Presentation on theme: "Fumihiko SHINOHARA Tokyo Gakugei University Tokyo, Japan"— Presentation transcript:
1Fumihiko SHINOHARA Tokyo Gakugei University Tokyo, Japan A Case Study on the Teacher Education Curriculum to Promote the Quality Teaching and Learning Utilizing ICT and its Related TechnologiesFumihiko SHINOHARATokyo Gakugei UniversityTokyo, JapanPrepared and presented at the International Conference onthe IMPACTS OF GLOBALIZATION ON QUALITY IN HIGHER EDUCATIONSEAMEO RETRAC, Ho Chi Minh City, VietnamJune
2First of AllThe author is here; as an Japanese, a teacher education university academic staff ensured in principle autonomous activities under the umbrella of National University Corporation, a researcher majored physics and educational methods, and a man with strong will to involve and contribute national and ‘Global’ or ‘Transnational’ educational reform.
4GlobalizationThe process of increasing the connectivity and interdependence of the world business and trades, and moreover of thoughts and ideas as well. This process has been accelerated dramatically in the last few decades as technological progress make it easier for ‘Ordinary’ people to travel, communicate, and carry out business as entrepreneurs internationally and more wided locally.
5Globalization (cont’d) Two major recent driving forces include advancement in telecommunications infrastructure represented by the growth of ICT and multimedia with the Internet. In general, as economies become more connected to other social and cultural activities, they have increased opportunity but also increased ‘Competition,’ while the competitive environment includes the right to ‘Choice’ with careful consideration about the equality and equity.
6Globalization (cont’d) Thus, as globalization becomes a more and more common feature of world economics, education became no more an exception both in the developed and developing countries as discussed in the ‘Education at a Glance - OECD Indicators -’ by OECD and in ‘Education: beyond 2015’ by UNESCO.
7Why ‘Quality’ and for What In this context, based on the educational aims and purposes generally formulated by one of the education related stakeholders, governments, we university academic staff need to examine educational environment to prepare quality educational systems, including specified educational objectives and contents, for the future citizens under the spirit ‘Think Globally, Act locally’ to publish the salient research results.
8What is ‘Quality’Five dimensions of education quality are recognized by UNICEFF (2000) and UNESCO (2004); namely (1) Learner, (2) Environment, (3) Context, (4) Priorities, and (5) Outcomes. All, defined as general forms, are founded on the rights of the whole child and of all children, enabling them to survive and be protected, and providing for their development and participation.
9The ‘Quality’ will be changed In practical teaching-learning situations the indicators of the ‘Quality’ will be changed: Taking an example in the Japanese ‘Course of Study,’ Guideline of developing textbooks to sell and at the same time Guideline for school teachers to have to develop their own curriculum by school teachers, it is clearly realized.
10History of Course of Study (1/2) 1947：Trial version1951：Fist revisionEducation based on dairy life (Expansion of Experience-oriented Curriculum)1958：Second revisionEducation based on Sequence(Sequential Learning)：Third revisionModernization of Education (Scientific- and Discipline- Oriented Curriculum)1977：Fourth revisionEducation based on human being（more relax and enjoyable school days)
11History of Course of Study (2/2) 1989：Fifth revisionEducation focused on learner’s characteristics（Schools on New view of Education achievement)Thinking skills, Decision making skills, and Presentation skills：Sixth revisionEducation in the information-oriented society (Promotion of ‘Zest for Life’ and New Learning)By learner’s own thoughts and experiences, he/she should (1) Find out problems, (2) consider by him-/herself, (3) make decision by him/her own contribution, and (4) solve the problems with better way of thinking and methods considered.School periods for Integrated/Comprehensive ActivitiesPeriods for Cross/Integrated Curriculum LearningInternational understanding, Informatics, Environment, Welfare, and Good Health2 – 3 hours/week in primary to upper secondary schools
12Paradigm Shift in Education (1/2) Shift in Education Philosophy：Educational ObjectivesPresentation、decision making skill、 thinking skill、Explorable Learning、Investigation Learning/Looking-up Learning、Integrated/Comprehensive/Project Learning、Analysis、Synthesis、Evaluation with special emphasis on the utilization of information technologies
13Paradigm Shift in Education (2/2) Complex/Varied of Learning and InformationDifference of information collected and reorganized based on learner’s valueIncreasing of ability on Audio-visual literacy/Promoting the Motivation and its continuity of interests to visual and communication technologies/informationBased on learner’s experience and knowledge customization and re-organization of information collected and expresses is allowed as his/her original idea
15＜Top group led by Finland＞ Japanese Situation in ＰＩＳＡ Survey○PISA 2003 survey showed significant decline in reading literacyPISA 2000 SurveyPISA 2003 Survey PISA Shock！Readingliteracy＜Top group led by Finland＞Score of 522(8th of 32 countries)＜Level comparableto the OECD average＞Score of 498(14th of 41 countries)Mathematicalliteracy＜Top group＞Score of 557(1st of 32 countries)＜Top group＞Score of 534(6th of 41 countries)※１ＰＩＳＡ調査における我が国の調査結果を振り替えると、2000年に行われた第1回調査で我が国は、ＰＩＳＡ2000調査の中心分野である読解力では参加32カ国中８位、数学的リテラシーは１位、科学的リテラシーは２位という好成績を収めた。しかし、ＰＩＳＡ２００３では、読解力で41カ国中１４位に下降、ＰＩＳＡ２００６調査では数学的リテラシーで57カ国中１０位に下降した。この背景には、参加国の増加等の要因も考えられるが、国内でも学力低下論が起こり、教育に対する危機感が高まった。その結果、後で述べるような新たな施策が講じられ、ＰＩＳＡ２００９では読解力を中心に我が国の学力に改善の傾向が見られた。Scientificliteracy＜Top group＞Score of 550(2nd of 32 countries)＜Top group＞Score of 548(2nd of 41 countries)*1 Comparison of the results of common regions of and 2003
16Overall logic problems Issues of Japanese Education as Seen from the SurveySectoral problems○ Poor at reading and interpreting materials and information and connecting them to one’s own knowledge andexperiences○ Poor at clearly writing what one wishes to express○ Poor ability to connect and utilize knowledge in various situationsImprovement of Learning ContentOverall logic problems○ High percentage of being in the lower ranks when compared to the top countries○ Lack of a guidance system for students requiring support and guidance○ Lack of interest and hesitant attitude towards learning①言語活動の充実 ・ 授業時数の増加（国語：小学校６％、中学校１０％増） （各教科等） 言語活動を充実（レポートの作成や論述などの重視）②理数教育の充実 ・ 授業時数の増加(算数・数学：小学校１６％、中学校２２％増) (理科：小学校１６％、中学校３３％増) （共通） つまずきやすい内容の確実な習得を図るための繰り返し学習 （算数・数学） 数量や図形の知識・技能を実際の場面で活用する活動の充実 （理科） 観察・実験等の体験的な学習を充実Improvement of the Educational System
19Then, What We Should Do -to Contribute to ‘Quality Education’- By specifying the educational measures in the form of generally described with consideration about both their recent studies and global issues closely related to them,develop the syllabus and lesson plans, which include appropriate teaching-learning activities for the target students, and to keep on carrying out scientific research and practice so as to publish the salient and evidence-based results.
20Recent Studies on the Research Trends of Technology and Teacher Education The top subject term is ‘Attitudes,’ while the leading topic is ‘Technology Integration,’ though these findings may be reflected by the scope and mission of journals examined, and moreover both of them have been pointed out at least since 2003.
21ICT-Pedagogy Integration Power of OSHigher speed NetworkingHigher capacity storageVideo and Audio editing capabilitiesProgress of mobile phonesWith Digital still and video cameraFree Access and space of video and audio websites to select and to re-organize with careful attention to one of the global issues, ‘Intellectual property rights’YouTubeNeeds to Visual Literacy incl. development
23Current Trends of Education Child-centered Education Constructivism Cognitive ApproachBasic EducationPromotion of ‘Education for All’ to enhance basic and fundamental knowledge and skillsESD (Education for Sustainable Development)Development and implementation of ESD -oriented curriculum both in formal and non-formal educationICT-Pedagogy IntegrationMultimedia under the concept of AV education rather than ICTEBE (Evidence-Based Education)‘Knock on a stone bridge and keep on knocking,’ rather than‘Knock on a stone bridge and cross it.’
24Issues in the Contemporary Education Learning in the affective domain: zest for life, independent self learning learning will/desire, mind to pursue fostering learner’s interest and curiosityInstruction and nurturing in education instruct vs nurture(B.F. Skinner) (C. Rogers)
25Issues related to ‘Affective Domain’ Effects of visual images on motivation, interest, attitude, sense of values ….. Effects on the emotionsNew education issues: learning desire, interest, attitude, view of life, taste etc.Instruct : Nurture
26UN Global Issues - United Nations - (accessed on 16 June 2013)
27UN the UN System’s Work on A Gateway to the MDGs (accessed on 16 June 2013)
32Brief Explanation of Present Course in the Curriculum Structure Present Course ‘Special Lecture and Practices of Educational Media Produce’ is newly developed for the second semester of the 3rd year students, who are assumed to complete several required subjects such as;1. the ‘Introduction to Educational Professions,’2. the ‘Information Processing,’3. the ‘School Education and Information,’4. the ‘Lecture on Educational Management,’5. the ‘Introduction to Clinical Education,’6. the ‘Lecture and Demonstration on the EducationalObservations and Experiments,’ and7. the ‘Lecture on the Contents and Methods in Primary Education,’ while students are highly requested to learn the course ‘Lecture and Demonstration on Educational Technology’ offered as one of the electives in the 1st semester for the 3rd year students.
33Sample Material handed over to Students - Production Flow of video materials -
35Sample Material handed over to Students - Design and Development of Web pages *) - *) Encourage students to cultivate logical thinking and writing skill
36Technological Approach vs. Rashomon Approach ObjectivesBehavioral objectives andbe specificNon-behavioral objectives andBe generalTeaching MaterialsSampling from material pool and “planned allocation”Discovering the value of materials in teaching-learning processesTeaching-Learning ProcessPre-decidedimpromptuEmphasisStructures anddesign of teaching materialsPre-service and in-service teacher training
37Sample of an End-Product - ‘Summer Festival in Aomori Prefecture’ -
38Results of Course Evaluation*) LevelEvaluation TypeResultsTools1ReactionFeel very happyBy Questionnaire and direct Observations2LearningVery simple but spent more time than expected3BehaviorHighly Cooperated4Not difficult*) By the simplified Kirpatrick’s Evaluation Form
39RecommendationsAt the beginning of the course, guide students to devote them to know that seeds of learning resources are existing around them in their daily life and to create visual images with the use of relevant free software such as MS-Live MovieMaker.Both at the beginning and throughout the course, just request students to try to question to themselves stimulating their own imaginations at every moment upon receiving information from communities and families; for What, When, Why, to Whom, for Whom, Where, and How to expand and integrate information into their experiences with the use of relevant free software such as Free Mind. Brainstorming among persons from different sectors will be also highly recommended.
40Recommendations (cont’d) Carry out the daily teaching-learning activities to compile and publish with keeping mind about the key-words ‘to combine,’ ‘to integrate,’ ‘beyond,’ to step forward,’ ‘to expect synergy,’ ‘to challenge,’ ‘to innovate,’ taking for examples.Carry out research and development on ICT and its related education to publish its research results coping with contemporary education and technology issues such as learning in the affective domain, media literacy and learning process, in consideration about the future learning environment and culture.Collect and develop resource materials utilizing teachers’ and students’ curiosities with the use of simple media like digital camera, cellar phones for examples.
41Recommendations (cont’d) Develop locally-dependent indexes for information retrieval of contemporary and future education contents in collaboration with specialists from several different areas like business sectors to make them standardized from the global point of view.More careful attention to the issues on intellectual property rights utilizing appropriate free software and cultivating logical thinking and writing skills, aiming at standardizing the course in Asia and the Pacific region.