

11 Sports Participation – Largest Segment – 217M active youth/adults – Core: Triathlons, endurance, running, MMA, etc. are up Core: – Basketball (16.7M), Bowling (11.5M), Baseball (9.4M), Yoga (9.8M), Football (9.7M), Soccer (6.4M), Table Tennis (5.6M), Softball (4.5M), Martial Arts (3.9M), Volleyball (3.9M) – Golf (25.6M) - 2012 Core Participants (SGMA) 2012 Core Participants (SGMA) Youth – Classes, instructional leagues, competitive leagues, etc. PAL, CYO, Pop Warner, Little League, US Youth Soccer Community – YMCA, USTA, American Softball Assoc., US Volleyball Assoc. – Participation for fundraisers, career/profession, celebrity, religious, city, county, regional, national, etc. Introduction to Sport Management 1. Managing Sport 2. Developing a Prof. Perspective 3. Historical Aspects of Sport Bus. 4. Management Concepts/Practice 5. Managerial Lead. in Sport Orgs Sport Management Sites 6. Community and Youth Sport 7. Interscholastic Athletics 8. Intercollegiate Athletics 9. Professional Sport 10. Sport Mgmt/Marketing Agencies 11. Sport Tourism Sport Management Functions 12. Sport Marketing 13. Sport Consumer Behavior 14. Comm. in the Sport Industry 15. Finance/Economics in Sport 16. Sport Facility and Event Mgmt Current Challenges in Sport Mgmt 17. Legal Considerations in Sport 18. Sociological Aspects of Sport 19. North Amer. Per. on Int. Sport 20. Sport Management Research Community/Youth

12 Interscholastic Governance – National – State – Athletic Depts (24K) Employees (300K) – Admins, coaches, trainers, officials, etc. Size – $15B U.S. Segment Participation – 80 – 5.4M – 00 – 6.6M – 12 – 7.7M 52% of students

13 Intercollegiate National governing bodies – NAIA, NCCAA, NJCAA, etc. – NCAA Student-athletes – 244K (1982) 282K (1992) 360K (23 sports) TV rights fees – NCAA…basketball/etc. » 14-year ($10.8B) 14-year ($10.8B) – BCS…College Football Playoff » 12-year ($7B) – Conference/school networks Membership – 1,287 Conferences (major/mid) Revenues – FBS: $11M to $163M – FCS: $2.6M to $45M *Matuszewski, 2013; NCAA, 2012

14 Professional Variety – Lacrosse, Slamball, paintball, soccer (mens, womens, indoor, etc.), racing (bike, auto, extreme, etc.), golf (PGA, LPGA, minors, seniors), etc. Football – Flag, touch, tackle, youth, high school, college, semi-pro – Pro AF2 – 25; IWFL – 26 ($2,750) NFL – 32 (2013, Avg. Value: $1.17B) – Media rights, suites, PSLs, revenue sharing, endorsements, local media rights, gate receipts, hard salary cap/CBO, concessions, naming rights, parking, licensed products, etc. Baseball – Youth, high school, college, minors (250+) – MLB (30) - 2013 Avg. Value: $744M Basketball – Youth, high school, college, minors, WNBA (12) – NBA (30) - 2013 Avg. Value: $509M Hockey – Minor/niche leagues (youth, inline, roller, etc.) – NHL (30) … Avg. Value: $282M *Forbes

15 Introduction to Sport Management 1. Managing Sport 2. Developing a Prof. Perspective 3. Historical Aspects of Sport Bus. 4. Management Concepts/Practice 5. Managerial Lead. in Sport Orgs Sport Management Sites 6. Community and Youth Sport 7. Interscholastic Athletics 8. Intercollegiate Athletics 9. Professional Sport 10. Sport Mgmt/Marketing Agencies 11. Sport Tourism Sport Management Functions 12. Sport Marketing 13. Sport Consumer Behavior 14. Comm. in the Sport Industry 15. Finance/Economics in Sport 16. Sport Facility and Event Mgmt Current Challenges in Sport Mgmt 17. Legal Considerations in Sport 18. Sociological Aspects of Sport 19. North Amer. Per. on Int. Sport 20. Sport Management Research

16 Sport Communication Ubiquitous presence – SI growth/viability Sport and Media - Symbiotic – Print (sections 30%; mags; books) – Radio (few in 80s; 328) – Broadcast 1960s … 3 networks-minimal sports Increases in: – Fulltime coverage – Specialization – Annual Rights Fees – New/Social Media Introduction to Sport Management 1. Managing Sport 2. Developing a Prof. Perspective 3. Historical Aspects of Sport Bus. 4. Management Concepts/Practice 5. Managerial Lead. in Sport Orgs Sport Management Sites 6. Community and Youth Sport 7. Interscholastic Athletics 8. Intercollegiate Athletics 9. Professional Sport 10. Sport Mgmt/Marketing Agencies 11. Sport Tourism Sport Management Functions 12. Sport Marketing 13. Sport Consumer Behavior 14. Comm. in the Sport Industry 15. Finance/Economics in Sport 16. Sport Facility and Event Mgmt Current Challenges in Sport Mgmt 17. Legal Considerations in Sport 18. Sociological Aspects of Sport 19. North Amer. Per. on Int. Sport 20. Sport Management Research

17 Ubiquitous presence – SI growth/viability Sport and Media - Symbiotic – Print (sections 30%; mags; books) – Radio (few in 80s; 328) – Broadcast 1960s … 3 networks-minimal sports Increases in: – Fulltime coverage » ESPN, ESPN News » Sports Networks (CBS, NBC, Fox, etc.) » College networks (Big Ten, SEC, Longhorn, BYU, etc.) » League networks (NFL, MLB, NBA, etc.) » 235 hours of sport programming daily … double? – Specialization » 50+ channels with exclusive sport programming (e.g., golf, extreme, billiards) Introduction to Sport Management 1. Managing Sport 2. Developing a Prof. Perspective 3. Historical Aspects of Sport Bus. 4. Management Concepts/Practice 5. Managerial Lead. in Sport Orgs Sport Management Sites 6. Community and Youth Sport 7. Interscholastic Athletics 8. Intercollegiate Athletics 9. Professional Sport 10. Sport Mgmt/Marketing Agencies 11. Sport Tourism Sport Management Functions 12. Sport Marketing 13. Sport Consumer Behavior 14. Comm. in the Sport Industry 15. Finance/Economics in Sport 16. Sport Facility and Event Mgmt Current Challenges in Sport Mgmt 17. Legal Considerations in Sport 18. Sociological Aspects of Sport 19. North Amer. Per. on Int. Sport 20. Sport Management Research Sport Communication

18 Ubiquitous presence – SI growth/viability Sport and Media - Symbiotic – Print (sections 30%; mags; books) – Radio (few in 80s; 328) – Broadcast 1960s … 3 networks-minimal sports Increases in: – Fulltime coverage – Specialization – Annual Rights Fees » NFL - 1962 (5M) 2000 (2.2B) 2013 (5.18B) » MLB - 1990 (365M) 2010 (650M) 2013 (1.55B) » NBA - 1990 (219M) 2006 (767M) 2013 (930M) » NASCAR ($560M) » PGA Tour ($280M) » NHL ($188M) New/Social Media Introduction to Sport Management 1. Managing Sport 2. Developing a Prof. Perspective 3. Historical Aspects of Sport Bus. 4. Management Concepts/Practice 5. Managerial Lead. in Sport Orgs Sport Management Sites 6. Community and Youth Sport 7. Interscholastic Athletics 8. Intercollegiate Athletics 9. Professional Sport 10. Sport Mgmt/Marketing Agencies 11. Sport Tourism Sport Management Functions 12. Sport Marketing 13. Sport Consumer Behavior 14. Comm. in the Sport Industry 15. Finance/Economics in Sport 16. Sport Facility and Event Mgmt Current Challenges in Sport Mgmt 17. Legal Considerations in Sport 18. Sociological Aspects of Sport 19. North Amer. Per. on Int. Sport 20. Sport Management Research Sport Communication

19 Source Publicity – Social media; interactive websites – Used by stakeholders Orgs, personnel, GMs, athletes, fans, sponsors, media – Bypass media, communicate directly Craft, shape, disseminate message – Gatekeepers … Set agenda … Influence perceptions – Changes with media relations/SID Providing info directly to fans Housed in SID, Marketing, Media, etc. Social media days, nights, events, zones, etc. New/Social

20 Informational – Media/Public/Community Relations Awareness/Information – Injuries, live scoring, results, traffic – Conditions, updates, photos, videos – Charity work, podcasts, vcasts, etc. Gatekeeping – Breaking news, dissemination, web traffic Social – Interactivity Social/parasocial/interact with fans – Fans as judges for dunk contest; MVT Promotional/Financial – Marketing/Advertising Promote special events/sales/tickets – Merchandise Hastags, handles, etc. Culture – Team Identity/voice (Wyshynski, 2012) Sarcastic, Outrageous, Taunting Sport Org Social Media Usage

21 Informational – Media/Public/Community Relations Awareness/Information – Injuries, live scoring, results, traffic – Conditions, updates, photos, videos – Charity work, podcasts, vcasts, etc. Gatekeeping – Breaking news, dissemination, web traffic Social – Interactivity Social/parasocial/interact with fans – Fans as judges for dunk contest; MVT? Promotional/Financial – Marketing/Advertising Promote special events/sales/tickets – Merchandise Hastags, handles, etc. Culture – Team Identity/voice (Wyshynski, 2012) Sarcastic, Outrageous, Taunting Sport Org Social Media Usage

22 Informational – Media/Public/Community Relations Awareness/Information – Injuries, live scoring, results, traffic – Conditions, updates, photos, videos – Charity work, podcasts, vcasts, etc. Gatekeeping – Breaking news, dissemination, web traffic Social – Interactivity Social/parasocial/interact with fans – Fans as judges for dunk contest; MVT Promotional/Financial – Marketing/Advertising Promote special events/sales/tickets – Merchandise Hastags, handles, etc. Culture – Team Identity/voice (Wyshynski, 2012) Sarcastic, Outrageous, Taunting Sport Org Social Media Usage

23 Informational – Media/Public/Community Relations Awareness/Information – Injuries, live scoring, results, traffic – Conditions, updates, photos, videos – Charity work, podcasts, vcasts, etc. Gatekeeping – Breaking news, dissemination, web traffic Social – Interactivity Social/parasocial/interact with fans – Fans as judges for dunk contest; MVT Promotional/Financial – Marketing/Advertising Promote special events/sales/tickets – Merchandise Hastags, handles, etc. Culture – Team/Org Persona Sarcastic, Outrageous, Taunting Sport Org Social Media Usage

24 Org. Social Media Policies Identify/mitigate risks – Some orgs allow, monitor, advise against, ban, etc. Hold stakeholders accountable for social media comments – Just as public statements Protecting sport/club/coaches/game – Limit risk of tweeting sensitive material Putting team at a competitive advantage (e.g., false injury info to affect opp.) Injuries/lineups affect betting lines/gambling – Limit risk of players distracted by social media Protecting media interests – Allow traditional media (& rights fees) opportunity to get info out *Blair, 2011; Bowles et al., 2013; Clavio, 2012; Daly, 2011; Hutchins, 2011; Weir, 2011; Wyshynski, 2011

25 Social Media Issues Emotions (fans, personnel, spouses, etc.)

26 Social Media Issues Emotions Parody/Hacked Accounts/Mistakes

27 Social Media Issues Emotions Parody/Hacked Accounts/Mistakes Controversies/Fines – NBA Mavs owner (2009) - $25K (officials) – NBA Villanueva (2009) – During game – NBA Jennings (2009) - $7,500 (post game before media obligations) – NFL Cromartie (2009) – PGA McLachlin (2009) – Cell – MLS Brian Ching (2009) - $500 (official) – NFL Oher (2010) - $5K (in-game injury) – NFL Ochocinco (2010) - $25K (hour before kickoff) – NASCAR Hamlin (2010) - $50K? (officials) – NFL Owens (2010) - $5K (hour before kickoff) – NFL Dockett (2010) - $5K (20 minutes before kickoff) – NFL Mendenhall (2011) (Osama) – NBA Heat owner (2011) - $500K (lockout) – NBA Butler (2011) (Hospital) – MLB Guillen (2011) - $20K/first MLB suspension for tweet – officials/ use of electronic equipment during the course of a game) – IZOD Castroneves (2011) - $30K (official) – MLB Chris Perez (2012) - $750 (brawl) – IndyCar Owner John Barnes (2012) – $25,000 (disparaging)

28 Introduction to Sport Management 1. Managing Sport 2. Developing a Prof. Perspective 3. Historical Aspects of Sport Bus. 4. Management Concepts/Practice 5. Managerial Lead. in Sport Orgs Sport Management Sites 6. Community and Youth Sport 7. Interscholastic Athletics 8. Intercollegiate Athletics 9. Professional Sport 10. Sport Mgmt/Marketing Agencies 11. Sport Tourism Sport Management Functions 12. Sport Marketing 13. Sport Consumer Behavior 14. Comm. in the Sport Industry 15. Finance/Economics in Sport 16. Sport Facility and Event Mgmt Current Challenges in Sport Mgmt 17. Legal Considerations in Sport 18. Sociological Aspects of Sport 19. North Amer. Per. on Int. Sport 20. Sport Management Research

29 SM Research Sport – Management, Marketing, Communication – Law, Finance, History, Athletics, Sociology, etc. Tangential/Parent Theory/Practice Introduction to Sport Management 1. Managing Sport 2. Developing a Prof. Perspective 3. Historical Aspects of Sport Bus. 4. Management Concepts/Practice 5. Managerial Lead. in Sport Orgs Sport Management Sites 6. Community and Youth Sport 7. Interscholastic Athletics 8. Intercollegiate Athletics 9. Professional Sport 10. Sport Mgmt/Marketing Agencies 11. Sport Tourism Sport Management Functions 12. Sport Marketing 13. Sport Consumer Behavior 14. Comm. in the Sport Industry 15. Finance/Economics in Sport 16. Sport Facility and Event Mgmt Current Challenges in Sport Mgmt 17. Legal Considerations in Sport 18. Sociological Aspects of Sport 19. North Amer. Per. on Int. Sport 20. Sport Management Research

30 Köszönöm ppederse@indiana.edu


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