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Grammar Through The Ages Roger Hunt Roger Hunt International House Barcelona.

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Presentation on theme: "Grammar Through The Ages Roger Hunt Roger Hunt International House Barcelona."— Presentation transcript:

1 Grammar Through The Ages Roger Hunt Roger Hunt International House Barcelona

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3 Structure What is it? What is it? Where is it? Where is it? Why is it there? Why is it there? What is it for? What is it for? It is isolated! It is isolated!

4 Structuralism Leonard Bloomfield 1887 – 1949 Leonard Bloomfield 1887 – 1949 Language 1933 Language 1933..definitions used in grammar should be based on the forms of the language, not on the meanings of the forms....definitions used in grammar should be based on the forms of the language, not on the meanings of the forms.. Conditionals: zero, first, second, third Conditionals: zero, first, second, third If you are going to be late you will call, wont you? If you are going to be late you will call, wont you?

5 Tenses Two, twelve, thirteen??? Two, twelve, thirteen??? Do you live here? No I dont. Im just visiting. Do you live here? No I dont. Im just visiting. Did you go to the party? No, I didnt in the end. I was too tired. Did you go to the party? No, I didnt in the end. I was too tired.

6 Description vs Prescription Henry Sweet 1845 to 1912 Henry Sweet 1845 to 1912 the philosopher pulled the lower jaw of the hen the philosopher pulled the lower jaw of the hen I and we shall, everybody else will I and we shall, everybody else will To boldly go… To boldly go…

7 – Sentences which end with –prepositions are things up –with which I can no –longer put (Winston Churchill)

8 Function and the Communicative Approach The functional exponent The functional exponent Can you drive? Can you drive? The doors open. The doors open. Well, well Well, well

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10 SVOCA SUBJECT, VERB, OBJECT, COMPLEMENT, ADJUNCT SUBJECT, VERB, OBJECT, COMPLEMENT, ADJUNCT I LIKE VERY MUCH SWIMMING I LIKE VERY MUCH SWIMMING I LIKE SWIMMING VERY MUCH I LIKE SWIMMING VERY MUCH (ADJUNCTS COME AT THE END!) (ADJUNCTS COME AT THE END!) The big, fat, mangy, old dog was sitting quietly at his masters feet. The big, fat, mangy, old dog was sitting quietly at his masters feet.

11 Transformational Grammar Noam Chomsky Noam Chomsky Despite the rain we.. Despite the rain we.. Although it was raining.. Although it was raining.. Deep and surface structure Deep and surface structure I bought a shirt yesterday I bought a shirt yesterday A shirt was bought by me yesterday A shirt was bought by me yesterday

12 Ferdinand de Saussure 1857 to 1913 Semiotics Semiotics Syntagmemic grammar Syntagmemic grammar The arrangement of clothes on a washing line The arrangement of clothes on a washing line A man saw me with a dog A man saw me with a dog A man with a dog saw me A man with a dog saw me

13 Discourse Analysis Adjacency pairs Adjacency pairs Cohesion Cohesion Coherence Coherence Information structure Information structure

14 A converstaion between Montague, Withnail and I (adjacency pairs?) M: Would you like a drink? M: Would you like a drink? W: Sherry W: Sherry M: (To I) Sherry? M: (To I) Sherry? I: Sherry. I: Sherry. M: Do you like vegetables? M: Do you like vegetables? I happen to think the root crop more beautiful than the rose. Do you grow? I: Geraniums I: Geraniums M: Little traitors. I think the carrot infinitely more fascinating than the geranium. M: Little traitors. I think the carrot infinitely more fascinating than the geranium.

15 Information structure He lives in a beautiful cottage by the sea and walks along the beach each morning. Newhaven on the south coast of England is where the cottage is. He lives in a beautiful cottage by the sea and walks along the beach each morning. Newhaven on the south coast of England is where the cottage is. He lives in a beautiful cottage by the sea and walks along the beach each morning. The cottage is in Newhaven on the south coast of England. He lives in a beautiful cottage by the sea and walks along the beach each morning. The cottage is in Newhaven on the south coast of England.

16 Whats next??! Lexico-grammar Lexico-grammar He ran up a huge hill/bill He ran up a huge hill/bill He accrued……/He ascended… He accrued……/He ascended… (Poor) John ran away (poor) (Poor) John ran away (poor)


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