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Fumihiko SHINOHARA Tokyo Gakugei University Tokyo, Japan

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1 Fumihiko SHINOHARA Tokyo Gakugei University Tokyo, Japan
A Case Study on the Teacher Education Curriculum to Promote the Quality Teaching and Learning Utilizing ICT and its Related Technologies Fumihiko SHINOHARA Tokyo Gakugei University Tokyo, Japan Prepared and presented at the International Conference on the IMPACTS OF GLOBALIZATION ON QUALITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION SEAMEO RETRAC, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam June

2 First of All The author is here; as an Japanese, a teacher education university academic staff ensured in principle autonomous activities under the umbrella of National University Corporation, a researcher majored physics and educational methods, and a man with strong will to involve and contribute national and ‘Global’ or ‘Transnational’ educational reform.

3 Legal Basis of Education in Japan

4 Globalization The process of increasing the connectivity and interdependence of the world business and trades, and moreover of thoughts and ideas as well. This process has been accelerated dramatically in the last few decades as technological progress make it easier for ‘Ordinary’ people to travel, communicate, and carry out business as entrepreneurs internationally and more wided locally.

5 Globalization (cont’d)
Two major recent driving forces include advancement in telecommunications infrastructure represented by the growth of ICT and multimedia with the Internet. In general, as economies become more connected to other social and cultural activities, they have increased opportunity but also increased ‘Competition,’ while the competitive environment includes the right to ‘Choice’ with careful consideration about the equality and equity.

6 Globalization (cont’d)
Thus, as globalization becomes a more and more common feature of world economics, education became no more an exception both in the developed and developing countries as discussed in the ‘Education at a Glance - OECD Indicators -’ by OECD and in ‘Education: beyond 2015’ by UNESCO.

7 Why ‘Quality’ and for What
In this context, based on the educational aims and purposes generally formulated by one of the education related stakeholders, governments, we university academic staff need to examine educational environment to prepare quality educational systems, including specified educational objectives and contents, for the future citizens under the spirit ‘Think Globally, Act locally’ to publish the salient research results.

8 What is ‘Quality’ Five dimensions of education quality are recognized by UNICEFF (2000) and UNESCO (2004); namely (1) Learner, (2) Environment, (3) Context, (4) Priorities, and (5) Outcomes. All, defined as general forms, are founded on the rights of the whole child and of all children, enabling them to survive and be protected, and providing for their development and participation.

9 The ‘Quality’ will be changed
In practical teaching-learning situations the indicators of the ‘Quality’ will be changed: Taking an example in the Japanese ‘Course of Study,’ Guideline of developing textbooks to sell and at the same time Guideline for school teachers to have to develop their own curriculum by school teachers, it is clearly realized.

10 History of Course of Study (1/2)
1947:Trial version 1951:Fist revision Education based on dairy life (Expansion of Experience-oriented Curriculum) 1958:Second revision Education based on Sequence(Sequential Learning) :Third revision Modernization of Education (Scientific- and Discipline- Oriented Curriculum) 1977:Fourth revision Education based on human being(more relax and enjoyable school days)

11 History of Course of Study (2/2)
1989:Fifth revision Education focused on learner’s characteristics(Schools on New view of Education achievement) Thinking skills, Decision making skills, and Presentation skills :Sixth revision Education in the information-oriented society (Promotion of ‘Zest for Life’ and New Learning) By learner’s own thoughts and experiences, he/she should (1) Find out problems, (2) consider by him-/herself, (3) make decision by him/her own contribution, and (4) solve the problems with better way of thinking and methods considered. School periods for Integrated/Comprehensive Activities Periods for Cross/Integrated Curriculum Learning International understanding, Informatics, Environment, Welfare, and Good Health 2 – 3 hours/week in primary to upper secondary schools

12 Paradigm Shift in Education (1/2)
Shift in Education Philosophy:Educational Objectives Presentation、decision making skill、 thinking skill、Explorable Learning、Investigation Learning/Looking-up Learning、Integrated/Comprehensive/Project Learning、Analysis、Synthesis、Evaluation with special emphasis on the utilization of information technologies

13 Paradigm Shift in Education (2/2)
Complex/Varied of Learning and Information Difference of information collected and reorganized based on learner’s value Increasing of ability on Audio-visual literacy/Promoting the Motivation and its continuity of interests to visual and communication technologies/information Based on learner’s experience and knowledge customization and re-organization of information collected and expresses is allowed as his/her original idea

14 Philosophy of Course of Study-2008

15 <Top group led by Finland>
Japanese Situation in PISA Survey ○PISA 2003 survey showed significant decline in reading literacy PISA 2000 Survey PISA 2003 Survey  PISA Shock! Reading literacy <Top group led by Finland> Score of 522 (8th of 32 countries) <Level comparable to the OECD average> Score of 498 (14th of 41 countries) Mathematical literacy <Top group> Score of 557 (1st of 32 countries) <Top group> Score of 534 (6th of 41 countries) ※1 PISA調査における我が国の調査結果を振り替えると、2000年に行われた第1回調査で我が国は、 PISA2000調査の中心分野である読解力では参加32カ国中8位、数学的リテラシーは1位、科学的リテラシーは2位という好成績を収めた。 しかし、PISA2003では、読解力で41カ国中14位に下降、PISA2006調査では数学的リテラシーで57カ国中10位に下降した。 この背景には、参加国の増加等の要因も考えられるが、国内でも学力低下論が起こり、教育に対する危機感が高まった。 その結果、後で述べるような新たな施策が講じられ、PISA2009では読解力を中心に我が国の学力に改善の傾向が見られた。 Scientific literacy <Top group> Score of 550 (2nd of 32 countries) <Top group> Score of 548 (2nd of 41 countries) *1 Comparison of the results of common regions of and 2003

16 Overall logic problems
Issues of Japanese Education as Seen from the Survey Sectoral problems ○ Poor at reading and interpreting materials and information and connecting them to one’s own knowledge and experiences ○ Poor at clearly writing what one wishes to express ○ Poor ability to connect and utilize knowledge in various situations Improvement of Learning Content Overall logic problems ○ High percentage of being in the lower ranks when compared to the top countries ○ Lack of a guidance system for students requiring support and guidance ○ Lack of interest and hesitant attitude towards learning ①言語活動の充実  ・ 授業時数の増加(国語:小学校6%、中学校10%増)    (各教科等)  言語活動を充実(レポートの作成や論述などの重視) ②理数教育の充実  ・ 授業時数の増加(算数・数学:小学校16%、中学校22%増)             (理科:小学校16%、中学校33%増)   (共通)     つまずきやすい内容の確実な習得を図るための繰り返し学習    (算数・数学) 数量や図形の知識・技能を実際の場面で活用する活動の充実    (理科)     観察・実験等の体験的な学習を充実 Improvement of the Educational System

17 Another Evidence - ‘Interaction’ till 2008 -

18 - ‘Interaction’ since 2009 -

19 Then, What We Should Do -to Contribute to ‘Quality Education’-
By specifying the educational measures in the form of generally described with consideration about both their recent studies and global issues closely related to them, develop the syllabus and lesson plans, which include appropriate teaching-learning activities for the target students, and to keep on carrying out scientific research and practice so as to publish the salient and evidence-based results.

20 Recent Studies on the Research Trends of Technology and Teacher Education
The top subject term is ‘Attitudes,’ while the leading topic is ‘Technology Integration,’ though these findings may be reflected by the scope and mission of journals examined, and moreover both of them have been pointed out at least since 2003.

21 ICT-Pedagogy Integration
Power of OS Higher speed Networking Higher capacity storage Video and Audio editing capabilities Progress of mobile phones With Digital still and video camera Free Access and space of video and audio websites to select and to re-organize with careful attention to one of the global issues, ‘Intellectual property rights’ YouTube Needs to Visual Literacy incl. development


23 Current Trends of Education
Child-centered Education   Constructivism   Cognitive Approach Basic Education Promotion of ‘Education for All’ to enhance basic and fundamental knowledge and skills ESD (Education for Sustainable Development) Development and implementation of ESD -oriented curriculum both in formal and non-formal education ICT-Pedagogy Integration Multimedia under the concept of AV education rather than ICT EBE (Evidence-Based Education) ‘Knock on a stone bridge and keep on knocking,’ rather than ‘Knock on a stone bridge and cross it.’

24 Issues in the Contemporary Education
Learning in the affective domain: zest for life, independent self learning      learning will/desire, mind to pursue       fostering learner’s interest and curiosity Instruction and nurturing in education      instruct vs nurture (B.F. Skinner) (C. Rogers)

25 Issues related to ‘Affective Domain’
Effects of visual images on motivation, interest, attitude, sense of values   ….. Effects on the emotions New education issues: learning desire, interest, attitude, view of life, taste etc. Instruct : Nurture

26 UN Global Issues - United Nations -
(accessed on 16 June 2013)

27 UN the UN System’s Work on A Gateway to the MDGs
(accessed on 16 June 2013)

28 Global (accessed on 16 June 2013)

29 Present Course Syllabus

30 Present Course Syllabus (cont’d)

31 Present Course Syllabus (cont’d)

32 Brief Explanation of Present Course in the Curriculum Structure
Present Course ‘Special Lecture and Practices of Educational Media Produce’ is newly developed for the second semester of the 3rd year students, who are assumed to complete several required subjects such as; 1. the ‘Introduction to Educational Professions,’ 2. the ‘Information Processing,’ 3. the ‘School Education and Information,’ 4. the ‘Lecture on Educational Management,’ 5. the ‘Introduction to Clinical Education,’ 6. the ‘Lecture and Demonstration on the Educational Observations and Experiments,’ and 7. the ‘Lecture on the Contents and Methods in Primary Education,’ while students are highly requested to learn the course ‘Lecture and Demonstration on Educational Technology’ offered as one of the electives in the 1st semester for the 3rd year students.

33 Sample Material handed over to Students - Production Flow of video materials -

34 Sample Material handed over to Students - Free Software available and relevant to Multimedia or ICT utilization in Schools - 1. Documentation  MS Word     2. Education statistics  MS Excel 3. Management/Database MS Access 4. Presentation  MS PowerPoint, Macromedia Captivate 5. Idea processing or Mind-Mapping  FreeMind 6. Authoring software  MS Word, Macromedia Director, Macromedia Authorware, Macromedia Dreamweaver, Adobe Flash, Adobe inDesign Mathematica 7. Audio and video image editing with storyboarding   MS Moviemaker, Photo Story2 or 3, Photo Flash Maker, Muvee autoProducer(VideoMagic), Any Video Converter, DVD Fab Decripter、Adobe Premiere 8. Still image processing MS Paintbrush, Gimp (for raster format), Inkscape (for Vector format), Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Illustrator 9. Animation Blender for 3DAnime and modeling, Giam for gif-animation Sound and music processing Sound Recorder, Audacity, Studio ftn Score Editor, Winamp, Retro Music Editor, BatchWOO! e-Leaning Moodle, Hotpotatoes, Macromedia Captivate 12. Programming languages Visual BASIC Express, Visual C++ Express , LISP, JavaScript, Ruby 13. Video conferencing    Skype, Yahoo messenger 14. Packing on CD/DVD/BD imgBurn

35 Sample Material handed over to Students - Design and Development of Web pages *) -
*) Encourage students to cultivate logical thinking and writing skill

36 Technological Approach vs. Rashomon Approach
Objectives Behavioral objectives and be specific Non-behavioral objectives and Be general Teaching Materials Sampling from material pool and “planned allocation” Discovering the value of materials in teaching-learning processes Teaching-Learning Process Pre-decided impromptu Emphasis Structures and design of teaching materials Pre-service and in-service teacher training

37 Sample of an End-Product - ‘Summer Festival in Aomori Prefecture’ -

38 Results of Course Evaluation*)
Level Evaluation Type Results Tools 1 Reaction Feel very happy By Questionnaire and direct Observations 2 Learning Very simple but spent more time than expected 3 Behavior Highly Cooperated 4 Not difficult *) By the simplified Kirpatrick’s Evaluation Form

39 Recommendations At the beginning of the course, guide students to devote them to know that seeds of learning resources are existing around them in their daily life and to create visual images with the use of relevant free software such as MS-Live MovieMaker. Both at the beginning and throughout the course, just request students to try to question to themselves stimulating their own imaginations at every moment upon receiving information from communities and families; for What, When, Why, to Whom, for Whom, Where, and How to expand and integrate information into their experiences with the use of relevant free software such as Free Mind. Brainstorming among persons from different sectors will be also highly recommended.

40 Recommendations (cont’d)
Carry out the daily teaching-learning activities to compile and publish with keeping mind about the key-words ‘to combine,’ ‘to integrate,’ ‘beyond,’ to step forward,’ ‘to expect synergy,’ ‘to challenge,’ ‘to innovate,’ taking for examples. Carry out research and development on ICT and its related education to publish its research results coping with contemporary education and technology issues such as learning in the affective domain, media literacy and learning process, in consideration about the future learning environment and culture. Collect and develop resource materials utilizing teachers’ and students’ curiosities with the use of simple media like digital camera, cellar phones for examples.

41 Recommendations (cont’d)
Develop locally-dependent indexes for information retrieval of contemporary and future education contents in collaboration with specialists from several different areas like business sectors to make them standardized from the global point of view. More careful attention to the issues on intellectual property rights utilizing appropriate free software and cultivating logical thinking and writing skills, aiming at standardizing the course in Asia and the Pacific region.

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