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The Need For Systems Integration with Passive Strategies John Nelson, Architectural Energy Corporation David Banks, Cermak Peterka Petersen Rob Slowinski,

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Presentation on theme: "The Need For Systems Integration with Passive Strategies John Nelson, Architectural Energy Corporation David Banks, Cermak Peterka Petersen Rob Slowinski,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Need For Systems Integration with Passive Strategies John Nelson, Architectural Energy Corporation David Banks, Cermak Peterka Petersen Rob Slowinski, Architectural Energy Corporation

2 Learning Objectives Review the drivers for passive architectural strategies, and the status of the industry in regards to adoption of their principles. Review the principles of natural ventilation and passive conditioning. Present examples of how projects overcame barriers through integration.

3 Images by Transsolar

4 State of the Industry & Planet: Trends Muir Glacier, Alaska 1941 Photo by W.O. Field Muir Glacier, Alaska 2004 Photo by B.F. Molina Graph by Rocky Mountain Institute Graph by American Center for Progress

5 Graph by 2030 Challenge Data: Energy Information Administration State of the Industry & Planet: Trends

6 Paradigms Overlook architectures affect on energy use Monolithic Temperatures Trade offs between peak and efficient normal operation Photos by: James Balog

7 Turning Momentum Proof of concept Loads of research available 2030 Challenge commitments Restlessness in professionals Photo courtesy of NRELs Photo Exchange

8 Passive Strategies: Potential & Adoption Total US Office Building Energy Use Source: Energy Information Administration Daylight Natural Ventilation Passive Conditioning Graph courtesy of Wikipedia

9 Thermal Inertia during spring and autumn, lightweight buildings may require both heating and cooling over the diurnal cycle, whereas the thermally heavy buildings can maintain comfortable internal conditions without either supplementary heating or cooling. – BRE Digest 454 Most modern buildings are structurally heavy but thermally light. Widespread use of carpets, floor voids, false ceilings and plasterboard wall liners, all of which effectively insulate the structure from the environment – BRE Digest 454 Thermal storage techniques absorb heat during peak periods of excess gain and store it until it can be discharged later. – CIBSE Mixed Mode Ventilation AM:13 Photo By Tom Arban

10 Approach of Thermal Balance Images courtesy of Terrapin Bright Green & Rocky Mountain Magazine

11 Quality Photo courtesy of World Architecture Festival Chart by Rocky Mountain Institute

12 Integrated Design Integrated design is both a process and a result -Michael Holtz, FAIA Chart by Rocky Mountain Institute

13 Climate & Location Analysis Image courtesy of World Architecture Festival

14 Testing Concepts: Modeling Test our strategies Become informed to enhance / optimize design Optimize glazing amount = upfront and operational savings Push boundaries on paper first: Only a fool views success as never having been wrong -Jason McLennan (Living Building Challenge creator) Modeling by Zack Rogers

15 Eras & Intentions Manitoba Hydro Headquarters, Photo by Eduard Hueber

16 NATURAL VENTILATION & ADAPTIVE COMFORT

17 Air flow from: stack effect winds Related issues: thermal mass heat loads expectations How to Ventilate Naturally

18 Stack Effect Driven by temperature difference Height of column of air gravity

19 Wind Driven by Wind speed Pressure fluctuations due to building shape and surroundings Wind speed will overwhelm stack effect at 3-10 mph. This is most of the time.

20 Seasonal and diurnal wind directions Time of day Wind direction

21 Air Flow Simulations Nodal model/ Building Energy Sim For the whole building Coupled important if stack effect is a big part Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) For details of a single room or building segment Simulates a specific situation Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel For outside the building Does not predict indoor flows

22 Boundary-Layer Wind Tunnels A boundary layer wind tunnel recreates the turbulent winds of the lower atmosphere in a controlled environment.

23 ASHRAE adaptive comfort model

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26 Air Movement

27 Personal Control Our primary objective in this project was to examine the differences between individuals with relatively high and low degrees of control in the same naturally-ventilated building … While these two groups were experiencing similar physical conditions that influenced their heat balance, we found significant differences in their subjective response … While behavioral mechanisms are certainly significant in allowing people to adjust their personal comfort, psychological dimensions are also relevant to the degree of thermal comfort experienced. This emphasizes the importance of not just designing a building with a high degree of adaptive opportunity, but ensuring that all occupants have direct and easy access to those various means to control their own environment. Operable windows were, by far, the most used control. Blinds were used about half as often as windows, and ceiling fans or desk fans were used even less. Gail Brager, ASHRAE Transactions

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31 Survey findings: green vs. conventional LEED/green (n=20); rest of database (n =161)

32 Air quality satisfaction, by building type

33 INTEGRATED RESULTS: LEADING THE WAY

34 Integrated Results: Stanfords Y2E2, CA Stack effect: 4 central atria BAS and occupant- controlled natural ventilation Exposed slabs integrate with architecture Chilled beams well-suited for natural ventilation when systems are active Photo by: John Nelson Image courtesy news.stanford.edu

35 Integrated Results: Stanfords Y2E2, CA Photos by: John Nelson

36 Integrated Results: NREL RSF, CO Massing for daylight = massing for natural ventilation Exposed mass for passive integrated with radiant Radiant can use low grade heating & cooling (eg: solar thermal) Photos courtesy of NRELs photo exchange

37 Integrated Results: NREL RSF, CO UFAD: Office flexibility, efficient ventilation, and exposed ceilings all with one strategy Indirect/direct couples well with open buildings Transpired solar collectors Upper photo: John Nelson / Lower photo courtesy of NRELs photo exchange

38 Integrated Results: Tulane University, New Orleans, LA New Orleans historic architecture with layers of shading Thermal zoning: designed for open operation fall and spring Daylight with good shading = low solar heat gain & low internal loads Photo courtesy of Archilovers.com

39 Integrated Results: Muechener Tor, Munich Germany 2 central stacks, 20 stories high No mechanical ventilation Supply air conditioned with geothermal air to earth register Free cooling of exposed slabs and night flush is supplemented with radiant cooling from ground water Photo courtesy of Wikipedia

40 Integrated Results: Unilever Headquarters, Hamburg, Germany Area of high winds -> double façade/hybrid ventilation Concerns about exhaust from harbor Exposed mass/radiant heating Large atria is buildings lungs Photo courtesy of World Architecture Festival

41 Questions? John Nelson, Architectural Energy Corporation David Banks, Cermak Peterka Petersen Rob Slowinski, Architectural Energy Corporation


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