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Importance of Nuclear medicine !! Reactors Fission of 235 U n+ 235 U 99 Mo + xn + other fission products Neutron activation of 98 Mo n + 98 Mo 99 Mo.

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Presentation on theme: "Importance of Nuclear medicine !! Reactors Fission of 235 U n+ 235 U 99 Mo + xn + other fission products Neutron activation of 98 Mo n + 98 Mo 99 Mo."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Importance of Nuclear medicine !! Reactors Fission of 235 U n+ 235 U 99 Mo + xn + other fission products Neutron activation of 98 Mo n + 98 Mo 99 Mo Accelerators Photo-fission of 238 UPhoton+ 238 U 99 Mo + xn + other fission products 100 Mo transmutationPhoton Mo 99 Mo + n Direct 99m Tc productionP Mo 99m Tc + 2n The usual production of 99 Mo for nuclear medicine depends on: The neutron induced fission of 235 U, which results in expensive but high specific activity 99 Mo, or The (n,γ) nuclear reaction with 98 Mo, 24% using natural Molybdenum, resulting in inexpensive but low-specific activity 99 Mo.

4 Currently, only five nuclear reactors produce 99m Tc (T 1/2 = 6.02 h), which is a vital part of diagnostic tests for heart disease and cancer. Currently, only five nuclear reactors produce 99m Tc (T 1/2 = 6.02 h), which is a vital part of diagnostic tests for heart disease and cancer. It accounts for over 80% of all diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures world wide. (The horse of nuclear medicine) According to the latest survey the world demand for production of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc is estimated to be around 6000 Ci/week and further growth is predicted. According to the latest survey the world demand for production of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc is estimated to be around 6000 Ci/week and further growth is predicted.

5 The ScannerSPECT image

6 As a positron-emitting radionuclide decays it emits a positron, which promptly combines with electron resulting in the simultaneous emission of two identifiable gamma rays in opposite directions each with 511 keV ENERGY. Giving a map of functional processes in the body

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12 40 MeV of protons with 20 nAs intensity 40 MeV of protons with 20 nAs intensity Two experiments have been done: 1- To measure the short lived radioisotopes (irradiated for 30 m) 2-To measure the longer lived radioisotopes (irradiated for 50 m) Two experiments have been done: 1- To measure the short lived radioisotopes (irradiated for 30 m) 2-To measure the longer lived radioisotopes (irradiated for 50 m)

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14 99 Mo 99m Tc 99m Tc 96 Tc 96 Tc 95 Nb 95 Nb(p,xn)(p,xn)(p,pxn)(p,pxn) (p,αXn) … etc nat Mo(p,X) Used for SPECT imaging for: Brain, heart, liver, lungs, bones, thyroid and kidney imaging. Also for cerebral blood flow, antibodies, and red blood cells.

15 99 Mo 99m Tc 99m Tc 96 Tc 96 Tc 95 Nb 95 Nb(p,xn)(p,xn)(p,pxn)(p,pxn) (p,αXn) … etc nat Mo(p,X)

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17 Excitation functions of the monitor reactions compared with the recommended cross-sections by the IAEA.

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21 Nb Mo Tc Nb Tc Tc Co Co Cs Annihilation Y m Tc ( 99 Mo + 99m Tc + 90 Nb) Mo Nb Tc Tc Mo

22 99 Mo, T ½ = 65.9 h 99m Tc,T ½ = 6.01 h 90 Nb, T ½ = 14.6 h The individual activities of those overlapped γ-rays were analyzed using the difference in half-lives of the contributing nuclides by plotting the γ-ray emission rate as a function of time.

23 Whereas: M : M : Target molecular weight I : I : Beam intensity T γ : T γ : net area under each γ peak C : C : The target density f : f : The abundance I γ : I γ : gamma line intensity

24 Theoretical simulations using Talys code has been done.

25 Theoretical simulations using Talys code has been done.

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27 Whereas: P : is no. of protons/ μA.h N : is number of target nuclei in cm 2 ρ : is surface density in gm/cm 2

28 14.6 hr 51.5 min 43.5 min 65.9 hr

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30 The Collaborators from TAMU:The Collaborators from TAMU:

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