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Lake Erie Update--2013 Dr. Jeffrey M. Reutter Director, Ohio Sea Grant College Program.

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Presentation on theme: "Lake Erie Update--2013 Dr. Jeffrey M. Reutter Director, Ohio Sea Grant College Program."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lake Erie Update--2013 Dr. Jeffrey M. Reutter Director, Ohio Sea Grant College Program

2 Blue-green Algae Bloom circa 1971, Lake Erie Photo: Forsythe and Reutter

3 June 22, 1969 Lake Erie wasnt always the Walleye Capital of the World

4 Phosphorus reductions from point sources (29,000 metric tons to 11,000).Phosphorus reductions from point sources (29,000 metric tons to 11,000). What brought about the rebirth (dead lake to Walleye Capital)?

5

6 Spring TP load, Maumee R. 2012 TP loading during March- June 2012 was one of the lowest on record, resulting in a much smaller algal bloom. Source: Tom Bridgeman, UT

7 Photos: Jeff Reutter Microcystis, Stone Lab, 8/10/10

8 Photo: NOAA Satellite Image October 9, 2011

9 Microcystis near Marblehead October 9, 2011 Photo: Richard Kraus, United States Geological Survey

10 Microcystis, Stone Lab, 9/20/13

11 2013 Microcystis open water bloom 2013 open water bloom was second only to 2011 over last 12 years. Source: Tom Bridgeman, UT.

12 2013 Forecast: Significant bloom. similar to 2003, much milder than 2011 2013

13 Reference Dose = amount that can be ingested orally by a person, above which a toxic effect may occur, on a milligram per kilogram body weight per day basis.Reference Dose = amount that can be ingested orally by a person, above which a toxic effect may occur, on a milligram per kilogram body weight per day basis. Toxicity of Algal Toxins Relative to Other Toxic Compounds found in Water Dioxin (0.000001 mg/kg-d) Microcystin LR (0.000003 mg/kg-d) Saxitoxin (0.000005 mg/kg-d) PCBs (0.00002 mg/kg-d) Cylindrospermopsin (0.00003 mg/kg-d) Methylmercury (0.0001 mg/kg-d) Anatoxin-A (0.0005 mg/kg-d) DDT (0.0005 mg/kg-d) Selenium (0.005 mg/kg-d) Alachlor (0.01 mg/kg-d) Cyanide (0.02 mg/kg-d) Atrazine (0.04 mg/kg-d) Fluoride (0.06 mg/kg-d) Chlorine (0.1 mg/kg-d) Aluminum (1 mg/kg-d) Ethylene Glycol (2 mg/kg-d) Botulinum toxin A (0.001 mg/kg-d) Toxin Reference Doses

14 Serious problem in US and CanadaSerious problem in US and Canada 21 states and Canada in 201221 states and Canada in 2012 Global problemGlobal problem Chaired Loadings and Targets Subcommittee for Ohio P Task ForceChaired Loadings and Targets Subcommittee for Ohio P Task Force Now US Co-Chair of the Loadings and Targets Task Team of Annex 4 (nutrients) Subcommittee of GLWQANow US Co-Chair of the Loadings and Targets Task Team of Annex 4 (nutrients) Subcommittee of GLWQA Weather can determine how we experience a bloomWeather can determine how we experience a bloom Are HABs only a Lake Erie and Ohio Problem?

15 11 years of satellite data provide bloom extent Data from MERIS 2002-2011, MODIS 2012 high medium low

16 2013 prediction for western Lake Erie: similar to 2003, <1/5 of 2011, 2X 2012 lowmedium high concentration 2013 may resemble 2003 2011 for comparison

17 9/14/13

18 October 12, 2013 R. Stumpf, NOAA National Center for Coastal Ocean Science

19 20132013 Only blooms in 2011 and 2013 extended well into October.Only blooms in 2011 and 2013 extended well into October. Toxins appeared in treated drinking water in 2013.Toxins appeared in treated drinking water in 2013. Meris vs. Modis LimitationsMeris vs. Modis Limitations Greater recognition of of their role by agriculture community, but clearly not enough action.Greater recognition of of their role by agriculture community, but clearly not enough action. –When nutrients leave fields they are pollutants. –Goal should be no nutrients leaving fields

20 1972 Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement

21 New Agreement Signed in 2012 June 2009 The U.S and Canada agree to renegotiate the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement June 2009 The U.S and Canada agree to renegotiate the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement

22 Great Lakes Water Qual Agreement--2012

23 For more information: Dr. Jeff Reutter, Director Ohio Sea Grant and Stone Lab Ohio State Univ. 1314 Kinnear Rd. Col, OH 43212 614-292-8949 Reutter.1@osu.edu ohioseagrant.osu.edu Stone Laboratory Ohio State Univ. Box 119 Put-in-Bay, OH 43456 614-247-6500

24 Image: Ohio Sea Grant SouthernmostSouthernmost

25 Shallowest and Warmest

26 Photo: Ohio Sea Grant

27 80% of water from upper lakes80% of water from upper lakes 10% direct precipitation10% direct precipitation 10% from Lake Erie tributaries10% from Lake Erie tributaries –Maumee Largest tributary to Great LakesLargest tributary to Great Lakes –Drains 4.5 million acres of ag land 3% of flow into Lake Erie3% of flow into Lake Erie 80:10:10 Rule

28 Major Land Uses in The Great Lakes

29 Therefore,Therefore, The 80% we get from the upper lakes and the 10% that represents precipitation is likely much cleaner than the 10% that comes in from the small tributaries around Lake Erie. Whythose lakes have lots of forest cover and very little agriculture.The 80% we get from the upper lakes and the 10% that represents precipitation is likely much cleaner than the 10% that comes in from the small tributaries around Lake Erie. Whythose lakes have lots of forest cover and very little agriculture.

30 More sedimentMore sediment More nutrients (fertilizers and sewage)More nutrients (fertilizers and sewage) More pesticidesMore pesticides (The above 3 items are exacerbated by storms, which will be more frequent and severe due to climate change.)(The above 3 items are exacerbated by storms, which will be more frequent and severe due to climate change.) And Lake Erie is still biologically the most productive of the Great LakesAnd always will be!!And Lake Erie is still biologically the most productive of the Great LakesAnd always will be!! Because of Land Use, Lake Erie Gets:

31 Lake Superior: 50% of the water and 2% of the fish Lake Erie: 2% of the water and 50% of the fish (Not exact, but instructive) 50:2 Rule

32 SedimentationSedimentation Phosphorus and nutrient loadingPhosphorus and nutrient loading –Harmful algal blooms –Western, Central, and Eastern Basin Differences –Different problems in different lakes (possibly more difficult than Lake Erie) Aquatic invasive speciesAquatic invasive species Dead Zoneexacerbated by nutrientsDead Zoneexacerbated by nutrients Climate ChangeMakes the others worseClimate ChangeMakes the others worse Coastal Economic DevelopmentCoastal Economic Development Lake Eries 7 Biggest Problems/Issues (see Twine Line, Spring/Summer, 2012)

33 Events Leading to the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement 1940-1960 Rapid industrial growth - excessive nutrient loading, high algal growth, low oxygen & massive fish kills 1940-1960 Rapid industrial growth - excessive nutrient loading, high algal growth, low oxygen & massive fish kills 1946 IJC Reports on Pollution of Connecting Channels (1950) 1946 IJC Reports on Pollution of Connecting Channels (1950) DDT and other pesticides cause deformities; reproductive failure in fish and birds DDT and other pesticides cause deformities; reproductive failure in fish and birds 1964 IJC Reports on Pollution in Lake Erie & Lower Lakes (1970) 1964 IJC Reports on Pollution in Lake Erie & Lower Lakes (1970) Lake Erie declared dead & Cuyahoga River Fire (1969) Lake Erie declared dead & Cuyahoga River Fire (1969) Intense public outcry over the environment Intense public outcry over the environment

34 Organization 3 international agreements between U.S. and Canada serve as platform for managing most water resources

35 The IJC and the Governments share common goals of the agreement, but have different responsibilities. The IJC and the Governments share common goals of the agreement, but have different responsibilities. The IJC monitors progress and reports to the governments. The IJC monitors progress and reports to the governments. The Governments are responsible for implementing the agreement. The Governments are responsible for implementing the agreement. IJC reports are released to both the governments and the public; the IJC depends upon public opinion to compel government action. IJC reports are released to both the governments and the public; the IJC depends upon public opinion to compel government action. Oversight & Implementation

36 BackgroundCSMI

37 Rotational CSMI Cycle * Canada will participate in another lake Lake Superior Lake Huron Lake Ontario Lake Erie Lake Michigan* CSMI Cycle

38 Ohio Sea Grant Projects 2014-16 R/MD-002 Beneficial reuse of dredged material in manufactured soil blending: Economic/logistical and performance considerations PI: Elizabeth Dayton, Ohio State University R/ES-012 Impacts of climate change on public health in the Great Lakes due to harmful algae blooms PI: Jay Martin, Ohio State University R/ER-097 Should nitrogen be managed in Lake Erie? The potential role of nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria PI: Darren Bade, Kent State University R/ER-104 Source tracking and toxigenicity of Planktothrix in Sandusky Bay PI: George S. Bullerjahn, Bowling Green State University R/PS-049 Mapping drain tile and modeling agricultural contribution to nonpoint source pollution in the western Lake Erie basin PI: Kevin Czajkowski, University of Toledo R/ER-103 The role of nitrogen concentration in regulating cyanobacterial bloom toxicity in a eutrophic lake PI: Justin Chaffin, Ohio State University


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