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Sergey Kadnichanskiy Chief Technologist

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1 Sergey Kadnichanskiy Chief Technologist
A comparison of the performance of various digital aerial photography systems in an aerial surveys of large territories Sergey Kadnichanskiy Chief Technologist

2 Survey of large territories, counted in the thousands, tens and hundreds of thousands of square km, is usually carried out for the creation or updating of maps of scale 1: :25000 depending on the nature of the territory

3 Under performance of aerial survey system is understood as the area of the territory, aerial photography of which is performed in a unit of time. It is expedient to relate this area to one hour of flight time

4 Performance can be considered only in relation to certain conditions:
the type and characteristics of the aircraft specific requirements to aerial photography - the scale of the map (plan) - the appointment of the aerial survey and the specific constraints to effective angle of the field of view of aerial camera

5 The scale of the map sets the required spatial resolution of aerial photo defined, as a rule, as the ground pixel size Map scale Range of recommended ground pixel size (cm) Average ground pixel size (cm) 1:2000 14-22 18 1:5000 30-40 35 1:10000 40-60 50 1:25000 70-90 80

6 Under the effective angle of the field of view will understand, angle, limiting the part of aerial photo image in the cross on the line of flight direction, which will be directly used in the end product, for example orthophoto

7 The effective angle β of the field of view is associated with the distance between the flight lines By and the height of flight H fligft line footprint β H By

8 Analog aerial survey with camera 23 x 23 cm
Side overlap 30% ; f=15 cm; f=30 cm Nature of the territory β f Map scales Urban areas 30° 30 сm 1:2000, 1:5000 Open territory 53° 15 сm 1:10000, 1:25000

9 The effective image size is the number of pixels corresponding to the effective field of view β
fligft line footprint β H By Effective Image Size

10 Research and production aerial survey and geodetic company "Meridian+" owns and uses in its work aerial survey systems of fundamentally different type, which can be effectively used for surveying large areas

11 DMC (Z/I Imaging) Frame digital mapping aerial cameras
Size of final image pan-sharpened RGB or CIR image along track 7680 pix cross track 13824 pix Field of view 42.0° 69.3° Focal length of final image 120 mm Pixel size 12 μм Multispectral cameras Red; Green; Blue; NIR Size of multispectral images 3000 х 2000 pix Maximum frame rate 2 sec/image Radiometric resolution 12 bit

12 Aerial survey system with CCD linear arrays ADS40 (Leica Geosystems)
Field of view along track 64° Focal length 62.8 mm Recording interval per line 1.2 ms Pixel size 6.5 μm Size of CCD array 12000 pix Radiometric resolution 12 bit

13 Scanning aerial survey system with CCD matrixes А3 (VisionMap)
Focal length 300 mm Pixel size 9 μm Field of view of CCD camera along track cross track 6.58° 4.58° Max of camera rotation angle 104° Capacity memory (frames) Size of frame image 7812*2666 pix Size of final RGB image along track ~8000 pix ~60000 pix Max field of view of final image along track 13.47° 108° Radiometric resolution of original image 12 bit

14 The productivity aerial survey systems is largely supported by the use of a specially equipped for aerial photography aircraft King Air 350, (Beechcraft) Max flight altitude for aerial survey 9500 m Max speed 578 km/hr Average speed 439 km/hr Min speed 250 km/hr Flight time 5.2 hr

15 The most important characteristics of the cameras
Next will be the analysis of performance for the above listed cameras as well as new cameras DMCII 250 and UltraCam Eagle using the aircraft King Air 350 The most important characteristics of the cameras Aerial Camera Cross track Size of Final image (pixels) Cross track field of view (°) Pixel Size (μm) Angular Resolution (°) DMC 13824 69.3 12 0.0054 ADS40 12000 64 6.5 0.0056 A3 ~95000 108 9.0 0.0017 UltraCam Eagle 80 20010 66.1 5.2 0.0037 UltraCam Eagle 210 27.8 0.0014 DMCII 250 17216 46.5 5.6 0.0029

16 The productivity of aerial survey for area кm2 for map scale 1:2000 and effective field of view ≤30° , including turns and transit flights Aerial Camera GSD (сm) Flying Height, m Side Overlap Time Consumption, hr/day Produc-tivity, km2/hr Effective Size of Image, pixels Effective field of view (°) DMC 18 1800 61.0% 11.72/2.2 213 5391 30 ADS40 1739 56.5% 12.07/2.3 207 5220 A3 (17.44) 5813 69.4% 3.85/0.8 649 17554 UltraCam Eagle 80 2769 58.8% 7.69/1.5 325 8244 Eagle 210 7269 30.0% 4.38/0.8 571 14007* 19.7 DMCII 250 3600 37.6% 6.26/1.2 399 10743

17 The productivity of aerial survey for area кm2 for map scale 1:5000 and effective field of view ≤ 30° , including turns and transit flights Aerial Camera GSD (сm) Flying Height, m Side Overlap Time Consumption, hr/day Produc-tivity, km2/hr Effective Size of Image, pixels Effective field of view (°) DMC 35 3500 61.0% 6.44/1.2 388 5391 30 ADS40 3382 56.5% 6.62/1.3 377 5220 A3 28.9 (28.0) 9333 81.0% 2.95/0.6 847 17554 UltraCam Eagle 80 5385 58.8% 4.02/0.8 625 8244 Eagle 210 24 9288 30.0% 3.67/0.7 681 14007* 19.7 DMCII 250 7000 37.6% 3.31/0.6 756 10743

18 The productivity of aerial survey for area кm2 for map scale 1:10000 and effective field of view ≤ 53° , including turns and transit flights Aerial Camera GSD (сm) Flying Height, m Side Overlap Time Consumption, hr/day Produc-tivity, km2/hr Effective Size of Image, pixels Effective field of view (°) DMC 50 5000 30% 128.6/24.7 1943 9676 51.6 ADS40 4831 148.5/28.6 1683 8400 47.0 A3 29.6 (28.00) 9333 64.8% 57.2/11.4 4371 31396 53.0 UltraCam Eagle 80 7692 89.6/17.2 2790 14007 48.9 Eagle 210 23 9288 193.3/37.8 1293 19.7 DMCII 250 46 9200 112.6/21.7 2219 12051 33.5

19 The productivity of aerial survey for area кm2 for map scale 1:25000 and effective field of view ≤ 53° , including turns and transit flights Aerial Camera GSD (сm) Flying Height, m Side Overlap Time Consumption, hr/day Produc-tivity, km2/hr Effective Size of Image, pixels Effective field of view (°) DMC 80 8000 30% 80,7/15.5 3098 9676 51.6 ADS40 7729 92.7/17.8 2696 8400 47.0 A3 29.6 (28.00) 9333 64.8% 57.2/11.4 4371 31396 53.0 UltraCam Eagle 80 60 9231 74.7/15.4 3348 14007 48.9 Eagle 210 - DMCII 250 46 9200 112.6/21.7 2219 12051 33.5

20 When estimating the expenditure of time, have been used the following conditions of flight
Speed 520 km/hr Transit time from the airport 0.4 hr Transit time to the airport Flight time 5.2 hr

21 Productivity and Effective Image Size
Map scale 1:2000, GSD=18 cm Aerial Camera Productivity, km2/hr Effective Size of Image, pixels Relative Productivity Relative Effective Size of Image GSD (cm) DMC 213 5391 1 18 ADS40 207 5220 0.97 A3 649 17554 3.05 3.26 UltraCam Eagle 80 325 8244 1.53 Eagle 210 571 14007 2.68 2.60 DMCII 250 399 10743 1.87 1.99

22 Productivity and Effective Image Size
Map scale 1:10000, GSD=50 cm Aerial Camera Productivity, km2/hr Effective Size of Image, pixels Relative Productivity Relative Effective Size of Image GSD (cm) DMC 1943 9676 1 50 ADS40 1683 8400 0.87 A3 4371 31396 2.24 3.24 29.6 UltraCam Eagle 80 2790 14007 1.44 Eagle 210 - DMCII 250 2219 12051 1.14 1. 24 46

23 All mentioned aerial cameras provide
reception of stereo pairs of images for the stereoscopic interpretation and precise spatial measurements Each of aerial cameras type has its advantages and opportunities

24 DMC Spectral type of images: RGB,R,G,B, NIR
Absence of necessity in control points Absence of necessity in aerial triangulation for scales1:5000 and 1:25000 Possibility of simultaneous execution of air laser scanning to capture DTM for spatial resolution photos ≤ 50 cm.

25 ADS 40 Spectral type of images: RGB,R,G,B, NIR
Absence of necessity in control points Absence of necessity in aerial triangulation for scales1:5000 and 1:25000 Possibility of simultaneous execution of air laser scanning to capture DTM for spatial resolution photos ≤ 50 cm. The possibility of obtaining options stereo pairs of images with different ratio В/Н

26 А3 Spectral type of images: RGB
Absence of necessity in control points for scales 1:5000 и 1:25000 The highest performance of aerial survey The spatial resolution is 28 cm (nadir) and limited by the flight altitude. Such high resolution provides higher image interpretation properties that makes possible to use the results of aerial survey in creation of maps at scale 1:2000 covering, for example inhabited localities

27 Conclusions Productivity of aerial survey of large territories is proportional to effective size of image in pixels provided by digital aerial camera (for specified GSD)

28 Conclusions Modern digital aerial cameras provide high performance and efficiency of aerial survey, opportunities and significant advantages in aerial image processing for production of maps covering large areas

29 Conclusions km2 for map scales 1:5000, 1:10000 in 12 days !

30 Thank you for your attention


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