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The Atmosphere Chapter 17 100.1 km Mach 2.9 Watch.

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Presentation on theme: "The Atmosphere Chapter 17 100.1 km Mach 2.9 Watch."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Atmosphere Chapter 17 100.1 km Mach 2.9 Watch

2 Whats In a Breath? 78.084% (reacts with nothing) 20.916% (allows: burning, rust, respiration) 0.036% (a greenhouse gas responsible for planet being warm) 0.934% <0.03% (Ne, He, H 2, Kr, CH 4, H 2 S)

3 And the Other Stuff… Bologna, Italy

4 Thickness of the Atmosphere Gases zing about at 950 mph (425 m/sec) Gravity concentrates them near the surface –Density decreases upward –Boiling water at high elevation

5 Atmospheric Pressure 1-m Mercury Barometers –Inches or mm of mercury –29.92 in = 1 atmosphere (avg) at mean sea level –1 atm ~ 1 bar –The weatherman –Old men and mercury Aneroid Barometers

6 Temperature in the Atmosphere Water vapor, clouds, storms and bad weather (heated by Earths radiant heat) Air too dense to rise beyond tropopause Oxygen Ozone (heated by Sun, absorbs harmful radiation) Little ozone, temperature decreases rapidly Heated directly by high- energy X-rays and UV radiation Space Ship One

7 Ozone and You In stratosphere: –O 2 2OO + O 2 O 3 (ozone) –Ozone very efficient at absorbing UV In troposphere: –N 2 + O 2 + heat 2 NO … O 3 –Linked to heart disease, cancer, asthma, loss of lung function

8 CFCs 1970s, used in almost all refrigerators, air conditioners, propellants in aerosol cans Stable Work their way Into atmosphere and Destroy ozone Come Back! …

9 The Ozone Hole Not literally a holemore like a male pattern baldness

10 Other Pollutants Donora, PA –27-31 October 1948 –Smog settled over city Sulfuric acid, nitrogen dioxide, fluorine trapped in valley by stagnant air 20 dead, 800 animals respiratory illnesses Plants dead in half-mile radius of steel, zinc works 1/3 of towns 14,000 people were sick Donora at noon, Oct. 29, 1948

11 Clean Air Act of 1970 Amendment to CAA of 63 Smog over Shanghai Primary Standards to protect sensitive groups: elderly, children, ashtmatics Secondary Standards to protect against decreased visibility, damage to animals, vegetation, crops, and buildings Superscripts=exceptions 1/y

12 Advancing the Clean Air Act 1970 Amendments: –Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine the limit of industrial pollutants –Controlling auto emissions by 90% 1990 Amendments: –Contributors to ozone depletion phased out –Rules on toxic waste and acid rain

13 The Burning of Hydrocarbons Form CO 2 and/or water during burning

14 Impurities and Incomplete Burning –Benzene, methane (CH 4 ), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxide (NO 2 ) –Mercury in rivers near Kittanning, PA: Fish at 3.1-19x concentration of mercury than store-boughtFish at 3.1-19x concentration of mercury than store-bought Mercury linked to neurological disordersMercury linked to neurological disorders 5-8x EPAs acceptable risk depending on age5-8x EPAs acceptable risk depending on age –Minamata Disease Actually, the plant in Seward, PA

15 Acid Rain In moist air, you get sulfuric and nitric acids which dissolve in water vapor, fall as rain pH 7.0 (neutral) –Normal rain pH ~5.7 due to CO 2 –1986, in southern CA a fog reached pH = 1.7

16 Acid Rain Too weak to irritate human skin but is devastating to delicate organisms and rockToo weak to irritate human skin but is devastating to delicate organisms and rock –Damages mountain forests Germany 1982-1995: 8% unhealthy to 50% SICKGermany 1982-1995: 8% unhealthy to 50% SICK –Acidifies lakes causing massive fish kills Acid-rain on forest in Jizera mountains of Czeck Repulic Actually, acid-mine drainage (this is extreme limit)

17 Rapidly weathers stone monuments U.S. several billion $/yr repairing damage

18 Other Toxic Volatiles Chemicals that readily evaporate into air –Pesticides – some is carried off by wind –Dioxin – formed in backyard burn barrels or wherever plastic polyvinyl chloride is burned Gets into grass, ruminants We eat meat: 0.0000000001 g/day EPA: at or near levels associated with adverse health effects Could cause cancer, birth defects, reproductive and immune disorders V child, blamed on Agent Orange

19 Particulates and Aerosols Particulate: Small pieces of solid matter Aerosols: Small particles suspended in air –Fly ash: Smoke, soot, clay/stuff that cant burn

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