62012TP loading during March-June 2012 was one of the lowest on record, resulting in a much smaller algal bloom.Spring TP load, Maumee R.The springtime P load is the most predictive of summer algal bloomsSource: Tom Bridgeman, UT
7Microcystis, Stone Lab, 8/10/10 Photos: Jeff Reutter
112013 Microcystis open water bloom The springtime P load is the most predictive of summer algal blooms2013 open water bloom was second only to 2011 over last 12 years. Source: Tom Bridgeman, UT.
122013 Forecast: Significant bloom 2013 Forecast: Significant bloom. similar to 2003, much milder than 20112013
13Toxin Reference DosesDioxin ( mg/kg-d)Toxicity of Algal Toxins Relative to Other Toxic Compounds found in WaterMicrocystin LR ( mg/kg-d)Saxitoxin ( mg/kg-d)PCBs ( mg/kg-d)Cylindrospermopsin ( mg/kg-d)Methylmercury ( mg/kg-d)Anatoxin-A ( mg/kg-d)DDT ( mg/kg-d)Selenium (0.005 mg/kg-d)Botulinum toxin A (0.001 mg/kg-d)Reference Dose = amount that can be ingested orally by a person, above which a toxic effect may occur, on a milligram per kilogram body weight per day basis.Alachlor (0.01 mg/kg-d)Cyanide (0.02 mg/kg-d)Atrazine (0.04 mg/kg-d)Fluoride (0.06 mg/kg-d)Chlorine (0.1 mg/kg-d)Aluminum (1 mg/kg-d)Ethylene Glycol (2 mg/kg-d)
14Are HABs only a Lake Erie and Ohio Problem? Serious problem in US and Canada21 states and Canada in 2012Global problemChaired Loadings and Targets Subcommittee for Ohio P Task ForceNow US Co-Chair of the Loadings and Targets Task Team of Annex 4 (nutrients) Subcommittee of GLWQAWeather can determine how we experience a bloom
1511 years of satellite data provide bloom extent highmediumTo get the annual peak intensity we look at 30 days,Here is the CI ~ 10^5 cells/ml, which is considered the thresholdAbove which toxic impacts are likely. (These are yellow to red colors)The highest average of 3 consecutive 10-day periods.Very little change between years in Sandusky Bay.Considerable difference between years in western Basin.These are tallied up for total intensity for inter-annual analysis.lowData fromMERIS , MODIS 2012
162013 prediction for western Lake Erie: similar to 2003, <1/5 of 2011, 2X 2012 2011 for comparison2013 may resemble 2003lowmediumhighconcentration
18October 12, 2013R. Stumpf, NOAA National Center for Coastal Ocean Science
192013 Only blooms in 2011 and 2013 extended well into October. Toxins appeared in treated drinking water in 2013.Meris vs. Modis LimitationsGreater recognition of of their role by agriculture community, but clearly not enough action.When nutrients leave fields they are pollutants.Goal should be no nutrients leaving fields
201972 Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement Signed by President Nixon & Prime Minister TrudeauPurpose:Control PollutionResearch ProblemsMeasure Cleanup ProgressStanding Reference (Task) for IJCEstablished Great Lakes Regional Office in Windsor & advisory boardsResults: Ban of phosphorus in detergents, increased treatment levels, point source controls & dramatic improvementsAgreement of the governmentsReference given to the IJC to review and report on progress of the PartiesParticular emphasis on evaluating and providing adviseUnique treaty responsibility to assist in implementation of the AgreementIdentify challenges and make recommendations for facilitating progress
21New Agreement Signed in 2012 June 2009 The U.S and Canada agree to renegotiate the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement
22Great Lakes Water Qual Agreement--2012 10 AnnexesEach annex has several Task TeamsGail and I serve on Annex 4—NutrientsI am US Co-chair the Objectives and Loadings Task TeamNutrient problems are different in each basin of Lake Erie and in each Great LakeI also serve on Annex 2—LaMPs
23For more information: Dr. Jeff Reutter, Director Ohio Sea Grant and Stone LabOhio State Univ.1314 Kinnear Rd.Col, OH 43212ohioseagrant.osu.eduStone Laboratory Ohio State Univ. Box 119 Put-in-Bay, OH
24Southernmost http://www.epa.gov/glnpo/atlas/images/big07.gif Image: Ohio Sea Grant
29Therefore,The 80% we get from the upper lakes and the 10% that represents precipitation is likely much cleaner than the 10% that comes in from the small tributaries around Lake Erie. Why—those lakes have lots of forest cover and very little agriculture.
30Because of Land Use, Lake Erie Gets: More sedimentMore nutrients (fertilizers and sewage)More pesticides(The above 3 items are exacerbated by storms, which will be more frequent and severe due to climate change.)And Lake Erie is still biologically the most productive of the Great Lakes—And always will be!!
3150:2 Rule Lake Superior: 50% of the water and 2% of the fish (Not exact, but instructive)Lake Superior: % of the water and 2% of the fishLake Erie: 2% of the water and 50% of the fish
32Lake Erie’s 7 Biggest Problems/Issues (see Twine Line, Spring/Summer, 2012) SedimentationPhosphorus and nutrient loadingHarmful algal bloomsWestern, Central, and Eastern Basin DifferencesDifferent problems in different lakes (possibly more difficult than Lake Erie)Aquatic invasive speciesDead Zone—exacerbated by nutrientsClimate Change—Makes the others worseCoastal Economic Development
33Events Leading to the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement Rapid industrial growth - excessive nutrient loading, high algal growth, low oxygen & massive fish kills1946 IJC Reports on Pollution of Connecting Channels (1950)DDT and other pesticides cause deformities; reproductive failure in fish and birds1964 IJC Reports on Pollution in Lake Erie & Lower Lakes (1970)Lake Erie declared dead & Cuyahoga River Fire (1969)Intense public outcry over the environment
34Organization3 international agreements between U.S. and Canada serve as platform for managing most water resourcesThree international agreements have been established between the U.S. and Canada to provide for the shared management of the Great Lakes resources. These agreements may be viewed as a platform on which the physical, chemical and biological resources are managed.The Boundary Waters TreatyThe Great Lakes Water Quality AgreementThe Convention on Great Lakes FisheriesNot all of the water resources of the Great Lakes are managed under these three agreements, but they do provide a broad umbrella covering the vast majority of resource issues.Today I will talk about the Boundary Waters Treaty and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement and how the International Joint Commission works.
35Oversight & Implementation The IJC and the Governments share common goals of the agreement, but have different responsibilities.The IJC monitors progress and reports to the governments.The Governments are responsible for implementing the agreement.IJC reports are released to both the governments and the public; the IJC depends upon public opinion to compel government action.
36Background—CSMICooperative Monitoring Initiative (CMI) started in 2002 to coordinate monitoringExpanded mandate of CMI to include research coordination resulted in CSMI in 2006In 2009, connecting channels (including St. Lawrence) were added to CSMI processCSMI follows a 5 year rotational cycleCSMI does NOT set priorities
37Rotational CSMI Cycle CSMI Cycle Huron Ontario Lake Superior Erie Michigan*CSMI Cycle* Canada will participate in another lake
38Ohio Sea Grant Projects 2014-16 R/MD-002Beneficial reuse of dredged material in manufactured soil blending: Economic/logistical and performance considerationsPI: Elizabeth Dayton, Ohio State University R/ES-012 Impacts of climate change on public health in the Great Lakes due to harmful algae bloomsPI: Jay Martin, Ohio State UniversityR/ER-097Should nitrogen be managed in Lake Erie? The potential role of nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteriaPI: Darren Bade, Kent State UniversityR/ER-104Source tracking and toxigenicity of Planktothrix in Sandusky BayPI: George S. Bullerjahn, Bowling Green State UniversityR/PS-049Mapping drain tile and modeling agricultural contribution to nonpoint source pollution in the western Lake Erie basinPI: Kevin Czajkowski, University of ToledoR/ER-103The role of nitrogen concentration in regulating cyanobacterial bloom toxicity in a eutrophic lakePI: Justin Chaffin, Ohio State University